论自恋 l

论自恋 l
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

Further, it is easy to observe that libidinal object-cathexis does not
raise self-regard. The effect of dependence upon the loved object is to
lower that feeling: a person in love is humble. A person who loves has, so to speak, forfeited a part of his narcissism, and it can only be replaced by his being loved. In all these respects self-regard seems to remain related to the narcissistic element in love.

而且,我们很容易观察到,力比多的客体-投注并没有引起自我-关注。依靠被爱恋的客体的影响,会降低那种感觉,一位恋爱中的人是谦卑的。一位恋爱中的人,可以说是伪装一种自恋。尽凭借着他被爱恋而被取代。在所有的这些层面,自我-关注似乎跟恋爱中的自恋因素始终息息相关。

The realization of impotence, of one’s own inability to love, in
consequence of mental or physical disorder, has an exceedingly lowering effect upon self-regard. Here, in my judgement, we must look for one of the sources of the feelings of inferiority which are experienced by patients suffering from the transference neuroses and which they are so ready to report.

无能为力的体会,自己没有能够恋爱,由于精神或生理疾病的结果,具有特别降低的影响,对于自我-关注。在此,依我判断,我们必须寻找一个自卑感觉的资源。这些感觉被病人经验,他们遭受移情神经症的痛苦,他们准备要报答这个自卑的感觉。

The main source of these feelings is, however, the impoverishment of the ego, due to the extraordinarily large libidinal cathexes which have been withdrawn from it—due, that is to say, to the injury sustained by the ego through sexual trends which are no longer subject to
control.

可是,这些感觉到主要来源,是自我的贫瘠,由于特殊大量的力比多的投注,从它那里被撤回。换句话说,由于自我所维持的伤害,通过不再隶属于控制的性的倾向。

Adler [1907] is right in maintaining that when a person with an active
mental life recognizes an inferiority in one of his organs, it acts as a spur
and calls out a higher level of performance in him through
overcompensation. But it would be altogether an exaggeration if, following Adler’s example, we sought to attribute every successful achievement to this factor of an original inferiority of an organ. Not all artists are handicapped with bad eyesight, nor were all orators originally stammerers.

阿德勒是正确的,当他主张,当一个拥有主动精神生活的人,体会出他的一个器官的自卑,它行动作为一种激励,并且召唤出他身上更高的表现,通过过度的补偿。但是那将会完全是一种夸张,假如当我们遵循阿德勒的例子,我们尝试将每个成功的成就,归功于器官的原初的自卑感的因素。并不是所有的艺术家都是因为眼力不佳的阻碍,也并不是所有的演说家原初都是口给。

And there are plenty of instances of excellent achievements springing from superior organic endowment. In the aetiology of neuroses organic
inferiority and imperfect development play an insignificant part—much the same as that played by currently active perceptual material in the formation of dreams.

还有很多优秀成就的例子,是起源于优秀的器官的秉赋。在神经症的病因学,器官的自卑与不完美的发展,扮演微不足道的角色。跟梦的形成,目前活跃的感觉的材料,扮演的角色差不多。

Neuroses make use of such inferiorities as a pretext, just as they do of every other suitable factor. We may be tempted to believe a neurotic woman patient when she tells us that it was inevitable she should fall ill, since she is ugly, deformed or lacking in charm, so that no one could love her; but the very next neurotic will teach us better—for she persists in her neurosis and in her aversion to sexuality, although she seems more desirable, and is more desired, than the average woman.

神经症利用这些自卑感,作为藉口。正如他们利用每个其他适当的因素作为藉口。我们可能被引诱去相信,一位神经症的女病人,当她告诉我们,她无可避免地会生病,因为她长得丑,畸形,欠缺魅力。所以,没有人会爱上她。但是另外一位神经症可能更加教导我们—因为她坚持她的神经症,与她对性的厌恶。虽然她似乎更加具有魅力,并且更加被欲望,比起普通的女人。

The majority of
hysterical women are among the attractive and even beautiful
representatives of their sex, while, on the other hand, the frequency of
ugliness, organic defects and infirmities in the lower classes of society
does not increase the incidence of neurotic illness among them.

大多数的歇斯底里症都是她们性别的具有魅力与美丽的代表。另一方面,在下阶层的社会,丑陋,有机缺点与弱者的频率,并没有增加神经症在他们身上发作的意外。

The relations of self-regard to erotism—that is, to libidinal objectcathexes— may be expressed concisely in the following way. Two cases must be distinguished, according to whether the erotic cathexes are egosyntonic, or, on the contrary, have suffered repression. In the former case (where the use made of the libido is ego-syntonic), love is assessed like any other activity of the ego. Loving in itself, in so far as it involves longing and deprivation, lowers self-regard; whereas being loved, having one’s love returned, and possessing the loved object, raises it once more.

