Archive for October, 2014

梦心理面面观 17

October 27, 2014

梦心理面面观 17
General Aspects of Dream Psychology

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

梦作为婴孩的愿望的满足的解释,或作为最终的「安排」颠覆婴孩的争夺权力解释,都太过于狭隘,没有充分解释梦的基本特性。梦就像心灵结构的每个因素,是整体心灵的产物。因此,我们可以预望在梦里面找到在人类的生活里,非常重要的一切东西。正如人类的生活并没有局限于这个或那个基本的本能,而是累积它自己,从多重的本能,需要,欲望,生理与心理的状态,等等。所以梦无法根据在它那里的这个或那个元素来解释,无论这样的解释表面看去似乎简单得吸引人。我们能够确定,它是不正确的,因为没有任何简单的本能理论将会能够理解人类的心灵,那个伟大而神秘的东西。结果,也将不能够理解它的主张者,梦。为了对梦从事充分的解释,我们需要解释的装备,这些装备必须根据人类科学的各个部门严谨地配合一块。

批评家有时坦率地控诉我具有「哲学」或甚至「神仙」的倾向。他们相信我想要以「哲学方式」解释一切,我的心理学的观点则是「形上学」。但是我使用某些的哲学,宗教,与历史的材料,专门是为了说明心理的事实。譬如,我利用上帝的观念,或同样是形上学的能源的观念。我这样做,是因为它们从一开始就在人类的心灵里已经被发现的意象。我发现我必须再三强调,道德秩序,上帝的观念,或宗教,都不是从外面,直接从空中掉落到人的膝盖上。而是在人的内部核心,包含这一切。因为这个理由,人完全从他自己就能够产生它。因此这是懒人的思维:只要启蒙,就能够驱散这些魅影。道德秩序与上帝的观念属于人类灵魂的无法抹除的基础。那就是为什么任何诚实的心理学,只要不被启蒙的俗丽观念所懵蔽,他必然要面对这些的事实。这些事实无法仅是用嘲讽就解释殆尽。在物理学,我们能够免除不用上帝的意象,但是在心理学,这是一个必须被考虑到的明确的事实,正如我们必须考虑「情感」,「本能」,「母亲」,等等。人们若是没有区别上帝与上帝-意象的观念,因此就认为,当我们谈论上帝-意象时,我们就是在谈论上帝,并且提供「神学的」解释,那是我们犯的错误,让客体与自性意象受到永久的污染。要求将上帝-意象从抽象化为具体,不仅是为了让心理学成为一门科学。而是,事情的本质是这样样子,它确实必须考虑到上帝-意象的存在。同样地,它考虑到本能,但是并没有认为自己就充分胜任地能够说「本能」确实就是什么。因此被指明的心理的因素,每个人都心知肚明。正如那是因素本身是什么,根本就是不清楚。同样清楚的是,上帝-意象对应于心理事实的明确情结,因此是我们能够用来运作的数量。但是上帝本身是什么,始终是所有的心理学无法胜任的问题。我很遗憾,必须强调这些基本的真相。

关有梦的心理学面面观,我因此已经相当清楚地说出我必须说的一切。我曾经刻意地自我节制,不详谈细节。细节部分必须保留给个案材料的研究。我们对于面面观的讨论引导我们到更广泛的难题,那是当我们谈论梦时,无可避免的那些难题。当然,关于梦的精神分析的目标,还有很多的话能够说。但是因为梦的精神分析是有帮助的,对于一般的精神分析的治疗,只有当我想要从事治疗的整体的问题时,我才能够这样做。但是若是想要彻底地描述治疗,那需要许多的基本的研究,从不同的角度克服这个难题。这是极端复杂的问题,尽管这个事实:某些的作者在简化方面,各擅胜场,尝试让我们相信:疾病的已知的「根源」能够非常简单地被抽取出来,我必须警告,对于如此的轻举妄动。我宁愿看见认真的心灵平心静气来讨论,彻底而用心地讨论那些难题,精神分析随之带来的那些难题。学院的心理学家确实应该面对现实,应该想要听听有关人类的心灵,依照它真实的样子,而不仅是关于实验室的试验。令人痛苦的是,大学教授竟然禁止他们的学生参与精神分析心理学。他们竟然禁止使用精神分析的观念,并且控诉我们的心理学,因为我们以非科学的方式考虑「日常的经验」。我知道,一般心理学能够获得很大的利益,从认真地研究梦的难题,一旦它能够摆脱那个难以自圆其说的外行人的偏见,认为梦仅是受到身体的刺激所引起。在心理学,对于身体的因素过于高估,是一个基本的理由,为什么心理治疗学没有任何进展,除非它由精神分析的过程直接给予滋养。「精神疾病就是脑的疾病」这个教条,是1870年代的唯物论的宿醉。它已经成为阻碍各种进步的偏见,没有什么理由可让它自圆其说。

所有精神疾病都是脑的疾病,即使是真实,那仍然没有理由不去研究疾病的心灵的面向。但是这个偏见被用来从一开头就贬低所有朝这个方向的各个努力,然后将这些努力一网打尽。可是,所有的精神疾病都是脑的疾病的证明,从来没有被提供,也永远无法被提供。正如它永远无法被证明,人的思维与行为,是因为这个或那个蛋白质,在这个细胞或那个细胞,损坏与形成它自己。这样一种观点直接导致唯物论的福音:「吃怎样的东西,就成为怎样人」。以这种方式思维的人们,将我们的精神生活构想成为是脑细胞的同化与异化的过程。这些过程仅仅被认为是实验室的综合与分解到过程—因为只要我们无法用生命-过程的术语来思维,我们就不可能将它们认为是生命的过程。但是那就是我们必须用了思维那个细胞过程的方式,假如唯物论的观念的正确性想要被宣称的话。在那个情况,我们将会已经是超越唯物论。因为生命永远无法被认为是物质的功能,而是仅是作为存在于物质与为了物质的过程。能源与物质都隶属于那个过程。生命作为是物质的功能,假设自动自发的传宗接代。我们还需等待很久,才获得那个证据。我们没有理由将心灵理解为脑的过程,正如我们没有理由用通常方式理解生命,根据单方面,武断的唯物论的观点,它永远无法被证实。不仅是这个事实:企图想像这样的事情本身就是疯狂。每当它被认真看待,它总是产生疯狂。相反地,我们必须考虑心灵的过程,作为心灵,而不是作为器官的细胞过程。当细胞过程用生命力来解释时,对于「形上学的魅影」,人们无论如何愤怒,他们仍然继续将生理的假设视为是「科学」,虽然它同样都是幻想。但是它符合唯物论的偏见,因此彻底是胡说。只要它将心灵转变成为生理,它在科学方面就被奉为不可侵犯。让我们希望,有朝一日,根深蒂固与粗心的唯物论,这个过时的遗物,将会从我们科学家的心灵里被抹除。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Aion 79

October 26, 2014

Aion 79

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格
THE SIGN OF THE FISHES
鱼的讯息

’33 One could hardly find the ^vkoKpiv^o-^, or ‘discrimination of
the natures’ that characterizes the Gnostic Redeemer, exemplified
more graphically than in the astrological determination of
time. The astrological statements that were quite possible in
antiquity all point to the prominent double aspect of the birth
that occurred at this particular moment of time, and one can
understand how plausible was the astrological interpretation of
the Christ-Antichrist myth when it entered into manifestation
at the time of the Gnostics.

就是在时间的决定,我们发现表现诺斯教派的救赎者的特征的「各种特性的区别」,最为生动地作为典范。在古代相当可能的星象学的陈述都指向,在这个特殊时间的时刻发生的诞生的显著的双重层面。我们能够理解,星相学对于基督-反基督神话的星相学的解释是多么的合理。当它从事诺斯教派的时间的展示。

A fairly old authority, earlier
anyway than the sixth century, which bears striking witness to
the antithetical nature of the Fishes is the Talmud. This says:
Four thousand two hundred and ninety-one years after the Creation
[a.d. 530], the world will be orphaned.

一个非常古老的权威,无论如何比第六世纪还早,它生动地证明双鱼宫的反面的特性是泰姆德。在是说:创世纪(纪元前530年)后4219年,这个世界将会变成孤星。

There will follow the war of
the tanninim [sea-monsters], the war of Gog and Magog,45 and then
the Messianic era; only after seven thousand years will the Holy
One, blessed be He, set up his world anew. R. Abba, the son of
Raba, said, It was taught: after five thousand years.46

随后就是海怪唐尼尼的战争,歌格与马歌格的战争,然后是弥赛亚的时代;只有7000年后,神圣主,祝福他,重新建造这个世界。据传说,阿巴是拉巴的儿子,在5000年后说。

The Talmud commentator Solomon ben Isaac, alias Rashi
(1039-1105), remarks that the tanninim are fishes, presumably
basing himself on an older source, since he does not give this
as his own opinion, as he usually does.

泰姆德的评论者索罗门、宾、以撒,化名拉希((1039-1105),评论说:唐尼尼是双鱼宫,被认为将他自己建立在古老的资源。因为他没有给出这个,作为属于他自己的意见,如同他平常所为。

This remark is important,
firstly because it takes the battle of the fishes as an eschatological
event (like the fight between Behemoth and Leviathan), and
secondly because it is probably the oldest testimony to the antithetical
nature of the fishes.

这个评论是重要的,首先是因为它将双鱼宫的战争,当作末日的事件。(就像贝赫摩丝与列维山之间的战斗)。其次,是因为那可能是最古老的证词:双鱼宫具有反对特性。

From about this period, too— the
eleventh century—comes the apocryphal text of a Johannine
Genesis in which the two fishes are mentioned, this time in unmistakably
astrological form.46a Both documents fall within the
critical epoch that opened with the second millennium of the
Christian era, about which I shall have more to say in due
course.

