论自恋 i

论自恋 i
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论
– 91 –
III
The disturbances to which a child’s original narcissism is exposed, the
reactions with which he seeks to protect himself from them and the paths
into which he is forced in doing so—these are themes which I propose to
leave on one side, as an important field of work which still awaits
exploration. The most significant portion of it, however, can be singled out in the shape of the ‘castration complex’ (in boys, anxiety about the penis— in girls, envy for the penis) and treated in connection with the effect of early deterrence from sexual activity.

小孩原初的自恋被暴露的各种困扰,他尝试用来保护他自己免于困扰的各种反应,以及当他这样做时,他被迫进入的各种途径—这些主题,我建议留置一旁,作为依旧有待探索的研究的重要领域。可是,有关它的最重要的部分,能够被挑选出来,以「阉割情结」的形状(在男孩,关于有阴茎的焦虑—在女孩,对阴茎的羡慕),并且被治疗,关于早期被拖延不能从事性的活动的影响。

Psycho-analytic research ordinarily
enables us to trace the vicissitudes undergone by the libidinal instincts
when these, isolated from the ego-instincts, are placed in opposition to them; but in the particular field of the castration complex, it allows us to infer the existence of an epoch and a psychical situation in which the two groups of instincts, still operating in unison and inseparably mingled, make their appearance as narcissistic interests.

精神分析研究通常让我们能够追踪力比多本能经历的起伏变化。当它们跟自我本能孤立出来时,它们被放置在跟它们对立的位置。但是在阉割情结的这个特殊领域,它让我们能够推理一个时代与心灵的情况的存在。在那里,这两个团体的本能,依旧一致地运转,而又不可分离地混合。它们从事它们的出现,作为自恋的興趣。

It is from this context that Adler
[1910] has derived his concept of the ‘masculine protest’, which he has
elevated almost to the position of the sole motive force in the formation of character and neurosis alike and which he bases not on a narcissistic, and therefore still a libidinal, trend, but on a social valuation.

从这个内容,阿德勒曾经获得他的「男性抗议」的观念。他将这个观念几乎提升到唯一动机的力量的地位,在人格与神经症的形成。他将这个观念的基础,不是放置在自恋,因此,依旧力比多的倾向。而是放置在社会的评估。

Psycho-analytic
research has from the very beginning recognized the existence and
importance of the ‘masculine protest’, but it has regarded it, in opposition
to Adler, as narcissistic in nature and derived from the castration complex.

精神分析的研究从一开始,就体认出「男性抗议」的存在与重要性。但是跟阿德勒相反,精神分析的研究将它认为是特性上是自恋,从阉割情结得来。

The ‘masculine protest’ is concerned in the formation of character, into the genesis of which it enters along with many other factors, but it is
completely unsuited for explaining the problems of the neuroses, with
regard to which Adler takes account of nothing but the manner in which
they serve the ego-instincts. I find it quite impossible to place the genesis of neurosis upon the narrow basis of the castration complex, however powerfully it may come to the fore in men among their resistances to the cure of a neurosis. Incidentally, I know of cases of neurosis in which the ‘masculine protest’, or, as we regard it, the castration complex, plays no pathogenic part, and even fails to appear at all.1

「男性的抗议」关注人格的形成。沿着许多其他的因素,从事研究人格形成的开始。但是它完全不适合解释神经症的难题,关于神经症的难题,阿德勒所考虑到的仅是神经症服役自我-本能的方式。我则是发现不可能将神经症的开始放置在阉割情结的狭窄的基础上。虽然它强烈地出现在男人的前台,当他们抗拒神经症的治疗。偶然地,我知道有些神经症的个案,在那里,「男性的抗议」,或我们所谓的阉割情结,并没有扮演病因的角色,甚至根本就没有出现。
– 92 –
Observation of normal adults shows that their former megalomania
has been damped down and that the psychical characteristics from which we inferred their infantile narcissism have been effaced. What has become of their ego-libido? Are we to suppose that the whole amount of it has passed into object-cathexes? Such a possibility is plainly contrary to the whole trend of our argument; but we may find a hint at another answer to the question in the psychology of repression.

