Archive for September, 2014

梦心理面面观 4

September 23, 2014

梦心理面面观 4
General Aspects of Dream Psychology

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格
以上的例子引导我们认为,梦的功能是明显的「道德」的功能。在这个情况,它似乎是这样。但是假如我们回想一下这个公式:梦包含某个时刻的升华的材料。我们不能仅是谈论「道德」的功能。因为值得注意的是:这些人们的梦的行动在道德方面是无可攻击的,可是这些们却让很有理由被描述为〔不道德」的材料启明,就这个术语的普通意义而言。因此,圣奥古斯丁很高兴,上帝并没有要他替他的梦负责,可为特色。无意识是某个时刻的未知。所以,这不足怪,梦替这个时刻的意识的心理的情况,增添所有那些层面,对于不同观点的人而言,是非常重要的层面。显而易见,梦的功能相等于心理的调适,对于合宜平衡的行动绝对必要的补偿。在反思的意识的过程,重要的是,我们应该尽可能体会到一个难题的各个层面与结果,为了要找到正确的答案。这个过程被自动地继续,在睡眠时相当无意识的状态。如同精神分析经验显示,在睡眠时,在白天没有充分被赏识或甚至被忽略的的所有这些层面,会发生到作梦者身上。(至少会提到)。换句话说,它们比较属于无意识。

关于梦的详细被讨论的象征主义,对它的评估会有变化,依照它是否从因果律或从最后的观点来考虑。弗洛依德的因果律的方法,从欲望或渴望开始。也就是说,从被压抑的梦的愿望开始。渴望总是某件比较单纯而基本的东西,它会隐藏它自己在多重的伪装下。因此,受到质疑的年轻人很有可能作的这个梦:他必须用钥匙打开门,他正在坐飞机飞行,吻他的母亲,等等。从这个观点,所有那些事情,可能会有相同意义。因此,弗洛依德学派的更加严谨的主张者逐渐获得这个诠释观点,举个大略例子—在梦里,所有直立的东西都是阳具的象征,而所有圆或空洞的东西,作为女性的象征。

从最终性的观点,梦中的意象每个都有属于它们自己的本质的价值。譬如,假如年轻人梦见的不是蘋果场景,而是梦见他必须用钥匙开门,这个梦的意象本来可能供应基本上不同的联想的材料。那本来可以补充意识的情况,用一种跟不同于蘋果场景联想完全不同的方式。从这个观点,这个意义明确是在于梦的象征表达的多样性。而不是在它们的意义的一致性。观点的因果关系点由于它自己的特质,倾向于意义的一致性。换句话说,倾向于固定的象征的意义。在另一方面,最终性的观点,用改变的梦的意象,感知改变的心理的情境的表达。它没有体认出任何的固定的象征的意义。从这个观点,所有的梦的意象本身是重要的。每个梦的意象都拥有属于它自己的明确的意义。它在梦里归因它的涵盖。当我们遵循先前的例子,我们能够看出,从最后的观点,梦里的象征拥有更多的寓言的价值:它没有隐藏,它教导。蘋果场景生动地让人想起负罪感的场景,同时伪装我们原初父母的行为。

显而易见,对于梦的意义,我们到达非常差异的诠释,依照我们採用的观点的不同。这个问题现在产生:哪个是较佳,较真实的诠释?毕竟,对于我们精神治疗师,这是更加实际,不仅是理论上的必要,我们应该拥有梦的意义的某个诠释。假如我们想治疗我们的病人,为了实用的理由,我们必须企图掌握任何的工具,让我们能够有效地教育他们。从前述的例子,显而易见的是,跟梦联想一块的材料,已经触及到这个问题:要如何设法打开年轻人的眼睛,看见迄今他曾经忽略没有注意的许多事情。但是凭借忽略这些事情,他确实忽略他身上的某件事情。因为他拥有一个道德的标准与道德的需要,就像任何其他一样。凭借尝试生活,而不考虑这个事实,他的生活成为单边而不完整。好像很不协调,具有相同的心灵生活的结果,如同对于身体,单边而不完整的饮食一样。为了教育个人获得完整与独立,我们需要让所有那些功能获得成果。迄今,那些功能仅是获得微小的意识的发展,或是根本就没有发展。为了达成这个目标,我们必须因为心理治疗的理由,进入梦的材料所做的贡献的无意识的层面。最终性的观点非常重要,作为个人的发展的辅助,因此变得更为明显。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