也从大约这个时期—第七世纪—宙哈尼尼的创世纪的启示录文本来临。在那里,双鱼宫被提到,这次绝无错误地是星相学的形式。两个文件都在这个关键的时代,以基督教时代的第二个千禧年作为开始。关于这个时代,我到时还有更多的话要说。

134 The year 531 is characterized astronomically by a conjunction
of U and ^> in Gemini. This sign stands for a pair of
brothers, and they too have a somewhat antithetical nature.

531年的星相学的特征是双子宫的U与&的结合。这个讯息代表兄弟的配对。他们也具有相当反对特性。

The
Greeks interpreted them as the Dioscuri (‘boys of Zeus’), the
sons of Leda who were begotten by the swan and hatched out
of an egg. Pollux was immortal, but Castor shared the human
lot. Another interpretation takes them as representing Apollo
and Heracles or Apollo and Dionysus.

希腊人解释他们作为宙斯的男孩,琳达的儿子,他们是天鹅所生,从蛋里孵出。叵拉克是天神,但是卡斯托分享人的命运。另外一个解释将他们当作代表阿波罗与赫拉克利斯,或是阿波罗与戴奥尼修斯。

Both interpretations suggest
a certain polarity. Astronomically, at any rate, the air sign
Gemini stands in a quartile and therefore unfavourable aspect
to the conjunction that took place in the year 7 b.c. The inner
polarity of X may perhaps shed light on the prophecy about the
war of the tanninim, which Rashi interprets as fishes. From the
dating of Christ’s birth it would appear, as said, that the sun
was in Gemini. The motif of the brothers is found very early
in connection with Christ, for instance among the Jewish Christians
and Ebionites.47

两种解释都 暗示某种的两个极端。无论如何,从天文学来看,天空的星座双子宫位在四分之三点,因此是对于发生在纪元前7年的结合是不利的层面。X的内部的极端可能会透露出预言,关于唐尼尼的战争。拉希将它解释为双鱼。从耶稣基督诞生的日期,看起来是,太阳在双子宫那里。兄弟的主题很早被找到,跟耶稣基督有关,譬如,在犹太人的基督教徒与阿宾尼教徒。

1 35 From all this we may risk the conjecture that the Talmudic
prophecy was based on astrological premises.

从所有这一切,我们冒险推测:泰姆德的预言是以星相学的假设作基础。

1 36 The precession of the equinoxes was a fact well known to
the astrologers of antiquity. Origen, helped out by the observations
and calculations of Hipparchus,48 uses it as a cogent argument
against an astrology based on the so-called “morphomata”
(the actual constellations).49

昼夜平分点的星球运转是古代的星相家耳熟能详的事实。凭借希帕宙斯盾观察与估算,奥瑞更使用它,充当具有说服力的论点,反对以所谓的「摩佛马达」(实际的星座)作为基础的星相学。

Naturally this does not apply to the
distinction already drawn in ancient astrology between the
morphomata and the £coSia vo-qra (the fictive signs of the zodiac).50
If we take the 7,000 years mentioned in the prophecy as anno
mundi 7000, the year denoted would be a.d. 3239. By then the
spring-point will have moved from its present position 18 degrees
into Aquarius, the next aeon, that of the Water Carrier.

当然,这并没有运用到古代星相学已经获得的区别,在摩佛马达与想像的星座之间的区别。假如名为将预言中被提到的7,000年,当作是世界纪元,被指明的这年将是纪元后3239年。到那时候,春分点将会从它目前的位置移动18度,进入水瓶宫,下一个永恒纪元,水的带领者的纪元。

As an astrologer of the second or third century would be
acquainted with the precession, we may surmise that these dates
were based on astrological considerations.

如同第二或第三世纪的星相家对于这个星座运转耳熟能详,我们推测,这些日期是以星相的考虑作为基础。

At all events the Middle
Ages were much concerned with the calculation of coniunctiones
maximae and magnae, as we know from Pierre d’Ailly
and Cardan.51 Pierre d’Ailly reckoned that the first coniunctio
maxima (U 6 ^ in T) after the creation of the world took
place in 5027 B.C., while Cardan relegated the tenth conjunction
to a.d. 3613.52 Both of them assumed the lapse of too large an
interval between conjunctions in the same sign.

无论如何,中世纪非常关心马西美与马格内的结合。依据我们从皮尔斯、阿里与卡丹那里知道。皮尔斯、阿里推算,世界创造后的第一次结合,发生在纪元前5027年,卡丹则是推算第十次的结合到纪元后3613年。他们两人都假定在相同的星座,结合之间的太大的间隔会有失误。

The correct
astronomical interval is about 795 years. Cardan’s conjunction
would accordingly take place in the year a.d. 3234. For astrological
speculation this date is naturally of the greatest importance.

正确的天文学的间隔大约是795年。卡丹推测的结合因此发生在纪元后3234年。对于星相学的推测,这个日期自然是非常重要。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

论自恋 i

October 25, 2014

论自恋 i
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论
– 91 –
III
The disturbances to which a child’s original narcissism is exposed, the
reactions with which he seeks to protect himself from them and the paths
into which he is forced in doing so—these are themes which I propose to
leave on one side, as an important field of work which still awaits
exploration. The most significant portion of it, however, can be singled out in the shape of the ‘castration complex’ (in boys, anxiety about the penis— in girls, envy for the penis) and treated in connection with the effect of early deterrence from sexual activity.

小孩原初的自恋被暴露的各种困扰,他尝试用来保护他自己免于困扰的各种反应,以及当他这样做时,他被迫进入的各种途径—这些主题,我建议留置一旁,作为依旧有待探索的研究的重要领域。可是,有关它的最重要的部分,能够被挑选出来,以「阉割情结」的形状(在男孩,关于有阴茎的焦虑—在女孩,对阴茎的羡慕),并且被治疗,关于早期被拖延不能从事性的活动的影响。

Psycho-analytic research ordinarily
enables us to trace the vicissitudes undergone by the libidinal instincts
when these, isolated from the ego-instincts, are placed in opposition to them; but in the particular field of the castration complex, it allows us to infer the existence of an epoch and a psychical situation in which the two groups of instincts, still operating in unison and inseparably mingled, make their appearance as narcissistic interests.

精神分析研究通常让我们能够追踪力比多本能经历的起伏变化。当它们跟自我本能孤立出来时,它们被放置在跟它们对立的位置。但是在阉割情结的这个特殊领域,它让我们能够推理一个时代与心灵的情况的存在。在那里,这两个团体的本能,依旧一致地运转,而又不可分离地混合。它们从事它们的出现,作为自恋的興趣。

It is from this context that Adler
[1910] has derived his concept of the ‘masculine protest’, which he has
elevated almost to the position of the sole motive force in the formation of character and neurosis alike and which he bases not on a narcissistic, and therefore still a libidinal, trend, but on a social valuation.

从这个内容,阿德勒曾经获得他的「男性抗议」的观念。他将这个观念几乎提升到唯一动机的力量的地位,在人格与神经症的形成。他将这个观念的基础,不是放置在自恋,因此,依旧力比多的倾向。而是放置在社会的评估。

Psycho-analytic
research has from the very beginning recognized the existence and
importance of the ‘masculine protest’, but it has regarded it, in opposition
to Adler, as narcissistic in nature and derived from the castration complex.

精神分析的研究从一开始,就体认出「男性抗议」的存在与重要性。但是跟阿德勒相反,精神分析的研究将它认为是特性上是自恋,从阉割情结得来。

The ‘masculine protest’ is concerned in the formation of character, into the genesis of which it enters along with many other factors, but it is
completely unsuited for explaining the problems of the neuroses, with
regard to which Adler takes account of nothing but the manner in which
they serve the ego-instincts. I find it quite impossible to place the genesis of neurosis upon the narrow basis of the castration complex, however powerfully it may come to the fore in men among their resistances to the cure of a neurosis. Incidentally, I know of cases of neurosis in which the ‘masculine protest’, or, as we regard it, the castration complex, plays no pathogenic part, and even fails to appear at all.1

「男性的抗议」关注人格的形成。沿着许多其他的因素,从事研究人格形成的开始。但是它完全不适合解释神经症的难题,关于神经症的难题,阿德勒所考虑到的仅是神经症服役自我-本能的方式。我则是发现不可能将神经症的开始放置在阉割情结的狭窄的基础上。虽然它强烈地出现在男人的前台,当他们抗拒神经症的治疗。偶然地,我知道有些神经症的个案,在那里,「男性的抗议」,或我们所谓的阉割情结,并没有扮演病因的角色,甚至根本就没有出现。
– 92 –
Observation of normal adults shows that their former megalomania
has been damped down and that the psychical characteristics from which we inferred their infantile narcissism have been effaced. What has become of their ego-libido? Are we to suppose that the whole amount of it has passed into object-cathexes? Such a possibility is plainly contrary to the whole trend of our argument; but we may find a hint at another answer to the question in the psychology of repression.

对于正常成人的观察显示,他们以前的自大狂已经被浇灭,我们用来推论婴孩的自恋的心灵的特征,已经被抹除。他们的自我-力比多情况如何呢?我们应该假设,他们的自我-力比多的整个数量已经成为客体-投注吗?这样的可能很明显跟我们的主张的整个倾向相反。但是在压抑的心理学,我们在另一个问题的回的发现一个暗示。

We have learnt that libidinal instinctual impulses undergo the
vicissitude of pathogenic repression if they come into conflict with the
subject’s cultural and ethical ideas. By this we never mean that the
individual in question has a merely intellectual knowledge of the existence of such ideas; we always mean that he recognizes them as a standard for himself and submits to the claims they make on him.
Repression, we have said, proceeds from the ego; we might say with greater precision that it proceeds from the self-respect of the ego.
我们获知,力比多的本能的冲动经历病因压抑的起伏变化,假如它们跟主体的文化与伦理的观念互相冲突。我们说这个的意思,并不是指受到质疑的个人仅是在智识方面知道这些观念的存在。我们的意思总是,他经历它们,作为给他自己一个标准,并且接受它们对他的宣称。我们说过,压抑从自我继续下去。我们可以更加精确地说,压抑从自我的尊敬自己继续下去。

The same impressions, experiences, impulses and desires that one man indulges or at least works over consciously will be rejected with the utmost indignation by another, or even stifled before they enter consciousness.2 The difference between the
two, which contains the conditioning factor of repression, can easily be
expressed in terms which enable it to be explained by the libido theory.

