梦的特质

梦的特质
The Nature of Dreams

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

4 • CARL JUNG On the Nature of Dreams • 5
Medical psychology differs from all other scientific
disciplines in that it has to deal with the most
complex problems without being able to rely on
tested rules of procedure, on a series of verifiable experiments
and logically explicable facts.

医学心理学不同于所有其他的科学部门,因为它必须处理最复杂的难题,却不能够依靠被测试过的程序的规则,根据一连串的可验证的试验,与逻辑上可说明的事实。

On the contrary, it is confronted
with a mass of shifting irrational happenings, for the psyche is
perhaps the most baffling and unapproachable phenomenon
with which the scientific mind has ever had to deal.

相反地,它面临一堆转变的非理性的意外事件,因为心灵或许是最令人困惑与无法接近的现象。而科学的心灵始终必须处理这个现象。

Although
we must assume that all psychic phenomena are somehow, in the
broadest sense, causally dependent, it is advisable to remember
at this point that causality is in the last analysis no more than a
statistical truth.

虽然我们必须假设,所有的心灵的现象,广义地说,因果关系是互相依靠的。我们此时最好记住: 因果律追根究底仅是统计的真理。

Therefore we should perhaps do well in certain
cases to make allowance for absolute irrationality even if, on
heuristic grounds, we approach each particular case by inquiring
into its causality. Even then, it is advisable to bear in mind at
least one of the classical distinctions, namely that between causa
efficiens and causa finalis.

因此,我们或许在某些的情况,最好考虑到绝对的非理性,即使根据启发法的理由,我们接近每个特殊的个案,凭借调查它的因果律。即使这样,我们最好至少记住一个古典的区别,也就是,有效原因与最终原因的古典区别。

In psychological matters, the question
“Why does it happen?” is not necessarily more productive of
results than the other question “To what purpose does it happen?”

在心理学的事情,「为什么它会发生?」这个问题,未必产生更多的结果,比起另外一个问题:「它发生是为了什么目的?」

Among the many puzzles of medical psychology there is
one problem child, the dream.

在医学心理学的许多难题之中,有一个难题的小孩,那就是梦。

It would be an interesting, as well
as difficult, task to examine the dream exclusively in its medical
aspects, that is, with regard to the diagnosis and prognosis of
pathological conditions.

专门在医学的层面检视梦,将是一件有趣而又困难的工作。换句话说,关于病理情况的诊断与判病结局。

The dream does in fact concern itself
with both health and sickness, and since, by virtue of its source
in the unconscious, it draws upon a wealth of subliminal
perceptions, it can sometimes produce things that are very well
worth knowing.

梦实际上确实跟健康与疾病息息相关。因为凭借它在无意识的来源,它依靠许多的升华的感觉。它有时产生很值得知道的事情。

This has often proven helpful to me in cases
where the differential diagnosis between organic and
psychogenic symptoms presented difficulties. For prognosis, too,
certain dreams are important. In this field, however, the
necessary preliminary studies, such as careful records of case
histories and the like, are still lacking.

对于我,这个经常证明是有帮助。在某些个案,有机体与心因的病征之间的差异的诊断,呈现困难的地方。就判病结局而言,也是一样。某些的梦是重要的。可是,在这个领域,必要的初级的研究,譬如仔细记录个案历史,等等,都依旧欠缺。

Doctors with
psychological training do not as yet make a practice of recording
dreams systematically, so as to preserve material which would
have a bearing on a subsequent outbreak of severe illness or a
lethal issue—in other words, on events which could not be
foreseen at the beginning of the record.

具有心理学训练的医生还没有养成系统地记录梦的这样的习惯,为了保持跟随后的严重疾病或致命问题的爆发息息相关的材料。换句话说,那些事件在记录的开始,无法被预见。

The investigation of
dreams in general is a lifework in itself, and their detailed study
requires the cooperation of many workers. I have therefore
preferred, in this short review, to deal with the fundamental
aspects of dream psychology and interpretation in such a way
that those who have no experience in this field can at least get
some idea of the problem and the method of inquiry.

一般的梦的研究本身是一生的工作。对于它们的详细的研究要求许多工作者的合作。我因此在这个短期的回顾时,我宁可处理梦心理与解释的基本的层面。这样,那些在这个领域没有经验的人们,至少能够获得难题与研究方法的某个观念。

Anyone who is familiar with the material will probably agree with me
that a knowledge of fundamentals is more important than an
accumulation of case histories, which still cannot make up for
lack of experience.

任何对于这个材料熟稔的人,可能将会同意我:比起个案历史的累计,基本的知识更加重要。个案历史并无法弥补经验的欠缺。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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