黑暗太阳 5

September 21, 2014

黑暗太阳 5
The Black Sun

史坦顿、马伦
Stanton Marlan

chapter 1
第一章
The Dark Side of Light
光的黑暗面

The importance of the sun metaphor is further traced by Mircea Eliade,
historian and scholar of religion, who finds a parallel between sun
worship and the spread of civilization and kings. Eliade documents the
predominance of sun religions: “Where history is on the march thanks
to kings, heroes or empires, the sun is supreme.”12 The sun’s majesty lent
its power to the signification of the person and the office of the king.

太阳隐喻的重要性,进一步由宗教历史学家与学者,米西亚、阿利奥德追踪。他找到一个对比,在太阳膜拜与文明的扩展与国王之间。阿利奥德记录太阳宗教的优势胜行:「由于国王,英雄,或帝国,历史正在进展的地方,太阳是崇高的。」太阳的辉煌借助它的力量,给个人的意义与国王的在位。

Both the Sun and the King archetypes are highly complex, archetypal
images with multiple meanings.

太阳与国外都是高度复杂,原型意象的原型,具有多重意义。

This theme has been extensively studied
by Jungian analyst John Perry in his Lord of the Four Quarters: Myth
of the Royal Father; Jungian analyst Robert Moore, and mythologist and
therapist Douglas Gillette in The King Within; and more recently as the
archetype of renewal in Psychological Reflections on the Aging, Death,
and Rebirth of the King by Jungian analyst Stephenson Bond.

这个主题曾经广泛地被荣格学派精神分析家约翰、培瑞研究,在他的「四个地区的领主:皇家父亲的神话」,荣格学派精神分析家罗勃特、莫尔,与神话学习与治疗师道格拉斯、基列特,在「内部国王」,最近,作为更新的原型,在「心理学反思国王的衰老,死亡,与重生」,由荣格学派的精神分析家史提芬森、邦德。

The sun has traditionally been associated with masculine attributes
in patriarchal culture, but this attribution has been relativized and
destabilized by studies such as Janet McCritchard’s Eclipse of the Sun,
which demonstrates a wide range of feminine attributes to the sun
across time and culture.13

传统上,在父权的文化,太阳曾经跟男人的属性联想一块。但是这个属性已经变成相对,而且不稳定,由于那些研究。诸如,詹尼特、马科利查德的「太阳的日蚀」。它证明太阳具有广泛的女人的属性,横跨时间与文化。

Still, with regard to the “masculine” psyche,
the sun, particularly in relation to the king, has been considered a representation
of God on earth. Kings were considered sacred. Figure 1.1
shows an image of King Sol on his throne.
可是,关于这个男性的心灵,太阳,特别是跟国王的关系,曾经被认为是上帝在世间的代表。端坐王位的太阳王的意象。

In general, the Sun King reflects a dominant force of historical, cultural,
and psychic reality. As an inner figure, he is fundamental to life
and a well-functioning psyche. There is a long tradition of the King and
the Sun reflecting the qualities of rational order, stability, life force, vitality,
blessing, joy, and light. The Sun and the King light up the world.

一般来说,太阳王反映的历史,文化,与心灵的现实的优势力量。作为内部的人物,他是生命与功能良好的心灵的基本。有一个国王与太阳的长远传统,反映出理性秩序,稳定,生命的力量,精力,幸福,欢乐与光辉的特质。太阳与国外照亮这个世界。

The work of Moore and Gillette argues that the inner King as an expression
of mature masculinity should not be equated with the abuses
of patriarchy and power and with the shadow of the King as Tyrant. As
archetypal principles, the Sun and the King are not in themselves destructive
or problematic to culture or the psychic life of people.