一个人耽溺或至少刻意反复从事的相同的印象,经验,冲动,与欲望,会被另一个人极端愤怒地排斥,或甚至被闷窒之后,才让它们进入意识。这两者之间的差异,包括压抑的制约因素,能够轻易地被表达,所用的术语让它能够凭借力比多理论来解释。

We can say that the one man has set up an ideal in himself by which he
measures his actual ego, while the other has formed no- 93 –
such ideal. For the ego the formation of an ideal would be the conditioning factor of repression.1This ideal ego is now the target of the self-love which was enjoyed in childhood by the actual ego.

我们能够说,一个人在他自己身上建立一个理想。凭借这个理想,他衡量他的实际的自我。而另外一个则是没有形成这样的理想。对于自我,理想的形成将是压抑的制约的因素。理想自我现在是自我-爱恋的目标,在童年时被实践的自我享受的自我-爱恋。

The subject’s narcissism makes its
appearance displaced on to this new ideal ego, which, like the infantile
ego, finds itself possessed of every perfection that is of value.

主体的自恋让它的出现被替换到新的理想的自我。就像婴孩的自我,这个新的理想自我发现它自己拥有每个具有价值的完美。

As always where the libido is concerned, man has here again shown himself incapable of giving up a satisfaction he had once enjoyed. He is not willing to forgo the narcissistic perfection of his childhood; and when, as he grows up, he is disturbed by the admonitions of others and by the awakening of his own critical judgement, so that he can no longer retain that perfection, he seeks to recover it in the new form of an ego ideal.

如同平常,就力比多而言,人在此再次显示他自己不能够放弃他曾经享受过的满足。他不愿意忘记他的童年的自恋的完美。随着他长大,他受到别人的警告的困扰,以及他自己批判的判断的觉醒的困扰。这样,他不再保留那个完美,他寻求重新恢复它,用自我理想的新的形式。

What he projects
before him as his ideal is the substitute for the lost narcissism of his
childhood in which he was his own ideal.2

他投射在他面前作为理想的东西,就是他的童年的丧失的自恋的替换。在那里,他是他自己的理想。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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梦心理面面观 16

October 24, 2014

梦心理面面观 16
General Aspects of Dream Psychology

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

我刚刚说过,自性意象的自主权始终是无意识的,因为它被认同是客体的自主权。客体的死亡因此将会一定产生明显的心理的影响,既然客体没有完全消失,而是继续以非实质的形式存在。这确实就是这个情况。无意识的自性意象不再拥有对应于它的一个客体,而变成一个鬼魂,现在从事对于主体的影响。这个主体原则上无法跟心灵的现象区分出来。主体的无意识的投射,将无意识的内容输入进到自性意象里面,然后认同客体,客体丧失之后,主体的无意识仍然继续存活,并且扮演重演的角色,在原始人们的生活,以及在过去与现在的所有文明人们的生活里。这些现象提供明显的证据:客体的主体意象具有自主权地存在于无意识里。它们显而易见地在无意识里,因为它们跟客体从来没有意识地区分开来。

人类的每个进步,每个观念的成将,都跟了解自性的进步息息相关:人区别他自己跟客体的差异,并且面对大自然,作为是某件跟大自然不同的东西。心理态度的从新定位将必须遵循相同的途径:显而易见地,将客体认同于主体的意象,赋予客体一种并不贴切属于它的意义。但是从恒古开始,客体就拥有的一种意义。这种认同就是事情的原初的状态。可是,对于主体,这是一个原初的情况,只要这个情况没有导致严重的不方便,它就会延续下去。对于客体的过分评估,是其中一件事情,让主体的发展最容易具有偏见的事情。过分被强调的「魔力」的客体,将主体的意识定位于朝向客体,并且阻碍个体区别化的任何企图。显而易见地,个体区别化将会必须开始,随着自性意象跟客体的隔离。主体的个体区别化的方向不可能被维持,假如外在的因素「魔力」般地干涉心灵的机制。自性意象的隔离,给予那些客体它们被夸张的意义。自性意象的隔离将那个被分裂的能源恢复给主体,主体迫切地需要那个被分裂的能源,为了主体自己的发展。

对于现代人们,为了根据主体的层面,解释梦的自性意象,因此具有相同的意义。如同对于原始人们,取走他的祖先的人物与物神,并且尝试说服他们,他们的「医药」并不是驻居在客体,而是在人类的心灵的精神的力量,本来会具有的相同的意义。对于这个异端的假设,原始人们会觉得拥有合理的抗拒理由。相同地,现代人们感觉,这是令人不愉快的,或许甚至是更加危险,假如让自性意象与客体的自古以来就被尊崇的神圣的认同一旦瓦解。对于我们心理学而言,这些结果也几乎是难以想像的:我们将不再拥有我们能够对之诉苦的任何对象,我们能够要求他负责的任何对象,可以给予教导,改进,与处罚的任何对象!相反地,我们将必须一切事物,都从我们自己开始;我们将必须要求我们自己,而不是别人,对于我们习惯上要求别人的那些东西。情况既然是那样,我们可以理解,为什么根据主体的层面,梦的自性意象的解释并不是轻松的一步,特别是当它导致朝著某个方向的单边与夸张。

除了这个纯粹的道德困难之外,也还有许多智识的阻碍。经常有人提出反对说:根据主体层面的解释是哲学的难题,这种原则的运用迹近于是「世界观」,因此不再合乎科学。心理学若是流入哲学,我并不感到奇怪。因为强调哲学的思维毕竟也是心灵的活动。作为这样的心灵活动,它是心理学的研究的本体。我总是将心理学,认为是涵盖心灵的整体。心理学包括哲学与神学,还有除外的许多其他东西。因为,强调所有的哲学与宗教,是人类灵魂的事实。真理与错误的最后的仲裁者,最后可能就是人类的灵魂。

对于我们的难题触及到的是这个范围或是那个范围,对于我们心理学而言,并无关紧要。最重要的事情是我们必须处理实际的必要的事情。假如病人的世界的观点,成为心理学的难题,我们必须处理它,尽管哲学是否属于心理学与否。同样地,就我们而言,宗教的问题原初就是心理学的问题。这是令人遗憾的缺点,目前的医学心理学竟然通常都跟这些难题保持疏远。这在心因性神经症者治疗上,表现得特别明显。心因性神经症者在别的地方疗愈的机率比较大,比起在学院的医学。虽然我自己是医生,原则上,不说自己人的短处,我有充分理由不去批评医学的专业。我仍然必须坦承,医生未必总是精神病技艺的最佳守护者。我经常发现,医学的心理学家用例行的方式来实践他们的精神病技艺,用他们的研究的特殊特性教导他们例行的方式。医学的研究一方面在于储存巨大数目的事实在他们的心灵里,这些事实仅是被记忆,而没有确实地理解它们的基础。在另一方面,医学的研究在于学习实用的医术。这些医术必须被获得,根据的原则是:「不要思维,而是要行动!」因为这样,在所有的专业当中,医学最不具有发展「思维」功能的机会。这就难怪,假如受过心理学训练的医生想要遵循我的各种反思时,他们遭遇的困难最大。他们已经习惯于处理诊病药方,并且机械式地运用他们自己没有彻底思维过的医术。对于医学心理学的实践,这种倾向可以想像是最不适合。因为它紧捉著权威理论与技艺的裙摆。并且阻碍独立思维的发展。我已经发现,即使是基本的区别,譬如,主体层面与客体层面,自我与自性,讯息与象征,因果律与最终性,等等的基本的区别。在实践的治疗,这些基本的区别则是非常重要,过分消耗他们的能耐。这可能解释为什么他们顽强地坚持他们已经落伍而且需要修正的观点。显而易见,这并非仅是我主观的意见,从狂热地单边思维,以及学派的排除某些精神分析的团体。众所周知,这样的态度是过分被补偿的怀疑的病征。但是,有谁运用心理学的标准到他自己身上?

雄伯译
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论自恋 h

October 23, 2014

论自恋 h
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

Even for narcissistic women, whose attitude towards men remains
cool, there is a road which leads to complete object-love. In the child which they bear, a part of their own body confronts them like an extraneous object, to which, starting out from their
narcissism, they can then give complete object-love.

即使对于自恋的女人,她对待男人的态度始终是冷静的。也会有一条道路通往客体之爱。在她们所生的小孩身上,她们自己身体的一部分面临着它们,就像是一个外来的客体。从她们的自恋出发,她们因此能够给于它完整的客体之爱。

There are other
women, again, who do not have to wait for a child in order to take the step in development from (secondary) narcissism to object-love. Before puberty they feel masculine and develop some way along masculine lines; after this trend has been cut short on their reaching female maturity, they still retain the capacity of longing for a masculine ideal—an ideal which is in fact a survival of the boyish nature that they themselves once possessed.1

而且,还有其他女人并没有必要等待小孩,才採取发展的这个步骤,从次级的自恋,到客体之爱。在青春期之前,她们感觉阳刚气质,并且沿着阳刚的脉络,发展某种方法。当她们一到达女性的成熟时,这种倾向已经被中断。她们依旧保养这个能力,渴望阳刚理想的能力—事实上,这种阳刚理想是她们自己一度拥有的男孩特性的残存下来。

What I have so far said by way of indication may be concluded by a
short summary of the paths leading to the choice of an object.

