论自恋 j

论自恋 j
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

It would not surprise us if we were to find a special psychical agency
which performs the task of seeing that narcissistic satisfaction from the ego ideal is ensured and which, with this end in view, constantly watches the actual ego and measures it by that ideal.2 If such an agency does exist, we cannot possibly come upon it as a discovery—we can only recognize it; for we may reflect that what we call our ‘conscience’ has the required characteristics. Recognition of this agency enables us to understand the so-called ‘delusions of being noticed’ or more correctly, of being watched3, which are such striking symptoms in the paranoid diseases and which may also occur as an isolated form of illness, or intercalated in a transference neurosis.

我们将不会感到惊奇,万一我们发现特别的心灵的代理,执行这个工作:负责从自我理想获得的自我满足被保证,而且宏观这个目的,观看实际的自我,并且凭借那个理想测量它。假如这样的代理确实存在,我们不可能遭遇它作为一种发泄—我们仅能够体认它,因为我们反思,我们所谓的「良心」拥有所需要的特性。对于这个代理的体认让我们能够理解所谓的「受让注意的幻觉」,或更正确地说,被人观看的幻觉。它们是如此明显的病征,在偏执狂的疾病上,并且可能发生作为孤立的疾病的形式,或是被增添到移情的神经症。

Patients of this sort complain that all their thoughts are known
and their actions watched and supervised; they are informed of the
functioning of this agency by voices which characteristically speak to them in the third person (‘Now she’s thinking of that again’, ‘now he’s going out’).

这类的病人抱怨,所有他们的思想被人知道,所有他们的行动被观看与被监督。他们被告知这个代理的功能,用第三人称对他们言说的特有的那些声音(「现在,她正再次想到那件事」,「现在,他正在出去」。)

This complaint is justified; it describes the truth. A power of this kind,
watching, discovering and criticizing all our intentions, does really exist.
Indeed, it exists in every one of us in normal life.

这个抱怨是合理的。它描述真相。这种的权力,观看,发现并批评我们所有的意图,它确实存在。的确,它存在于正常生活的我们每个人身上。

Delusions of being watched present this power in a regressive form,
thus revealing its genesis and the reason why the patient is in revolt
against it. For what prompted the subject to form an ego ideal, on whose
behalf his conscience acts as watchman, arose from the critical influence of his parents (conveyed to him by the medium of the voice), to whom were added, as time went on, those who trained and taught him and the innumerable and indefinable host of all the other people in his environment —his fellow-men—and public opinion.

被观看的幻觉以退行的形式呈现这个权力,因此揭示它的代理与为什么病人反叛它的理由。因为触发主体形成自我理想的东西,他的良心代表他充当观看者,起源于他的病人的批评的影响(由声音的媒介传递给他)。随着时间过去,被增添到他身上是是那些训练与教导他的人们,以及在他的环境里,无数无法定义的所有的其他的人们—他的同胞—公共舆论。

In this way large amounts of libido of an essentially homosexual kind
are drawn into the formation of the narcissistic ego ideal and find outlet
and satisfaction in maintaining it. The institution of conscience was at
bottom an embodiment, first of parental criticism, and subsequently of that of society—a process which is repeated in what takes place when a
tendency towards repression develops out of a prohibition or obstacle that came in the first instance from without.

以这种方式,基本上是同性恋的大量的力比多,被吸收到自恋的自我理想的形成,然后找到发泄与满足,当维持它时。良心的体制追根究底,首先是父母批评的化身,随后是社会的化身—这一个过程被重复,在所发生的事情,当朝向退行的倾向,从第一个情况自外面而来的禁忌与阻碍里发展出来。

The voices, as well as the undefined multitude, are brought into the foreground again by the disease, and so the evolution of conscience is reproduced regressively. But the revolt against this ‘censoring agency’ arises out of the subject’s desire (in accordance with the fundamental character of his illness) to liberate himself from all these influences, beginning with the parental one, and out of his withdrawal of homosexual libido from them. His conscience then confronts him in a regressive form as a hostile influence from without.

这些声音,以及没有被定义的众多声音,再次由疾病带入前景。所以,良心的进化被退行地复制。但是对于这个「审查代理」的反叛,起源于主体欲望(遵循他的疾病的基本特性),为了解放他自己,从所有这些影响,开始于父母的影响,从他们那里撤退的同性恋的力比多。他的良心因此以退行的形式面对他们,作为是从外部的敌意的影响。

The complaints made by paranoics also show that at bottom the self criticism of conscience coincides with the self-observation on which it is
based. Thus the activity of the mind which has taken over the function of
conscience has also placed itself at the service of internal research, which furnishes philosophy with the material for its intellectual operations.

