梦的特质 2

梦的特质 2
The Nature of Dreams

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

The dream is a fragment of involuntary psychic activity,
just conscious enough to be reproducible in the waking state. Of
all psychic phenomena the dream presents perhaps the largest
number of “irrational” factors.

梦是不自主的心灵活动,在清醒状态,仅是足够意识到可复制。在所有的心灵现象当中,梦呈现或许是最大数量的「非理性」的因素。

It seems to possess a minimum of
that logical coherence and that hierarchy of values shown by the
other contents of consciousness, and is therefore less transparent
and understandable. Dreams that form logically, morally, or
aesthetically satisfying wholes are exceptional.

梦似乎拥有最小量的那种逻辑一贯性,根据意识的其他内容显示的价值的阶层,因此比较不那么透明而能够被理解。逻辑上,道德上,或美学上形成的令人满意的整体的梦,是个例外。

Usually a dream is
a strange and disconcerting product distinguished by many “bad
qualities,” such as lack of logic, questionable morality, uncouth
form, and apparent absurdity or nonsense. People are therefore
only too glad to dismiss it as stupid, meaningless, and worthless.

通常梦是奇怪而令困窘的产物,由于有许多「坏的特质」,譬如,欠缺逻辑,可质疑的道德,粗糙的形式,明显的荒谬或无意义。人们因此非常乐意排斥它,作为愚笨,无意义,与没有价值。

Every interpretation of a dream is a psychological
statement about certain of its contents.

对于梦的每个解释是心理的陈述,关于某些它的内容。

This is not without
danger, as the dreamer, like most people, usually displays an
astonishing sensitiveness to critical remarks, not only if they are
wrong, but even more if they are right.

这并非没有危险,因为作梦者,像大部分人们一样,通常展示令人惊奇的敏感,对于批评的评论。不但是假如他们犯错误,而且即使他们是对的,他们更加是错误。

Since it is not possible,
except under very special conditions, to work out the meaning
of a dream without the collaboration of the dreamer, an
extraordinary amount of tact is required not to violate his self respect
unnecessarily.

因为除了在特殊的情况之下,每当我们解释梦的意义,我们总是需要作梦者的合作,才有可能。这需要特殊数量的技巧,才不会没有必要地违背他的自尊心。

For instance, what is one to say when a
patient tells a number of indecent dreams and then asks:
“Why should I have such disgusting dreams?”

譬如,当一个病人说出许多不正当的梦,然后问:「为什么我竟然会有如此令人讨厌的梦?」

To this sort of
question it is better to give no answer, since an answer is
difficult for several reasons, especially for the beginner, and
one is very apt under such circumstances to say something
clumsy, above all when one thinks one knows what the answer
is.

对于这个问题,我们最好不要回答。因为回答有好几个理由是困难的,特别是对于刚开始的人。在这些情况下,我们很容易说出某件笨拙的东西。尤其是,我们认为我们知道那个回答是什么。

It is so difficult to understand a dream that for a long time I
have made it a rule, when someone tells me a dream and asks
for my opinion, to say first of all to myself: “I have no idea
what this dream means.” After that I can begin to examine the
dream.

要理解一个梦是如此困难,以致于长久以来,我已经养成习惯。当某个人告诉我一个梦,并且寻求我的意见,我首先会对自己说:「我不知道这个梦是什么意思。」毕竟,我能够开始检视这个梦。

Here the reader will certainly ask: “Is it worth while in
any individual case to look for the meaning of a dream—
supposing that dreams have any meaning at all and that this
meaning can be proved?”

在此,读者将确实会问:「这是值得的吗?在个人身上,寻求梦的意义—假定梦拥有任何的意义,并且这个意义能够被证实。」

It is easy to prove that an animal is a vertebrate by
laying bare the spine. But how does one proceed to lay bare
the inner, meaningful structure of a dream? Apparently the
dream follows no clearly determined patterns or regular modes
of behavior, apart from well-known “typical” dreams, such as
nightmares.

我们很容易证明,动物是脊椎动物,由于脊椎显露出来。但是我们如何继续下去,将梦的内部,有意义的结构显露出来?显而易见地,梦并没有遵循清楚决定的模式或规律的行为模式,除了那些著名的「典型」的梦,譬如,梦魇。

Anxiety dreams are not unusual but they are by
no means the rule. Also there are typical dream-motifs known
to the layman, such as of flying, climbing stairs or mountains,
going about with insufficient clothing, losing your teeth,
crowds of people, hotels, railway stations, trains, airplanes,
automobiles, frightening animals (snakes), etc. These motifs
are very common but by no means sufficient to confirm the
existence of any regularity in the structure of a dream.

焦虑的梦并不寻常,但是他们绝非是常规。而且,外行人也知道一些典型的梦的母题,譬如,飞行,爬楼梯,或爬山,衣服不整地到处走动,掉落牙齿,一群人们,旅馆,火车站,火车,飞机,汽车,令人害怕的动物(蛇),等等。这些母题非常普遍,但是绝对不足够来证实梦的结构的任何规律的存在。

Some people have recurrent dreams. This happens
particularly in youth, but the recurrence may continue over
several decades. These are often very impressive dreams which
convince one that they “must surely have a meaning.”