迄今我已经说过的,作为指示,可以根据简单的总结通往客体的选择的各种途径,作为结论。

A person may love:—
(1) According to the narcissistic type:
(a) what he himself is (i.e. himself),
(b) what he himself was,
(c) what he himself would like to be,
(d) someone who was once part of himself.

(2) According to the anaclitic (attachment) type:
(a) the woman who feeds him,
(b) the man who protects him,

一个人可能爱—
(1)依照自恋的种类

(a) 他自己是怎样的人
(b) 他自己以前是怎样的人
(c) 他自己想要成为怎样的人
(d) 某个人曾经是他自己的部分
(2)依照依附的种类
(a)餵食他的女人
(b)保护他的男人

and the succession of substitutes who take their place. The inclusion
of case (c) of the first type cannot be justified till a later stage of this
discussion. [P. 101.]

以及替代他的位置的替代者的连续。第一类型的个案的包括,直到这个讨论之后,才能自圆其说。

The significance of narcissistic object-choice for homosexuality in men
must be considered in another connection.2

在男人身上,同性恋的自恋的客体之爱的意义必须从另外一个关联来考虑。

The primary narcissism of children which we have assumed and which
forms one of the postulates of our theories of the libido, is less easy to
grasp by direct observation than to confirm by inference from elsewhere. If we look at the attitude of affectionate parents towards their children, we have to recognize that it is a revival and reproduction of their own narcissism, which they have long since abandoned.

我们曾经假设的小孩的原初的自恋,以及形成我们的力比多理论的其中一个假设的小孩的原初的自恋,比较不那么容易从直接观察来理解,比起根据某个地方的推论来证实。假如我们观看情感丰富的父母对待他们的小孩的态度,我们必须承认,那是他们自己的自恋的复活与残存。那是他们长久以来放弃的。

The trustworthy pointer constituted by overvaluation, which we have already recognized as a narcissistic stigma in the case of object-choice, dominates, as we all know, their emotional attitude. Thus they are under a compulsion to ascribe every perfection to the child—which sober observation would find no occasion to do—and to
conceal and forget all his shortcomings. (Incidentally, the denial of
sexuality in children is connected with this.)

过分高估形成的值得信任的点,我们已经体认出来,作为客体-选择的个案里,自恋的污点。众所周知,它支使他们的情感的态度。因此,他们情不自禁地会将每个完美归属于小孩—若是清醒观察,本来不会这样做—并且隐藏与忘记小孩所有的缺点。(意外地,在小孩身上的性的否认跟这个息息相关。)

Moreover, they are inclined to suspend in the child’s favour the operation of all the cultural acquisitions which their own narcissism has been forced to respect, and to renew on his behalf the claims to privileges which were long ago given up by themselves.

而且,他们倾向于宠爱小孩,悬置所有的文化的习得的运作,那是他们自己的自恋曾经被迫要尊敬的文化的习得。他们并且在他们自己的部分更新他们对于某些特权的主张,那些是他们老早以前放弃的主张。

The child shall have a better time than his parents; he shall
not be subject to the necessities which they have recognized as
paramount in life. Illness, death, renunciation of enjoyment, restrictions on his own will, shall not touch him; the laws of nature and of society shall be abrogated in his favour; he shall once more really be the centre and core of creation—‘His Majesty the Baby’,1 as we once fancied ourselves.

小孩将会比他们的父母过得更加快乐。小孩将不会隶属于他们曾经体认出的那些必要,作为人生里最崇高的必要。疾病,死亡,捨弃快乐,限制他自己的意志,小孩将不会受到它们影响。自然与社会的法则将会被撤消,以对他有利。他将再次确实成为创造的中心与核心–「婴儿陛下」,如同我们想像我们自己是这样的人物。

The
child shall fulfil those wishful dreams of the parents which they never
carried out—the boy shall become a great man and a hero in his father’s
place, and the girl shall marry a prince as a tardy compensation for her
mother. At the most touchy point in the narcissistic system, the immortality of the ego, which is so hard pressed by reality, security is achieved by taking refuge in the child. Parental love, which is so moving and at bottom so childish, is nothing but the parents’ narcissism born again, which, transformed into object-love, unmistakably reveals its former nature.

小孩将会实现父母从来没有实现的那些愿望的梦想—男孩将代替他的父亲,成为伟大的人与英雄;而女孩则将嫁给一位王子,作为对她的母亲的迟来的补偿。在自恋系统的最敏感的时刻,自我的永生,当自我在现实里是如此地艰困,由于躲避在小孩那里,而获得安全。父母的爱,是如此的感动人,追根究底,又如此的幼稚,它仅是父母的自恋的再生。当它被转变成为客体之爱时,绝无错误地,它揭露出它以前的特性。

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Aion 75

October 22, 2014

Aion 75

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格
THE SIGN OF THE FISHES
鱼的讯息

!29 Saturn is a “black” star,24 anciently reputed a “maleficus.”
“Dragons, serpents, scorpions, viperes, renards, chats et souris,
oiseaux nocturnes et autres engeances sournoises sont le lot de
Saturne,” says Bouche-Leclercq.25

土星是「黑暗」之星,古代有名的「恶意者」「龙,蛇,蝎子,蝮蛇,狐狸,猫与老鼠,鹦鹉,夜间动物,等等」,雷克勒奎说。

Remarkably enough, Saturn’s
animals also include the ass,26 which on that account was rated
a theriomorphic form of the Jewish god. A pictorial representation
of it is the well-known mock crucifixion on the Palatine.27
Similar traditions can be found in Plutarch,28 Diodorus, Josephus,
29 and Tacitus.30 Sabaoth, the seventh archon, has the form
of an ass. 31

显而易见,土星的动物也包括驴子。因为那个原故,驴子被评估为犹太教上帝的人形化身。在巴勒斯坦的那幅著名的嘲讽的耶稣钉上十字架图,就是关于它的画面呈现。类似的传统能够被找到,在普鲁塔奇,戴奥德鲁斯,宙色费斯与塔西塔斯。萨巴奥斯是第七位统治者,他具有驴子的形状。

Tertullian is referring to these rumours when he says:
“You are under the delusion that our God is an ass’s head,” and
that “we do homage only to an ass.” 32 As we have indicated, the
ass is sacred to the Egyptian Set. 33 In the early texts, however,
the ass is the attribute of the sun-god and only later became an
emblem of the underworldly Apep and of evil (Set). 34

特图力安提的这些谣言,当他说:「你处于这个幻觉当中:我们的上帝是驴子的头」,以及「我们仅是对驴子表示尊敬。」如同我们曾经指出,对于埃及人的族群,驴子上神圣的。可是,在早期的文本,驴子是太阳神的属性。仅有在后来,它才成为是阴间阿培普与邪恶族群的标志。

3° According to medieval tradition, the religion of the Jews
originated in a conjunction of Jupiter with Saturn, Islam in
U 6 2 , Christianity in if 6 S , and the Antichrist in U 6 d .

依照中世纪的传统,犹太人的宗教起源于木星与土星的结合。回教,基督教,与反基督在三个不同的位置。

Unlike Saturn, Jupiter is a beneficent star. In the Iranian view
Jupiter signifies life, Saturn death.36 The conjunction of the
two therefore signifies the union of extreme opposites.

不像土星,木星是善良之星。在伊朗人的观点,木星象征生命。土星象征死亡。两星的结合因此象征极端对立力量的结合。

In the year 7 B.C this famed conjunction took place no less than three
times in the sign of the Fishes. The greatest approximation
occurred on May 29 of that year, the planets being only 0.21
degrees apart, less than half the width of the full moon.37 The
conjunction took place in the middle of the commissure, “near
the bend in the line of the Fishes.”

在纪元前7年,这个著名的结合发生有三次之多,在双鱼宫的星座。最大的靠近发生在那年的5月29日,两颗行星相距仅0.12度,不到圆月的一半宽度。这个结合发生在结合地点的中间,「靠近双鱼宫的线的弯曲处」。

From the astrological point
of view this conjunction must appear especially significant, because
the approximation of the two planets was exceptionally
large and of an impressive brilliance.

从星相的观点,这个结合一定显得特别的重要。因为两颗行星的靠近特别的逼近,属于让人嘱目的灿烂。

In addition, seen heliocentrically,
it took place near the equinoctial point, which at
that time was located between T and X, that is, between fire
and water.38 The conjunction was characterized by the important
fact that Mars was in opposition ( $ <? U *? ), which means, astrologically,
that the planet correlated with the instincts stood in
a hostile relationship to it, which is peculiarly characteristic of
Christianity.

除外,从太阳中心角度来看,这个结合发生在昼夜平分点。在那时,那个点位于T与X点之间。也就是说,处于火与水之间。这个结合的特性是这个重要的事实:火星正跟( $ <? U *? )点对立。从星相学而言,那意味著:跟这些本能息息相关的行星,跟它处于敌对的位置。那特别是基督教的特征。

If we accept Gerhardt's calculation that the conjunction
took place on May 29, in the year 7 B.C., then the position
of the sun—especially important in a man's nativity—at
Christ's birth would be in the double sign of the Twins.39

假如我们接受焦哈德的估算,这个结合发生在纪元前7年,5月29日,那么,太阳的这个位置,在人的出生事件上,就特别重要—在耶稣诞生时,太阳的位置将是是双子宫的双重星座那里。一

One thinks involuntarily of the ancient Egyptian pair of hostile
brothers, Horus and Set, the sacrificer and the sacrificed (cf.
n. 27, on Set's "martyrdom"), who in a sense prefigure the drama
of the Christian myth. In the Egyptian myth it is the evil one
who is sacrificed on the "slave's post." 40

我们情不自禁地想到古代埃及人的敌意兄弟的配对,霍拉斯与谢特,牺牲者与被牺牲者。从某个意义来说,他们作为基督教神话的戏剧的先行人物。在埃及神话,邪恶的兄弟被牺牲,在「奴隶的位置」。

But the pair of brothers
Heru-ur (the "older Horus") and Set are sometimes pictured as
having one body with two heads. The planet Mercury is correlated
with Set, and this is interesting in view of the tradition that
Christianity originated in a conjunction of Jupiter with Mercury.