自我-关注跟爱欲的关系—换句话说,跟力比多的客体-投注的关系—可能以下面的方式明确地表达。两个个案必须被区别,依照爱欲的投注是自我-协调,或是相反地,遭受到压抑。在前者,(力比多的利用是自我-协调),爱被评估,就像自我的任何其他行动。恋爱的自身,因为它牵涉渴望与丧失,会降低自我-关注。而被爱,由于让自己的爱被回报,与拥有被爱的客体,会再次提升自我-关注。

When libido is repressed, the erotic cathexis is felt as a severe depletion of the ego, the satisfaction of love is impossible, and the re-enrichment of the ego can be effected only by a withdrawal of libido from its objects.

当力比多被压抑,爱欲的投注被感觉,作为是严重的自我的废除,爱的满足是不可能的。自我的重新-充实,仅有凭借从它的客体撤退力比多,才能够被形成。

The return of the object-libido to the
ego and its transformation into narcissism represents,1 as it were, a happy love once more; and, on the other hand, it is also true that a real happy love corresponds to the primal condition in which object-libido and egolibido cannot be distinguished.

客体-力比多的回到自我,与其转变成为自恋,可以说,代表再次快乐的恋爱。另一方面,同样确实的是,真正快乐的恋爱对应于原初的情况,客体-力比多与自我-力比多,在那里无法被区别.

The importance and extensiveness of the topic must be my justification
for adding a few more remarks which are somewhat loosely strung
together.

因为这个议题的重要性与广泛,我才有理由增添更多的评论,虽然这些评论相当松散串在一块。

The development of the ego consists in a departure from primary
narcissism and gives rise to a vigorous attempt to recover that state.

自我的发现在于脱离原初的自恋,并且产生热烈的企图,想要恢复那个状态。

This departure is brought about by means of the displacement of libido on to an ego ideal imposed from without; and satisfaction is brought about from fulfilling this ideal.

这种脱离被形成,凭借力比多的替换到由外部赋加的自我-理想。满足被形成,则是由于满足这个理想。

At the same time the ego has sent out the libidinal object-cathexes. It
becomes impoverished in favour of these cathexes, just as it does in
favour of the ego ideal, and it enriches itself once more from its
satisfactions in respect of the object, just as it does by fulfilling its ideal.
One part of self-regard is primary—the residue of infantile narcissism;
another part arises out of the omnipotence which is corroborated by
experience (the fulfilment of the ego ideal), whilst a third part proceeds
from the satisfaction of object-libido.

同时,自我已经送出力比多-投注。它因为偏爱这些投注而成为贫瘠。正如它偏爱自我-理想而变得贫济。它再次充实它自己,则是从它对于客体的方面的满足。正如它满足它的理想,而获得满足。其中一部分的自我关注是原初—婴孩自恋的残渣。另外一个部分则是起源于经验合作的无所不能(自我-理想的满足)。第三个部分则是从客体-力比多的满足继续下去。

The ego ideal has imposed severe conditions upon the satisfaction of
libido through objects; for it causes some of them to be rejected by means of its censor,2 as being incompatible. Where no such ideal has been formed, the sexual trend in question makes its appearance unchanged in the personality in the form of a perversion. To be their own ideal once more, in regard to sexual no less than other trends, as they were in childhood—this is what people strive to attain as their happiness.

通过客体,自我-理想曾经赋加严重的情况在力比多的满足。因为它引起它们被排斥,凭借它的检查,作为是不相和谐的。在没有这样的理想被形成的地方,受到质疑的性的倾向没有改变地出现在人格里,以变态的方式。再次成为他们自己的理想,关于性跟其他的倾向,如同他们在童年时—这是人们奋斗要保留,作为他们的快乐的东西。

Being in love consists in a flowing-over of ego-libido on to the object. It
has the power to remove repressions and re-instate perversions. It exalts the sexual object into a sexual ideal. Since, with the object type (or attachment type), being in love occurs in virtue of the fulfilment of infantile conditions for loving, we may say that
whatever fulfils that condition is idealized.