莫尔与基列特的研究主张,内部的国王作为男性成熟的一种表达,不应该相等于父亲与权力的滥用,将国王的阴影当作暴君。作为原型的原则,太阳与国王它们本身并不具有毁灭性或难题,对于文化或人们的心灵。

On the
contrary, as noted earlier, they enhance life and are essential to psyche.
The problem begins when these archetypal forces overwhelm a developing
or immature ego, inflating and corrupting it. When the ego identifies
with the transpersonal power of the King and the ego becomes
King, the Tyrant is near, and the King’s energy can be devouring (cf.
figure 1.2). In short, the King and the Tyrant are brothers in the archetypal
psyche.

相反地,如同早先注意到,它们强化生命,并且是心灵的基本。当这些原型的力量压倒正在发展或不成熟的自我,膨胀并且腐败它时,这个难题开始了。当自我认同国王的跨越个人的力量,自我变成国王,暴君就靠近,国王的精力就会吞没(图形1.2)。总之,国王与暴君在原型的心灵是难兄难弟。

The devouring and oppressive shadow side of the King’s energy has
been linked in our time to patriarchy and to the one-sided Apollonian
vision that has laid the groundwork for an angry critique of our psychological
and cultural attitudes. If the Sun has led our way into the
present, with all of the advances that have come with it, it has also led
to a massive repression and devaluation of the dark side of psychic life.

国王的精力的吞没与压迫的阴影面,在我们的时代,曾经跟父权联想一块,跟单面向的阿波罗景象联想一块。这个景象已经奠下这个基础,给我们心理与文化的态度的愤怒的批判。假如太阳曾经引导我们的途径进入限制,具有跟随它而来的各种进步,它也已经导致大量的压抑与贬低心灵生命的黑暗的一面。

“There are as many ways to be lost in the light as in the dark,” says storyteller
and poet Madronna Holden, who recognizes the peril that occurs
when light loses touch with the principle of darkness.14 On the
cultural level we all too often have become lost in our spiritual, Apollonian,
patriarchal, male perspective.

「在光亮与在黑暗里,让人迷失的途径同样多。」说书者与诗人马龙那、荷登说。他体认出发生的危险,当光亮跟黑暗的原则分道扬镳。在文化的层次,我们往往迷失于精神,阿波罗,父权,男性的观点。

Our roots in European languages
and a Cartesian worldview have led to a personal and cultural elitism
that have fueled charges of racism and colonialism. To the extent that
these judgments have validity, they reflect a collective, cultural, and
philosophical shadow. Has the light the eye was “destined to behold”
displayed a blind spot with regard to vision itself?

我们根源于欧洲语言与笛卡尔的世界观,导致个人与文化的精英主义。这种精英主义助燃了种族主义与殖民主义的攻击。甚至,这些判断具有正确性,它们还是反映的集体,文化与哲学的阴影。眼睛注定要注视的光亮,曾经展示一个盲点,关于视象的本身吗?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Lacan: The Absolute Master 8

September 21, 2014

Lacan: The Absolute Master 8
拉康:绝对的主人

By Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen
雅克慎论拉康

It is just this Spirit, suffering its death the better to reveal itself to Itself, that Kojeve proposed to translate, in a fashion as suggestive as it was aberrant, by the word “Man”: “This is the meaning,” he comments, “of the passage quoted from the preface to the Phenomenology of Spirit Interpreted on the ontological plane, this passage signifies that it is not the (infinite) Totality of Being (or of the One-who-is) that reveals itself to itself, but rather that this Totality is revealed by one of its (limited) parts, which also reveals itself. Metaphysically speaking, the passage signifies that the Spirit— that is to say, the Being that reveals itself to itself—is not God, but Man-in-the-World.”31 It could not be put more clearly: “the suffering, the patience, and the labour of the negative”32—these words are spoken, not of God, but of Man, not of the Absolute, but of a “limited part” of that Absolute. Therefore, the Phenomenology of Spirit-y Kojeve repeats, is an “anthropology,” a “science of man.”33