但是赫鲁尔(霍拉斯长兄)与谢特的配对有时被描绘,作为拥有两个头的一个身体。水星这个行星跟谢特息息相关。这是耐人寻味的,因为这个传统:基督教起源于木星与水星的结合。

In the New Kingdom (XlXth dynasty) Set appears as
Sutech in the Nile delta. In the new capital built by Rameses
II, one district was dedicated to Amon, the other to Sutech.41 It
was here that the Jews were supposed to have done slave-labour.

在这个新的王国(16朝代),谢特出现作为尼罗河三角洲的埃及的苏铁奇神。在拉美西斯人建立的新首都,有一个地区被奉献给阿曼神,另一个地区则是奉献给苏铁奇神。就在这里,犹太人被认为已经从事奴隶的劳工。

1 3 1 In considering the double aspect of Christ, mention might
be made of the legend of Pistis Sophia (3rd cent.), which also
originated in Egypt. Mary says to Jesus:

当我们考虑到基督的双重面向,我们必须提到皮斯提斯、苏菲亚的这个传说(第三世纪)。它也起源于埃及。玛丽对耶稣说:

When thou wert a child, before the spirit had descended upon thee,
when thou wert in the vineyard with Joseph, the spirit came down
from the height, and came unto me in the house, like unto thee,
and I knew him not, but thought that he was thou.

当你小时,在天神降临我身上之前,当你跟约瑟夫在葡萄园,天神从高处下来,进人屋子我这里,就像进人你。我不认识他,但是我认为他就是你。
And he said
unto me, "Where is Jesus, my brother, that I may go to meet him?"
And when he had said this unto me, I was in doubt, and thought
it was a phantom tempting me. I seized him and bound him to the
foot of the bed which was in my house, until I had gone to find you
in the field, thee and Joseph; and I found you in the vineyard,
where Joseph was putting up the vine-poles.

然后,他对我说:「耶稣在哪里,我的弟弟,让我可以去跟他相会?」当他进人我说这话,我心存怀疑,并且认为那是魅影在引诱我。我捉住他,并且将他绑到我家里的床脚。直到我到田野里找到你,你跟约瑟夫。我发现你在葡萄园,约瑟夫正在那里竖立葡萄架。

And it came to pass,
when thou didst hear me saying this thing unto Joseph, that thou
didst understand, and thou wert joyful, and didst say, "Where is
he, that I may see him?" And it came to pass, when Joseph heard
thee say these words, that he was disturbed.

当你并没有听见我跟约瑟夫说这件事情时,发生的状况是你不理解。你很快乐并且说:「他在哪里,好让我见他?」当约瑟夫听见这些话,他感到困扰。

We went up together,
entered into the house and found the spirit bound to the bed, and
we gazed upon thee and him, and found that thou wert like unto
him. And he that was bound to the bed was unloosed, he embraced
thee and kissed thee, and thou also didst kiss him, and you became
one.42

我们一起起身,进人房屋,发现天神被绑到床脚,我们注视你与他,然后发现你非常酷似他。被绑到床脚的他被松解开,他拥抱你,吻你。你也吻他。你们成为一体。

l 32 It appears from the context of this fragment that Jesus is
the "truth sprouting from the earth," whereas the spirit that
resembled him is "justice [Sikcuoo-wt?] looking down from heaven."

从这个片段的上下文,耶稣似乎是从地上「从大地生长出来的真理」,而酷似耶稣的天神则是「从天国俯瞰的正义」。

The text says: "Truth is the power which issued from thee when
thou wast in the lower regions of chaos. For this cause thy power
hath said through David, 'Truth hath sprouted out of the
earth,' because thou wert in the lower regions of chaos." 43
Jesus, accordingly, is conceived as a double personality, part of
which rises up from the chaos or hyle, while the other part
descends as pneuma from heaven.

文本说:「真理是从你发出的这个力量,当你处于混乱的低下地区时。因此,耶稣被构想作为是双重人格,部分人格从混乱里上升,另外一个部分则是从天上降落,作为精神。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

论自恋 g

October 21, 2014

论自恋 g
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

A third way in which we may approach the study of narcissism is by
observing the erotic life of human beings, with its many kinds of
differentiation in man and woman. Just as object-libido at first concealed
ego-libido from our observation, so too in connection with the object-choice of infants (and of growing children) what we first noticed was that they derived their sexual objects from their experiences of satisfaction.

第三个方法,我们用来探索自恋的研究,是凭借观察人类的性爱生活,在男人与女人身上的许多差异。正如客体-力比多首先隐藏自我-力比多,让我们观察不到。关于婴孩(正在成长的小孩)的客体-选择也是一样。我们首先注意到的东西是,他们从满足的经验里获得他们的性的客体。

The first auto-erotic sexual satisfactions are experienced in connection with vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation. The sexual instincts are at the outset attached to the satisfaction of the ego-instincts; only later do they become independent of these, and even then we have an indication of that original attachment in the fact that the persons who are concerned with a child’s feeding, care, and protection become his earliest sexual objects: that is to say, in the first instance his mother or a substitute for her. Side by side, however, with this type and source of object-choice, which may be called the ‘anaclitic’ or ‘attachment’ type,2 psycho-analytic research has revealed a second
type, which we were not prepared for finding.

最初的自动-性爱的性的满足被经验到,关于充当自我满足的生命的功能。性的本能从一开头就跟自我-本能的满足联接一块。只有到后来,他们才离开自我-本能独立起来。即使在那时,我们拥有原初联接的这个指示。根据这个事实:跟小孩的餵食,照顾,与保护有关系的人们,变成他最早期的性的客体:换句话说,在第一个情况,他的母亲或母亲的替代者。可是,这种客体-选择与来源,可以被称为是「依附」或「联接」的类型,跟它并列存在的,精神分析研究已经显示第二个类型,我们还没有准备要发现的类型。

We have discovered,
especially clearly in people whose libidinal development has suffered some disturbance, such as perverts and homosexuals, that in their later choice of love-objects they have taken as a model not their mother but their own selves.

特别是在力比多的发展遭受困扰的人们身上,譬如倒错症者与同性恋者,我们清楚地发现,在他们后来对于恋爱-对象的选择,他们採用作为模范的,不是他们的母亲,而是他们自己。

They are plainly seeking themselves as a love-object, and are
exhibiting a type of object-choice which must be termed ‘narcissistic’. In
this observation we have the strongest of the reasons which have led us to adopt the hypothesis of narcissism.

他们清楚地寻求他们自己,作为恋爱对象,并且展示一种可称之为「自恋的」客体-选择。观察到这点,我们拥有最强烈的理由,曾经引导我们採用自恋的假设。

We have, however, not concluded that human beings are divided into
two sharply differentiated groups, according as their object-choice
conforms to the anaclitic or to the narcissistic type; we assume rather that both kinds of object-choice are open to each individual, though he may show a preference for one or the other. We say that a human being has originally two sexual objects—himself and the woman who nurses him— and in doing so we are postulating a primary narcissism in everyone, which may in some cases manifest itself in a dominating fashion in his objectchoice.

可是,我们还没有下这个结论:人类被区分成为两个明显差异的群体,依照他们的客体选择符合依附型或自恋型。相反地,我们假定,两种的客体-选择开放给予每个个人,虽然他可能显示偏爱依附型或自恋型。我们说,每个人原先就有两个性的客体—他自己与照顾他的女人—当我们这样做时,我们提出假设:每个人身上都有原初的自恋。在某些的情况,这个原初的自恋以支使的方式展示它自己,在他的客体-选择。

A comparison of the male and female sexes then shows that there are
fundamental differences between them in respect of their type of objectchoice, although these differences are of course not universal. Complete object-love of the attachment type is, properly speaking, characteristic of the male. It displays the marked sexual overvaluation which is doubtless derived from the child’s original narcissism and thus corresponds to a transference of that narcissism to the sexual object.

比较男人与女人的性因此显示:他们之间有基本的差异,关于他们的客体-选择的类型,虽然这些差异当然并非是普世的差异。依附型的完整的恋爱-客体,贴切地说,表现男性的特征。它展示明显的性的过分评估,无可置疑地,那是从小孩原初的自恋得来,因此对应于那个自恋对于性的客体的移情。

This sexual
overvaluation is the origin of the peculiar state of being in love, a state
suggestive of a neurotic compulsion, which is thus traceable to an
impoverishment of the ego as regards libido in favour of the love-object.1
A different course is followed in the type of female most frequently met with, which is probably the purest and truest one. With the onset of puberty the maturing of the female sexual organs, which up till then have been in a condition of latency, seems to bring about an intensification of the original narcissism, and this is unfavourable to the development of a true objectchoice with its accompanying sexual overvaluation.

对于性的过分评估就是处于恋爱的特殊状态的起源,暗示着神经症的冲动的状态。它因此可被追溯到关于力比多赞同恋爱-客体的自我的贫瘠。经常被遇到的,在女性的类型,则是遵循不同的途径。随着青春期的开始,女性性器官的成熟似乎导致原初自恋的强化,尽管直到那时,它们始终处于潜在的状态。这对于真实的客体-选择的发展是不利的,因为它伴随着性的过分高估。

Women, especially if they grow up with good looks, develop a certain self-contentment which compensates them for the social restrictions that are imposed upon them in their choice of object. Strictly speaking, it is only themselves that such women love with an intensity comparable to that of the man’s love for them. Nor does their need lie in the direction of loving, but of being loved; and the man who fulfils this condition is the one who finds favour with them. The importance of this type of woman for the erotic life of mankind is to be rated very high. Such women have the greatest fascination for men, not only for aesthetic reasons, since as a rule they are the most beautiful, but also because of a combination of interesting psychological factors.