处于恋爱当中,在于自我-力比多的流露出到客体那里.它拥有这个力量,将压抑移除,并且重新开启变态。它将性的客体提升到性的理想。用这种客体类型(依附类型),恋爱发生,由于爱的婴孩状态的满足。我们可以说,满足那个情况的东西,都被理性化。

The sexual ideal may enter into an interesting auxiliary relation to the
ego ideal. It may be used for substitutive satisfaction where narcissistic
satisfaction encounters real hindrances. In that case a person will love in
conformity with the narcissistic type of object-choice, will love what he once was and no longer is, or else what possesses the excellences which he never had at all (cf. (c) [p. 90]).

性的理想可能进入跟自我-理想的有趣的辅助的关系。它可能被用来作为替换的满足。在那里,自恋的满足遭遇真实的阻碍。在那个情况,一个人将会爱,依照客体-选择的自恋的型态。他将会爱上他以前曾有而现在不再存在的样子,或是,他拥有他根本就不曾有过的优秀的东西。

The formula parallel to the one there stated runs thus: what possesses the excellence which the ego lacks for making it an ideal, is loved. This expedient is of special importance for the neurotic, who, on account of his excessive object-cathexes, is impoverished in his
ego and is incapable of fulfilling his ego ideal.

跟那里的这个公式并列的公司这样陈述著:拥有这个优秀的东西,自我所欠缺的优秀,为了让它成为理想,这个东西被爱。对于神经症,这个权宜之计非常重要。因为他过分的客体-投注,神经症者在他的自我变得贫济,并且不能够满足他的自我理想。

He then seeks a way back to narcissism from his prodigal expenditure of libido upon objects, by choosing a sexual ideal after the narcissistic type which possesses the excellences to which he cannot attain. This is the cure by love, which he generally prefers to cure by analysis. Indeed, he cannot believe in any other mechanism of cure; he usually brings expectations of this sort with him to the treatment and directs them towards the person of the physician.

他因此寻求一种方法回到自恋,从他浪子般花费力比多在客体上面。凭借选择一个性的理想,遵照自恋的型态,拥有他无法获得的优秀。这就是凭借爱的治疗。他通常宁可凭借精神分析治疗。的确,他无法相信任何其他的治疗的机制。他通常将这种的花费带到治疗,并且引导它们朝向医生这个人。

The patient’s incapacity for love, resulting from his extensive repressions, naturally stands in the way of a therapeutic plan of this kind. An unintended result is often met with when, by means of the treatment, he has been partially freed from his repressions: he withdraws from further treatment in order to choose a love-object, leaving his cure to be continued by a life with someone he loves. We might be satisfied with this result, if it did not bring with it all the dangers of a crippling dependence upon his helper in need.

病人没有能够恋爱,因为广泛的压抑所造成,当然是阻碍这种的治疗的计划。凭借治疗,病人部分地从他的压抑中解放出来,经常会造成出乎意料的结果。他从更进一步的治疗撤退,为了选择爱的客体,留下他的治疗被继续,由于更他所爱的某人的一生。我们可能会满足这种结果,假如它没有随之带来这个危险:瘫痪地依靠他需要的帮助者。

The ego ideal opens up an important avenue for the understanding of
group psychology. In addition to its individual side, this ideal has a social
side; it is also the common ideal of a family, a class or a nation. It binds not only a person’s narcissistic libido, but also a considerable amount of his homosexual libido,1 which is in this way turned back into the ego. The want of satisfaction which arises from the non-fulfilment of this ideal
liberates homosexual libido, and this is transformed into a sense of guilt
(social anxiety).

自我-理想展开一个重要的管道,让我们理解群体心理学。除了它的个人的层面外,这个理想拥有社会的层面。它也是家庭,阶级与国家的共同理想。它不但连接一个人的自恋力比多,而且连接相当数量的同性恋力比多。以这种方式,它被回转到自我。因为这的理想的非-满足而产生的满足的需求,会解放同性恋的力比多。这个同性恋的力比多被转变成为一种罪恶感(社会的焦虑)。

Originally this sense of guilt was a fear of punishment by
the parents, or, more correctly, the fear of losing their love; later the
parents are replaced by an indefinite number of fellow-men. The frequent causation of paranoia by an injury to the ego, by a frustration of
satisfaction within the sphere of the ego ideal, is thus made more
intelligible, as is the convergence of ideal-formation and sublimation in the ego ideal, as well as the involution of sublimations and the possible
transformation of ideals in paraphrenic disorders.

原初,这种罪恶感是恐惧被父母处罚。或者,更加正确地说,恐惧丧失他们的爱,后来父母被无数的其他同伴所取代。对于自我的伤害不断地引起妄想症,因此就变得更加可理解,如同理想-形成与自我-理想的升华的汇集,以及升华的内转,与在精神分裂症的疾病,理想的可能的转变。

雄伯译
32hsing@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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