由偏执狂所做的抱怨也显示,追根究底,良心的自我批评巧合于作为它的基础的自我-观察。因此,心灵的活动已经接管良心的功能,也将它自己放置在对内部研究的服役。这个内部的研究供应哲学,作为知识运作的材料。

This may have some bearing on the characteristic tendency of paranoics to construct speculative systems.1

这可能跟偏执狂的特有的倾向有些关系,为了建设思维的系统。

It will certainly be of importance to us if evidence of the activity of this critically observing agency—which becomes heightened into conscience and philosophic introspection—can be found in other fields as well. I will mention here what Herbert Silberer has called the ‘functional phenomenon’, one of the few indisputably valuable additions to the theory of dreams.

对于我们,这确实非常重要,假如这个关键的观察的代理的活动的证据,被强化成为良心与哲学的内省。它们在其他领域也能够被找到。我将在此提到赫伯特 西贝瑞所谓的「功能的现象」,对于梦到理论,是一篇价值连城的增添。

Silberer, as we know, has shown that in states between
sleeping and waking we can directly observe the translation of thoughts
into visual images, but that in these circumstances we frequently have a
representation, not of a thought-content, but of the actual state
(willingness, fatigue, etc.) of the person who is struggling against sleep.

据我们所知,西贝瑞曾经揭示:在睡眠与清醒之间的状态,我们能够直接地观察思想被翻译成为视觉的意像,而且在那些情况,我们经常拥有正在睡眠奋斗的人的再现,不是思想-内容的再现,而是实际的状态(意志,疲倦,等等的再现。

Similarly, he has shown that the conclusions of some dreams or some
divisions in their content merely signify the dreamer’s own perception of his sleeping and waking. Silberer has thus demonstrated the part played by observation—in the sense of the paranoic’s delusions of being watched— in the formation of dreams. This part is not a constant one.

同样地,他曾经揭示:某些梦或某些梦的内容的区分的结论,仅是意味着作梦者自己睡眠与清醒时的知觉。西贝瑞因此证明观察扮演的这个角色—从偏执狂被观看的幻觉的意义而言—在梦的形成。这个角色并不是经常的角色。

Probably the reason why I overlooked it is because it does not play any great part in my own dreams; in persons who are gifted philosophically and accustomed to introspection it may become very evident.1

可是,为什么我忽略它的理由,是因为它在我自己的梦里,并没有扮演任何重大的角色。在那些具有哲学秉赋而且习惯于内省的人们,它就变得很明显。

We may here recall that we have found that the formation of dreams
takes place under the dominance of a censorship which compels distortion of the dream-thoughts. We did not, however, picture this censorship as a special power, but chose the term to designate one side of the repressive trends that govern the ego, namely the side which is turned towards the dream-thoughts.

我们在此可能回想到,我们曾经发现,梦的形成发生在检查的支配之下。这样的检查会逼迫扭曲梦的思想。可是,我们并不是描绘这个检查,作为是特别的力量。而是选择这个术语,来指明压抑的倾向的一边,它们统治自我。换句话说,被倒转朝向梦的思想的那边。

If we enter further into the structure of the ego, we may
recognize in the ego ideal and in the dynamic utterances of conscience the dream-censor2 as well. If this censor is to some extent on the alert even during sleep, we can understand how it is that its suggested activity of self-observation and self-criticism—with such thoughts as, ‘now he is too sleepy to think’, ‘now he is waking up’—makes a contribution to the content of the dream.1

假如我们更加深入地探究自我的结构,我们可能在自我理想,与良心的动力的表达里,也体认出梦的检查者。假如这个检查者有某个程度的警觉,即使在睡眠的时刻,我们能够理解,它的自我观察与自我-批评的被暗示的活动对于梦的内容有很大的贡献。因为这些思想,他太过于昏睡,无法思想,现在他正在清醒当中。

At this point we may attempt some discussion of the self-regarding
attitude in normal people and in neurotics.

在这个时候,我们可能企图讨论在正常人们与神经症者的自我关注的态度。

In the first place self-regard appears to us to be an expression of the
size of the ego; what the various elements are which go to determine that size is irrelevant. Everything a person possesses or achieves, every
remnant of the primitive feeling of omnipotence which his experience has confirmed, helps to increase his self-regard.

首先,我们觉得自我关注是自我的大小的表达。前来决定那个大小的各种的元素的东西并无关紧要。每个人拥有或完成的东西,他的经验曾经证实的,原初的无所不能的残余物,有助于增加他的自我关注。

Applying our distinction between sexual and ego-instincts, we must
recognize that self-regard has a specially intimate dependence on
narcissistic libido. Here we are supported by two fundamental facts: that in paraphrenics self-regard is increased, while in the transference neuroses it is diminished; and that in love-relations not being loved lowers the selfregarding feelings, while being loved raises them. As we have indicated, the aim and the satisfaction in a narcissistic object-choice is to be loved.2

当我们运用性与自我-本能的区别时,我们必须体认出,自我关注具有特别亲密的依靠,对于自恋的力比多。在此,我们受到两个基本事实的支持:在精神分裂症,自我关注被增加。而在移情神经症,它被减少。在爱的关系,没有被爱降低自我关注的感觉。而被爱则是提升自我关注的感觉。如同我们曾经指示的,自恋的客体-选择的目标与满足,就是被爱。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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