女人发展某种的自我满足,特别假如她们长得漂亮。这种自我满足弥补她们,因为社会赋加在她们身上的限制,对于她们的客体-选择。严格地说,这些女人强烈所爱的仅是她们自己,跟男人的爱女人比较起来。她们的需要也不是在于恋爱的方向,而是被爱。满足这个条件的男人就是受到女人喜爱的男人。就人类的性爱生活而言,这种女人的重要性,应该被评估很高。这些女人对于男人拥有最强烈的吸引力,不但是因为美学的理由。因为通常她们都是非常美丽,而且因为有趣的心理的因素的组合。

For it seems very evident that another person’s narcissism has a great
attraction for those who have renounced part of their own narcissism and
are in search of object-love. The charm of a child lies to a great extent in
his narcissism, his self-contentment and inaccessibility, just as does the
charm of certain animals which seem not to concern themselves about us, such as cats and the large beasts of prey. Indeed, even great criminals and humorists, as they are represented in literature, compel our interest by the narcissistic consistency with which they manage to keep away from their ego anything that would diminish it.

因为似乎显而易见地,另外一个人的自恋对于另外一个人具有强烈的吸引力,对于那些放弃他们自己的部分的自恋,并且正在寻找客体之爱的人们。小孩的魅力主要是在于他的自恋,他的自我-满足与无法接近。正如某些动物的魅力似乎关注的不是我们,譬如猫与大地猎食动物。的确,即使是可恶的罪犯与可爱的幽默大师,如同他们在文学里被代表。他们引起我们的興趣,由于自恋的一贯性。他们以这个自恋的一贯性,来避开会损害他们的自我的任何东西。

It is as if we envied them for maintaining a blissful state of mind—an unassailable libidinal position which we ourselves have since abandoned. The great charm of narcissistic women has, however, its reverse side; a large part of the lover’s dissatisfaction, of his doubts of the woman’s love, of his complaints of her enigmatic nature, has its root in this incongruity between the types of object-choice.

好像我们妒忌他们,因为他们维持一种幸福的心灵状态—一个无懈可击的力比多的立场,那是我们自己从此已经放弃的立场。可是,自恋的女人的强烈魅力也有它的不利的负面,恋人满足的一大部分,他对于女人的爱恋的怀疑的负面,他抱怨她的迷团一般的天性,都具有它的根源于这个不协调,这些客体-选择之间的不协调。

Perhaps it is not out of place here to give an assurance that this
description of the feminine form of erotic life is not due to any tendentious desire on my part to depreciate women. Apart from the fact that tendentiousness is quite alien to me, I know that these different lines of development correspond to the differentiation of functions in a highly
complicated biological whole; further, I am ready to admit that there are
quite a number of women who love according to the masculine type and
who also develop the sexual overvaluation proper to that type.

或许,在此这并非不适合,假如我们如此地确定:女性的性爱生活的描述,并不是由于我这边具有任何固执的欲望,想要贬低女人。除了这个事实:我的天性绝非固执。我知道,这些不同的发展的脉络,对应于各种功能的差异,在非常复杂的生物的整体。而且,我准备承认,有相当多的女人依照男性的类型恋爱,并且也发展那种类型对性的过分高估。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

论自恋 f2

October 20, 2014

论自恋 f
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

We see that, if we follow up this line of thought, we come up against
the problem not only of hypochondria, but of the other ‘actual’ neuroses— neurasthenia and anxiety neurosis. Let us therefore stop at this point. It is not within the scope of a purely psychological inquiry to penetrate so far behind the frontiers of physiological research. I will merely mention that from this point of view we may suspect that the relation of hypochondria to paraphrenia is similar to that of the other ‘actual’ neuroses to hysteria and obsessional neurosis: we may suspect, that is, that it is dependent on egolibido just as the others are on object-libido, and that hypochondriacal anxiety is the counterpart, as coming from ego-libido, to neurotic anxiety.

我们看见,假如我们遵循这个思想脉络,我们会遭遇不但是忧郁症的难题,而且也会遭遇另外一种「实际」的神经症—神经衰弱与焦虑神经症。让我们因此这一点适可而止。要如此深入地贯穿到心理学研究的边境背后,并不是纯粹心理学的研究的范围之内。我将仅是提到,从这个观点,我们可能怀孕,忧郁症跟神经衰弱的关系,类同于另外的「实际」神经症跟歇斯底里与妄想神经症的关系。也就是说,我们可能怀疑,忧郁症依靠自我-力比多,正如其他两种依靠客体力比多。因为它来自自我-力比多,忧郁症的焦虑就是神经症的焦虑。

Further, since we are already familiar with the idea that the mechanism of falling ill and of the formation of symptoms in the transference neuroses— the path from introversion to regression—is to be linked to a damming-up of object-libido,2 we may come to closer quarters with the idea of a damming-up of ego-libido as well and may bring this idea into relation with the phenomena of hypochondria and paraphrenia.

而且,因为我们已经熟悉这个观念:在移情神经症者,生病与病征的形成的心理机制,从内倾到退转的途径,应该更客体-力比多的阻塞息息相关。我们可能来到更加靠近的地区,也带着自我-力比多的阻塞的观念,并且将这个观念带进跟忧郁症与神经衰弱的现象的关系。

At this point, our curiosity will of course raise the question why this
damming-up of libido in the ego should have to be experienced as
unpleasurable. I shall content myself with the answer that unpleasure is
always the expression of a higher degree of tension, and that therefore
what is happening is that a quantity in the field of material events is being transformed here as elsewhere into the psychical quality of unpleasure.

在这点,我们的好奇心当然会提出这个问题:为什么自我的力比多的阻塞竟然必须被经验,作为是不快乐。我就满足于这个回答:不快乐总是表达更高程度的紧张。因此,正在发生的事情是,物质事件的领域,数量正在在此被转换,如同别的地方,被转换进入不快乐的心灵的品质。

Nevertheless it may be that what is decisive for the generation of
unpleasure is not the absolute magnitude of the material event, but rather some particular function of that absolute magnitude.1 Here we may even venture to touch on the question of what makes it necessary at all for our mental life to pass beyond the limits of narcissism and to attach the libido to objects.2 The answer which would follow from our line of thought would once more be that this necessity arises when the cathexis of the ego with libido exceeds a certain amount.

可是,可能,对于不快乐的产生,决定性的东西并不是物质事件的绝对幅度。在此,我们甚至冒险探索到这个问题:为什么我们的精神生命需要通过超越自恋的限制,并且将力比多跟各种客体联接一块。从我们思想脉络获得的回答再次是:当自我对力比多的投注超过某个数量,这个必要就会产生。

A strong egoism is a protection against falling ill, but in the last resort we must begin to love in order not to fall ill, and we are bound to fall ill if, in consequence of frustration, we are unable to love. This follows somewhat on the lines of Heine’s picture of the psychogenesis of the Creation:

强烈的自我主义就是保护不要生病。但是追根究底,我们必须开始爱,为了不要生病。假如由于挫折的结果,我们不能够爱。我们一定会生病。这跟海因描绘创世纪的心灵起源的画面的诗句不谋而合:

God is imagined as saying: ‘Illness was no doubt the final cause of the whole
urge to create. By creating, I could recover; by creating, I became healthy.’ Neue

上帝被想像这样说:「疾病无可置疑是整个创造渴望的原因。凭借创造,我能够恢复;凭借创造,我变成健康。」

We have recognized our mental apparatus as being first and foremost
a device designed for mastering excitations which would otherwise be felt as distressing or would have pathogenic effects. Working them over in the mind helps remarkably towards an internal draining away of excitations which are incapable of direct discharge outwards, or for which such a discharge is for the moment undesirable.

我们已经体认出我们的精神的仪器,作为首要是被设计来掌控各种興奋的仪器。否则,这些興奋将会被感觉是令人痛苦,或是会有产生病原的影响。在心灵里掌控这些興奋,显然有助于朝向从内部耗尽这些興奋。因为它们不能够直接朝外排泄,或是因为这些興奋,这样的排泄暂时不被渴望。

In the first instance, however, it is a matter of indifference whether this internal process of working-over is carried out upon real or imaginary objects. The difference does not appear till later—if the turning of the libido on to unreal objects (introversion) has led to its being dammed up. In paraphrenics, megalomania allows of a similar internal working-over of libido which has returned to the ego; perhaps it is only when the megalomania fails that the damming-up of libido in the ego becomes pathogenic and starts the process of recovery which gives us the impression of being a disease.

可是,在第一个情况,掌控的内部过程是否在真实或想像的客体被执行,并无关紧要。直到后来,差异才会出现—假如力比多转向非真实的客体(内倾),导致力比多被阻塞。在精神衰弱症,自大狂容许类似的回到自我的力比多的内部的掌控。或许,仅有当自大狂失败,自我的力比多的阻塞变成病因,然后开始恢复的过程,给予我们是生病的印象。

I shall try here to penetrate a little further into the mechanism of
paraphrenia and shall bring together those views which already seem to
me to deserve consideration. The difference between paraphrenic
affections and the transference neuroses appears to me to lie in the
circumstance that, in the former, the libido that is liberated by frustration
does not remain attached to objects in phantasy, but withdraws on to the
ego.

我将在此尝试更加深入地探索神经衰弱症的心理机制。并且将我觉得值得考虑到那些观点汇集一块。我认为,精神衰弱症的情感与移情神秘症似乎在于这个环境:在精神衰弱症,因为挫折而解放的力比多,并没有始终跟幻想的各种客体联接一块。而是退转到自我。

Megalomania would accordingly correspond to the psychical
mastering of this latter amount of libido, and would thus be the counterpart of the introversion on to phantasies that is found in the transference neuroses; a failure of this psychical function gives rise to the hypochondria of paraphrenia and this is homologous to the anxiety of the transference neuroses. We know that this anxiety can be resolved by further psychical working-over, i.e. by conversion, reaction-formation or the construction of protections (phobias).