就是这个精神,随着对自己揭露它自己,而更加遭受它的死亡。科耶夫建议用「人」这个字翻译它,既是暗示,又是偏离:他评论说,「这就是从精神现象学的序言引用的这段的意义。」在本体论的层次来诠释,这个段落意涵著:对它自己揭示它自己的,并不是生命实存的无限整体性。相反地,而是这个整体性根据它的有限的部分之一来揭示,这一部分也揭露它自己。隐喻来说,这个段落意涵著:精神并非是上帝,而是世界中的人。也就是,精神就是对它自己揭示它自己的生命实存。表达最为清楚的是:否定者的痛苦,耐心与劳苦—这些话语被说出,不是上帝的话语,而是人的话语,不是绝对真理的话语,而是那个绝对真理的有限部分的话语。因此,科耶夫强调,精神现象学是「人类学「,而不是「人的智慧」。

That statement in turn could be understood in two very different ways, and this is the whole ambiguity of Kojeve’s strange “humanism.” That Hegel’s Absolute is identical to Man (with a capital M) could be understood first of all in the sense that Man reappro-priates his own infinite essence, inheriting all the qualities that until then had been attributed to God. It is well known that this was the thesis of the “Hegelian left,” of Feuerbach and the young Marx (whose Manuscripts of 1844 had just been discovered), and Kojeve, in fact, did not scruple to take it up again and attribute it, as generously as he did tendentiously, to Hegel himself: “In a general way, Hegelian anthropology is a laicization of Christian theology. [Hegel] repeats several times that everything Christian theology says is absolutely true on condition of its being applied, not to a transcendent God, but to real Man living in the World. The theologian is doing anthropology without realizing it.”34

这个陈述反过来能够用两种不同的方式理解。这就是科耶夫的奇怪的「人道主义」的模糊暧昧。黑格尔的绝对真理认同于人(大写字母M),首先能够被理解为:人重新佔有他自己的无限的本质,继承直到当时归属于上帝的那些特质。众所周知的事,这就是黑格尔左派的主题,赫尔巴克以及年轻的马克思的主题(马克思的1844年手稿刚刚被发现)。事实上,科耶夫毫不犹豫地再次探讨它,并且将它归属于黑格尔他自己,既慷慨,又具争议性。「就一般而言,黑格尔的人类学是基督教神学的世俗化。黑格尔强调好几次:基督教神学所说的一切绝对是真实的,只要它被运用到居住于世界中的真实的人,而不是运用到超验的上帝。神学家正在探讨人类学,而没有体会到。」

The theologian, speaking of God, speaks of himself without realizing it, whereas Hegel knows he is doing it: “The Wise Man strictly ascribes to himself the same total content as the Religious man ascribes to his God.”35 In other words, this is the end of religious alienation and the radiant beginning of “atheistic humanism.” “Existentialism,” as Sartre would say, “is a humanism.”

谈论上帝的神学家,谈论到他自己,而没有体会到。黑格尔知道他正在谈论它:「智慧的人严格地将相同的整体内容归属于他自己,如同宗教的人们将它们归属于他的上帝。」换句话说,这就是宗教异化的结束,与无神论的人本主义的灿烂的开始。如同萨特经常说,「存在主义是人本主义。」

The only problem is this: How could Man (even adorned with an enormous M) claim to take the place of the Absolute if, as Kojeve himself wrote, he is only a “limited part” of it? Man, like it or not, is notoriously mortal and finite; furthermore, this is what Kojeve was discreetly indicating by speaking of “Man-in-the-World.” Indeed, this “Man-in-the-World” is a fairly clear allusion to Heidegger’s In-der-Welt-sein and, more generally, to the whole existential analytic put forth in Sein und Zeit. This analytic, which Kojeve, more than anyone else, helped introduce into France (existentialism was a Kojevism), is presented explicitly by Heidegger as one of finitude. In a word, where the metaphysical tradition had always thought of man against a background of infinite Being,36 Heidegger proposed to reverse the current and think of Being in terms of a radical finitude (a “finitude of Being,” as Kojeve would say).37 But this in no way implies that Being is reabsorbed, so to speak, in “man,” as Kojeve would victoriously proclaim.