对于正常成人的观察显示,他们以前的自大狂已经被浇灭,我们用来推论婴孩的自恋的心灵的特征,已经被抹除。他们的自我-力比多情况如何呢?我们应该假设,他们的自我-力比多的整个数量已经成为客体-投注吗?这样的可能很明显跟我们的主张的整个倾向相反。但是在压抑的心理学,我们在另一个问题的回的发现一个暗示。

We have learnt that libidinal instinctual impulses undergo the
vicissitude of pathogenic repression if they come into conflict with the
subject’s cultural and ethical ideas. By this we never mean that the
individual in question has a merely intellectual knowledge of the existence of such ideas; we always mean that he recognizes them as a standard for himself and submits to the claims they make on him.
Repression, we have said, proceeds from the ego; we might say with greater precision that it proceeds from the self-respect of the ego.
我们获知,力比多的本能的冲动经历病因压抑的起伏变化,假如它们跟主体的文化与伦理的观念互相冲突。我们说这个的意思,并不是指受到质疑的个人仅是在智识方面知道这些观念的存在。我们的意思总是,他经历它们,作为给他自己一个标准,并且接受它们对他的宣称。我们说过,压抑从自我继续下去。我们可以更加精确地说,压抑从自我的尊敬自己继续下去。

The same impressions, experiences, impulses and desires that one man indulges or at least works over consciously will be rejected with the utmost indignation by another, or even stifled before they enter consciousness.2 The difference between the
two, which contains the conditioning factor of repression, can easily be
expressed in terms which enable it to be explained by the libido theory.

一个人耽溺或至少刻意反复从事的相同的印象,经验,冲动,与欲望,会被另一个人极端愤怒地排斥,或甚至被闷窒之后,才让它们进入意识。这两者之间的差异,包括压抑的制约因素,能够轻易地被表达,所用的术语让它能够凭借力比多理论来解释。

We can say that the one man has set up an ideal in himself by which he
measures his actual ego, while the other has formed no- 93 –
such ideal. For the ego the formation of an ideal would be the conditioning factor of repression.1This ideal ego is now the target of the self-love which was enjoyed in childhood by the actual ego.

我们能够说,一个人在他自己身上建立一个理想。凭借这个理想,他衡量他的实际的自我。而另外一个则是没有形成这样的理想。对于自我,理想的形成将是压抑的制约的因素。理想自我现在是自我-爱恋的目标,在童年时被实践的自我享受的自我-爱恋。

The subject’s narcissism makes its
appearance displaced on to this new ideal ego, which, like the infantile
ego, finds itself possessed of every perfection that is of value.

主体的自恋让它的出现被替换到新的理想的自我。就像婴孩的自我,这个新的理想自我发现它自己拥有每个具有价值的完美。

As always where the libido is concerned, man has here again shown himself incapable of giving up a satisfaction he had once enjoyed. He is not willing to forgo the narcissistic perfection of his childhood; and when, as he grows up, he is disturbed by the admonitions of others and by the awakening of his own critical judgement, so that he can no longer retain that perfection, he seeks to recover it in the new form of an ego ideal.

如同平常,就力比多而言,人在此再次显示他自己不能够放弃他曾经享受过的满足。他不愿意忘记他的童年的自恋的完美。随着他长大,他受到别人的警告的困扰,以及他自己批判的判断的觉醒的困扰。这样,他不再保留那个完美,他寻求重新恢复它,用自我理想的新的形式。

What he projects
before him as his ideal is the substitute for the lost narcissism of his
childhood in which he was his own ideal.2

他投射在他面前作为理想的东西,就是他的童年的丧失的自恋的替换。在那里,他是他自己的理想。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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