自大狂因此对应于心灵的掌控力比多的这个后者的数量。并且因此会是内倾到幻想的类似物,在移情神经症身上被找到的内倾类似物。这种心灵功能的失败产生精神衰弱的忧郁症。这是类同于移情神经症的焦虑。我们知道,这种焦虑能够凭借更加深入的心灵的掌控来解决。譬如,凭借转换,反应的形成,或保护的建构(恐惧)。

The corresponding process in paraphrenics is an
attempt at restoration, to which the striking manifestations of the disease
are due. Since paraphrenia frequently, if not usually, brings about only a
partial detachment of the libido from objects, we can distinguish three
groups of phenomena in the clinical picture: (1) those representing what
remains of a normal state or of neurosis (residual phenomena); (2) those
representing the morbid process (detachment of libido from its objects and, further, megalomania, hypochondria, affective disturbance and every kind of regression); (3) those representing restoration, in which the libido is once more attached to objects, after the manner of a hysteria (in dementia praecox or paraphrenia proper), or of an obsessional neurosis (in paranoia).

精神衰弱症的对应的过程是一种想要恢复的企图。因为这种企图,就会有疾病的显明的展示。因为精神衰弱症经常,虽然不是通常,会导致力比多跟各种客体仅是部分的隔离。在临床的画面,我们能够区别三种的现象: 其一、那些代表正常状态或神经症的现象(残渣的现象);其二、那些代表病态过程的现象(力比多跟它的客体的隔离;而且,跟自大狂,忧郁症,情感困扰与每一种的退转);其三、那些代表恢复的现象,在那里,力比多再次跟各种客体联接一块,模仿歇斯底里症的方式(在早发精神病或精神衰弱的本体),或是妄想症神经症(在偏执狂)。

This fresh libidinal cathexis differs from the primary one in that it
starts from another level and under other conditions.1 The difference between the transference neuroses brought about in the case of this fresh kind of libidinal cathexis and the corresponding formations where the ego is normal should be able to afford us the deepest insight into the structure of our mental apparatus.

这个新鲜的力比多的投注不同于原初的力比多投注,因为它从另外一个层次开始,而且在其他的情况之下。在这个新鲜的力比多投注的情况产生的移情神经症,与正常自我的对应的形成之间的差异,应该能够供应给予我们最深刻的洞察,对于我们精神仪器的结构。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

弗洛依德论自恋f

October 20, 2014

论自恋f
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

– 81 –
II
Certain special difficulties seem to me to lie in the way of a direct study
of narcissism. Our chief means of access to it will probably remain the
analysis of the paraphrenias. Just as the transference neuroses have
enabled us to trace the libidinal instinctual impulses, so dementia praecox and paranoia will give us an insight into the psychology of the ego.

我觉得,某些特别的困难似乎就在于阻碍自恋的直接研究。我们主要的接近工具很可能始终是精神分裂症的分析。正如移情的神经症让我们能够追踪本能的冲动,所以早发性精神病与偏执狂将会给予我们洞察到自我心理学。

Once
more, in order to arrive at an understanding of what seems so simple in
normal phenomena, we shall have to turn to the field of pathology with its
distortions and exaggerations. At the same time, other means of approach remain open to us, by which we may obtain a better knowledge of narcissism.

再一次,为了获得理解,对于在正常现象似乎如此单纯的事情。我们将必须转向病理学的领域,以及它的扭曲与夸张。同时,其他的接近的工具始终开放给予我们。凭借这些工具,我们可能获得更加的理解对于自恋。

These I shall now discuss in the following order: the study of
organic disease, of hypochondria and of the erotic life of the sexes.
In estimating the influence of organic disease upon the distribution of
libido, I follow a suggestion made to me orally by Sándor Ferenczi. It is
universally known, and we take it as a matter of course, that a person who is tormented by organic pain and discomfort gives up his interest in the things of the external world, in so far as they do not concern his suffering.

我现在将按照以下的顺序讨论这些:器官疾病的研究,忧郁症的研究,两性的性爱生活的研究。当我们评估器官疾病对于力比多的分配的影响时,我遵循善德、费伦奇口头对我的建议。众所周知,我们将它视为理所当然,受到器官痛苦与不舒服的人们,会放弃他们对于外在世界的興趣,因为那些興趣跟他的痛苦没有关系。

Closer observation teaches us that he also withdraws libidinal interest from his love-objects: so long as he suffers, he ceases to love. The
commonplace nature of this fact is no reason why we should be deterred
from translating it into terms of the libido theory. We should then say: the
sick man withdraws his libidinal cathexes back upon his own ego, and
sends them out again when he recovers. ‘Concentrated is his soul’, says
Wilhelm Busch of the poet suffering from toothache, ‘in his molar’s narrow hole.’

更加仔细的观察教导我们,他也撤退力比多的興趣,从他的爱恋-客体:只要他遭受痛苦,他就不再爱恋。这个事实的共同特性,并不是我们应该被拖延,不能翻译它成为力比多理论的理由。我们因此应该说:病人撤退他的力比多的投注,回到他自己的自我,然后当他恢复时,再将它们送出去。遭受牙痛之苦的诗人威罕、布希说:「他的灵魂被专注于他的臼齿的狭窄的洞里。」

Here libido and ego-interest share the same fate and are once more
indistinguishable from each other. The familiar egoism of the sick person
covers both. We find it so natural because we are certain that in the same situation we should behave in just the same way. The way in which a lover’s feelings, however strong, are banished by bodily ailments, and suddenly replaced by complete indifference, is a theme which has been exploited by comic writers to an appropriate extent.

在此,力比多与自我-興趣分享相同的命运,并且再一次彼此之间更加无法区别。病人的熟悉的自我主义掩盖两者。我们发现它是如此自然,因为我们确定,假如在相同的情况,我们将会就是同样方式地行为。恋人的感觉,无论多么强烈,将会被身体的疼痛所驱除,而且突然被完全的冷漠所取代。这种方式就是嘲讽作家一直使用得淋漓尽致的主题。

The condition of sleep, too, resembles illness in implying a narcissistic
withdrawal of the positions of the libido on to the subject’s own self, or,
more precisely, on to the single wish to sleep. The egoism of dreams fits
very well into this context. [Cf. below, p. 223.] In both states we have, if
nothing else, examples of changes in the distribution of libido that are
consequent upon an alteration of the ego.

睡眠的情况也类似疾病,当睡眠暗示着自恋从力比多的立场,撤退到主体的自己的自性。或者,更加贴切地说,撤退到睡眠的单一愿望。梦的自我主义跟这个内外搭配得恰恰好。在两周状态,我们都拥有力比多的分配的改变的例子,即使没有别的。力比多的分配的改变是自我的替换的结果。

Hypochondria, like organic disease, manifests itself in distressing and
painful bodily sensations, and it has the same effect as organic disease on the distribution of libido. The hypochondriac withdraws both interest and libido—the latter specially markedly—from the objects of the external world and concentrates both of them upon the organ that is engaging his attention.

忧郁症,就像器官的疾病,展示它自己,在令人痛苦与疼痛的身体的感觉。它具有跟器官的疾病的相同的影响,在力比多的分配。忧郁症者撤退興趣与力比多—后者特别明显—从外在世界的客体撤退,并且将興趣与力比多专注于正在吸引他的注意力的器官。

A difference between hypochondria and organic disease now
becomes evident: in the latter, the distressing sensations are based upon demonstrable [organic] changes; in the former, this is not so. But it would be entirely in keeping with our general conception of the processes of neurosis if we decided to say that hypochondria must be right: organic changes must be supposed to be present in it, too.

忧郁症与器官疾病之间的差异,现在变得明显。在器官的疾病,令人痛苦的感觉以可展示的器官的改变作为基础。在忧郁症,情况并不是这样。但是它将会跟神经症的过程的我们一般的观念符合一致,假如我们决定说,忧郁症必须是正确的:器官的改变必须被认为也存在于忧郁症者那里。

But what could these changes be? We will let ourselves be guided at
this point by our experience, which shows that bodily sensations of an
unpleasurable nature, comparable to those of hypochondria, occur in the
other neuroses as well. I have said before that I am inclined to class
hypochondria with neurasthenia and anxiety-neurosis as a third ‘actual’
neurosis.1 It would probably not be going too far to suppose that in the
case of the other neuroses a small amount of hypochondria was regularly formed at the same time as well.

但是这些改变会是什么?这个时刻,我们将会让我们自己被引导,被我们精神分析经验引导。精神分析经验显示,不愉快的天性的身体的感觉,跟忧郁症者的身体的感觉比较起来,也会发生在其他的神经症者。我以前曾经说过,我倾向于将忧郁症分类,跟精神衰弱与焦虑神经症,分类为第三个「实际」的神经症。假如我们认为,这另外两者的神经症者,少量的忧郁症同时也规律地被形成,可能并不会是过分之词。

We have the best
example of this, I think, in anxiety neurosis with its superstructure of
hysteria. Now the familiar prototype of an organ that is painfully tender,
that is in some way changed and that is yet not diseased in the ordinary
sense, is the genital organ in its states of excitation. In that condition it
becomes congested with blood, swollen and humected, and is the seat of a multiplicity of sensations.

我们拥有这个的最佳例子。我认为,在焦虑的神经症,具有歇斯底里症的超级结构。现在,性器官在興奋斗状态,就是器官的耳熟能详的原型。这个器官如此令人痛苦地温柔,也就是,它在某方面改变,可是,从通常意义而言,它又不是疾病。在那种情况,这个器官充塞血液,膨胀,而且挺直。那是各种感觉多重性的位置。

Let us now, taking any part of the body,
describe its activity of sending sexually exciting stimuli to the mind as its
‘erotogenicity’, and let us further reflect that the considerations on which
our theory of sexuality was based have long accustomed us to the notion
that certain other parts of the body—the ‘erotogenic’ zones—may act as
substitutes for the genitals and behave analogously to them.1 We have
then only one more step to take. We can decide to regard erotogenicity as a general characteristic of all organs and may then speak of an increase or decrease of it in a particular part of the body. For every such change in the erotogenicity of the organs there might then be a parallel change of libidinal cathexis in the ego. Such factors would constitute what we believe to underlie hypochondria and what may have the same effect upon the distribution of libido as is produced by a material illness of the organs.