有些人们拥有重复的梦。这特别发生在年轻人身上。但是梦的重复可能继续好几十年。这些梦经常非常生动,让我们相信,它们「一定确实拥有意义」。

This feeling is justified in so far as one cannot, even taking the most
cautious view, avoid the assumption that a definite psychic
situation does arise from time to time which causes the dream.

这种感觉是合理的,因为即使是最谨慎的观点,我们也无法避免这个假设:明确的心灵的情况确实起源于引起梦的不同时间。

But a “psychic situation” is something that, if it can be
formulated, is identical with a definite meaning—provided, of
course, that one does not stubbornly hold to the hypothesis
(certainly not proven) that all dreams can be traced back to
stomach trouble or sleeping on one’s back or the like. Such
dreams do indeed suggest that their contents have a causal
meaning. The same is true of so-called typical motifs which
repeat themselves frequently in longer series of dreams. Here
again it is hard to escape the impression that they mean
something.

但是「心灵的情况」是某件等同于明清意义的东西,假如它能够被说明的话—当然,只要一个人没有顽固地坚持这个假设(确实没有经过证明的假设):所有的梦都能够被追溯到胃的病痛或俯卧睡觉,等等。这些梦确实暗示:它们的内容具有因果的意义。就所谓的典型的母题而言,情况也是一样。这些典型的母题经常重复在一长连串的梦里。在此,我们很难逃避这个印象:它们具有某个意义。

But how do we arrive at a plausible meaning and how
can we confirm the rightness of the interpretation? One
method—which, however, is not scientific—would be to predict
future happenings from the dreams by means of a dream-book
and to verify the interpretation by subsequent events assuming
of course that the meaning of dreams lies in their anticipation of
the future.

但是,我们如何能够获得一个似乎合理的意义,我们如何能够证实解释的正确?有一个方法—可是,并非科学的方法—将可以根据梦预测未来发生的事,凭借解梦的书。并且验证解释,凭借随后的事件。当然,他们假设梦的意义就在于他们对未来的预测。

Another way to get at the meaning of the dream directly
might be to turn to the past and reconstruct former experiences
from the occurrence of certain motifs in the dreams. While this
is possible to a limited extent, it would have a decisive value only
if we could discover in this way something which, though it had
actually taken place, had remained unconscious to the dreamer
or at any rate something he would not like to divulge under any
circumstances.

直接获得梦的另外一个方法,可能就是转向过去,并且重构以前的经验,根据梦里的某些母题的发生。虽然在某个程度上,这是可能的,只有当我们能够以这种方式发现某件作梦者始终是无意识的东西,而它确实曾经发生,它才具有决定性的价值。或为他发现某件无论在任何情况下,他都不想要揭露的事情。

If neither is the case, then we are dealing simply
with memory-images whose appearance in the dream is (a) not
denied by anyone, and (b) completely irrelevant so far as a
meaningful dream function is concerned, since the dreamer
could just as well have supplied the information consciously.
This unfortunately exhausts the possible ways of proving the
meaning of a dream directly.

假如都不是这个情况,那么我们仅是在处理记忆-意象。它们在梦里的外表并没有被任何人否认,并且完全没有关联,因为就有意义的梦的功能而言,既然作梦者很有可能有意识地供应这个资讯。不幸地,这并没有穷尽各种可能直接证明梦的方式。

It is Freud’s great achievement to have put dream interpretation
on the right track. Above all, he recognized that
no interpretation can be undertaken without the dreamer. The
words composing a dream narrative have not just one meaning,
but many meanings.

这是弗洛依德的伟大成就,将梦的解析导引进入正确的轨道。尤其重要的是,他体认出:假如没有作梦者,梦的解析无法进行。组成梦的叙述的文字不仅有一个意义,而且拥有许多意义。

If, for instance, someone dreams of a table
we are still far from knowing what the “table” of the dreamer
signifies, although the word “table” sounds unambiguous
enough. For the thing we do not know is that this “table” is the
very one at which his father sat when he refused the dreamer all
further financial help and threw him out of the house as a good for-
nothing.

譬如,假如某个人梦见桌子,我们依旧无法知道作梦者的「桌子」意味着什么。虽然「桌子」这个字词听起来足够暧昧。我们并不知道的东西是,这个「桌子」就是他的父亲坐的桌子,当他拒绝作梦者一切财政方法的帮助,将他从屋里抛出,当作没有用的人。

The polished surface of this table stares at him as a
symbol of his catastrophic worthlessness in his daytime
consciousness as well as in his dreams at night. This is what our
dreamer understands by “table.”

这张桌子的亮丽的外表瞪视他,作为他灾难的没有价值的象征,在白天的意识里,以及在夜晚的梦里。这就是我们的作梦者理解的「桌子」。

Therefore we need the
dreamer’s help in order to limit the multiple meanings of the
words to those that are essential and convincing. That the “table”
stands as a mortifying landmark in the dreamer’s life may be
doubted by anyone who was not present. But the dreamer does
not doubt it, nor do I. Clearly, dream-interpretation is in the
first place an experience which has immediate validity for only
two persons.

因此,我们需要作梦者的帮助,为了将文字的多重意义,限制于那些基本而令人信服的东西。「桌子」作为作梦者的生平里令人羞辱的标志,可能会被怀疑,对于任何不在现场的人。但是作梦者并没有怀疑它,我也没有怀疑。显而易见,梦的解析首先就是具有当下正确性的经验,仅是对两个人而言。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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