让我们现在,以身体的任何部分为例,描述它送出性的興奋刺激的活动到心灵里,作为它的「性的亢奋」。让我们更进一步反思一下:我们性的理论就是以这些考虑作为基础,这些考虑长久以来,让我们习惯于这个观念:身体的某些其他的部分—性感地带—可以充当性器官的替代品,并且跟性器官同样地行为。我们因此仅需再走一步。我们能够决定将性爱亢奋视为所有器官的一般特性,并且谈论到疾病的增加,在身体的特殊的部分。对于器官的性爱亢奋的每一个这样的改变,一定会有自我的力比多投注的对比的改变。这些因素将会组成我们相信作为忧郁症的基础,可能会有相同的影响,对于力比多的分配,依照那些器官的物质的疾病所产生。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

论自恋 d

October 19, 2014

论自恋 d
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

I try in general to keep psychology clear from everything that is different in nature from it, even biological lines of thought. For that very
reason I should like at this point expressly to admit that the hypothesis of
separate ego-instincts and sexual instincts (that is to say, the libido theory) rests scarcely at all upon a psychological basis, but derives its principal support from biology. But I shall be consistent enough [with my general rule] to drop this hypothesis if psycho-analytic work should itself produce some other, more serviceable hypothesis about the instincts.

通常,我尝试保持心理学的纯正,避开跟它性质不同的东西,即使是生物学的思想脉络。因为那个理由,我此时想要生动地承认:分开自我本能与性的本能的假设(换句话说,力比多理论),根本就不是依靠心理学的基础。而是从生物学获得它的主要的支持。但是,我将是足够一致(跟我平常一致),即使我抛开这个假设。假如精神分析的研究本身竟然产生某个其他,更加具有服役性质的假设,关于这些本能。

So far, this has not happened. It may turn out that, most basically and on the longest view, sexual energy—libido—is only the product of a differentiation in the energy at work generally in the mind. But such an assertion has no relevance. It relates to matters which are so remote from the problems of our observation, and of which we have so little cognizance, that it is as idle to dispute it as to affirm it; this primal identity may well have as little to do with our analytic interests as the primal kinship of all the races of mankind has to do with the proof of kinship required in order to establish a legal right of inheritance.

迄今,这个情况还没有发生。结果是,最基本而且从长远眼光来看,性的精力—力比多—仅是一般运作在心灵的精力的差异的产物。但是这样的主张,并不相干。它跟我们观察的难题如此遥远的物质相关。我们对于这个物质如此欠缺认识。争论它跟肯定它,同样都是白费之举。原初的认同很有可能跟我们精神分析的興趣几乎没有什么关联。如同原初的人类的所有种族的亲属关系,几乎没有什么关联,跟被要求的亲属的证据,为了建立继承的合法权利。

All these speculations take us nowhere. Since we
cannot wait for another science to present us with the final conclusions on the theory of the instincts, it is far more to the purpose that we should try to see what light may be thrown upon this basic problem of biology by a synthesis of the psychological phenomena.

所有这些推测并没有让我们有所进展。因为我们无法等待另外一门科学呈现给我们最后的结论,对于本能的理论。更加合乎我们的目标的是,我们应该尝试看出,凭借心理学现象的综合,对于生物学的难题,可能获得怎样的启蒙。

Let us face the possibility of error; but do not let us be deterred from pursuing the logical implications of the hypothesis we first adopted1 of an antithesis between ego-instincts and sexual instincts (a hypothesis to which we were forcibly led by analysis of the transference neuroses), and from seeing whether it turns out to be without contradictions and fruitful, and whether it can be applied to other disorders as well, such as schizophrenia.

让我们面对错误的可能,但是不是让我们被拖延,不去追寻我们首先採用的这个假设的逻辑的暗示,关于自我本能与性本能的对立的假设(移情神经症的精神分析强烈地引导我们回到这个假设),不去看出它结果是否有矛盾与成果,以及是否它也能够被运用于其他的疾病,譬如精神分裂症。)

It would, of course, be a different matter if it were proved that the libido
theory has already come to grief in the attempt to explain the latter
disease. This has been asserted by C. G. Jung (1912) and it is on that
account that I have been obliged to enter upon this last discussion, which I would gladly have been spared. I should have preferred to follow to its end the course embarked upon in the analysis of the Schreber case without any discussion of its premisses. But Jung’s assertion is- 79 –
to say the least of it, premature. The grounds he gives for it are scanty.

当然,情况将会不同,假如它被证明,力比多理论已经遭受困境,当它企图解释后者的疾病。荣格在(1912年)曾经这样主张。因为那个原因,我被迫要从事这个最后的讨论,我本来很乐意省免的讨论。我本来想要将许瑞伯个案的精神分析从事的途径遵循到底,而不去讨论它的假设。但是,荣格的主张是不足成熟的,保守地说。他给出证实它的理由是贫瘠的。

In the first place, he appeals to an admission of my own that I myself have been obliged, owing to the difficulties of the Schreber analysis, to extend the concept of libido (that is, to give up its sexual content) and to identify libido with psychical interest in general. Ferenczi (1913b), in an exhaustive criticism of Jung’s work, has already said all that is necessary in correction of this erroneous interpretation. I can only corroborate his criticism and repeat that I have never made any such retractation of the libido theory.

首先,他诉诸于我自己的承认:由于许瑞伯精神分析的诸多困难,我不得不将力比多的观念延伸,(也就是放弃性的内容),并且将力比多认同于心灵的一般興趣。费伦奇(1913)全面评判荣格的研究,已经道尽一切必要的东西,改正这个错误的解释。我仅是综合他的批判,重复强调,我从来没有对力比多理论从事如此的偏离。

Another argument of Jung’s, namely, that we cannot suppose that the
withdrawal of the libido is in itself enough to bring about the loss of the
normal function of reality,1 is no argument but a dictum. It ‘begs the
question’,2 and saves discussion; for whether and how this is possible was precisely the point that should have been under investigation. In his next major work, Jung (1913 [339-40]) just misses the solution I had long since indicated: ‘

荣格的另外一个主张,也就是,我们无法假设,力比多的撤退本身足够导致现实的正常的功能的丧失。这并不是主张,而且权威的宣称。它闪躲质疑,而避开讨论。因为这是否可能,与如何可能,确实就是本来应该接受调查的要点。在他的接续的主要著作,荣格(193-40)就是避开我长期指示的这个解决。

At the same time’, he writes, ‘there is this to be further taken
into consideration (a point to which, incidentally, Freud refers in his work
on the Schreber case [1911c])—that the introversion of the libido sexualis leads to a cathexis of the “ego”, and that it may possibly be this that produces the result of a loss of reality. It is indeed a tempting possibility to explain the psychology of the loss of reality in this fashion.’

他写道:「同时,这个东西应该该进一步被考虑(意外地,弗洛依德在他的论许瑞伯个案里(1911c)提到这一点—性的力比多的内倾导致「自我」的投注。很可能就是自我的投注,产生现实的丧失的结果。这确实是诱惑人的可能,以这种方式解释现实的丧失的心理学。

But Jung does not enter much further into a discussion of this possibility. A few lines3 later he dismisses it with the remark that this determinant ‘would result in the psychology of an ascetic anchorite, not in a dementia praecox’.

但是荣格并没有更加深入讨论这个可能。稍后的几行,他排斥它,用这个评论:这个决定因素将会造成禁欲隐士的心理学,而不是精神病患的心理学。

How little this inapt analogy can help us to decide the question may be learnt from the consideration that an anchorite of this kind, who ‘tries to eradicate every trace of sexual interest’ (but only in the popular sense of the word ‘sexual’), does not even necessarily display any pathogenic allocation of the libido.

这个低俗的类比对于我们要决定这个问题,并无多大帮助,我们可能从这个考虑可以获知:这类的隐士尝试抹除性的興趣的痕迹,(但是仅是「性」这个字词的通俗意义而言),他们甚至没有必要展示力比多的病因的分配。

He may have diverted his sexual interest from human beings
entirely, and yet may have sublimated it into a heightened interest in the
divine, in nature, or in the animal kingdom, without his libido having
undergone an introversion on to his phantasies or a return to
his ego. This analogy would seem to rule out in advance the possibility of
differentiating between interest emanating from erotic sources and from
others.

他可能将他的性的興趣,从人类那里完全转移,并且可能将它升华进入神性的强烈的興趣。在自然界,或在动物界,他的力比多并没有经历内倾到他的幻想,或回到他的自我。这种类比似乎事先排除这种差异的可能,区别从性爱资源发出的興趣,与从其他资源发出的興趣的差异。

Let us remember, further, that the researches of the Swiss school, however valuable, have elucidated only two features in the picture of
dementia praecox—the presence in it of complexes known to us both in
healthy and neurotic subjects, and the similarity of the phantasies that
occur in it to popular myths—but that they have not been able to throw any further light on the mechanism of the disease. We may repudiate Jung’s assertion, then, that the libido theory has come to grief in the attempt to explain dementia praecox, and that it is therefore disposed of for the other neuroses as well.

而且,让我们记住,瑞士学派的研究,无论多么有价值,仅是阐释两个特征,在早发性精神病的画面—在健康与神经症的主体身上,众所周知的各种情结存在它那里;以及在它那里跟发生于通俗神话的幻想的类似。但是对于这个疾病的心理机制,他们己经没有进一步的启蒙。因此,我们可能排斥荣格的主张:力比多的理论已经遭受挫折,当它企图解释早发性精神病,以及作为其他的神经症,力比多理论因此也被排除。

雄伯译
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