唯一的难题是这个:人,(即使装饰着大写的M),如何能够宣称取代这个绝对真理?如同科耶夫他自己所写的,假如人仅是它的一个有限的部分。无论我们喜欢与否,人就是众所周知的会死亡的有限生命。而且,这就是科耶夫谨慎指示灯,凭借谈论到「处于世界中的人」。的确,「世界中的人」非常清楚地提到海德格的「世界里的生命实存」。更加普遍地,提到在「存在与时间」一书里表达的整个生命实存的分析。科耶夫,胜过任何其他一个人,将这个分析介绍进入法国(存在主义就是科耶夫主义)。这个分析由海德格明确地呈现,作为是有限性的分析。总之,虽然隐喻的传统总是根据无限的生命实存来思维人,海德格则是建议逆转这个倾向,用强烈的有限性来思维生命实存。(如同科耶夫经常说的,生命实存的有限性)。但是这丝毫没有暗示,生命实存重新被吸收到所谓人身上,如同科耶非得意洋洋地宣称。

Indeed, what “is” Being, according to Sein und Zeit? Nothing—nothing that man could appropriate. Being, as Heidegger defines it, is most certainly the Being of the “being that we are,” but this must be understood in the sense that it is—and is only—the Being of an entity who does not have his Being in himself. That is precisely why Heidegger took great care to rebaptize the “being that we are” as Dasein (literally, “Being-there”), so as not to confound it with the “man” of philosophical anthropology.38

的确,依照「存在与时间」,什么是生命实存?空无—人能够佔有的就是空无。依照海德格的定义,生命实存千真万确就是「我们具有的存在的生命实存」。但是必须用这种方式理解—仅有用这种方式—一个实体的生命实存,它并没有在他自己身上拥有他的生命实存。那确实是为什么海德格非常费心地重新命名「我们存在的生命实存」,作为「存有」(实质的意义就是「在那里的生命实存」。为了将它跟哲学的人类学的「人」混淆一块。

This man would indeed continue to be thought of as what Heidegger calls Vor-handensein (“Being-present-at-hand”), whereas Dasein “ek-sists”: thrown (geworfen) into existence, without being at the foundation of itself, it is by the same token projected (entworfen) beyond itself, toward its Being. Contrary to the being that subsists in the mode of Vorhandensein, it has to be, beyond all being (all “that which is”), and so is all the freer in that it is fundamentally finite. Condemned to choose among the possibilities offered to it—that is, to negate one possibility for the sake of another—it perpetually “goes beyond” every being, and this “transcendence” makes up its entire Being—which at the same time is no (present, subsisting, substantial, and so on) being. Dasein’s Being, insofar as it is “transcendens pure and simple,” is no-being, no-thing, nothing (Nichts).

这个人确实会被认为是海德格所谓「存在于当下的生命实存」,而「存有」「先前存在」:被投掷进入存在,而没有在它自己的基础那里。它同样地被投射超越它自己,朝向它的生命实存。跟「存在」的模式存在的人恰恰相反,它必须获得生命实存,超越所有的人(所有存在的人),它因此更加地自由,因为它基本上是有限性。它被注定要在给予它的各种可能性里作选择。也就是说,为了另外一个可能性否的一个可能性—它永久地「超越」每样东西。这种「超验」组成它的整个的生命实存。这整个的生命实存,同时并不是(当下,存有,实质,等等)的存在。存有的生命实存,因为它具有单纯的超验,它是非存在,非物质,空无。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Aion 12

September 21, 2014

Aion 12
永恒纪元
By Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

Unity and totality stand at the highest point on the scale of
objective values because their symbols can no longer be distinguished
from the imago Dei. Hence all statements about the
God-image apply also to the empirical symbols of totality. Experience
shows that individual mandalas are symbols of order, and
that they occur in patients principally during times of psychic
0disorientation or re-orientation.

统合与整体性处于客观价值的天平的最高点。因为它们的象征不再能够跟神的意象有所区别。因此,关于上帝-意象的陈述可运用到整体性的经验的象征。经验教导我们,个人的曼荼罗是秩序的工具。它们发生在病人身上,主要是在心灵混乱与重新-定向的期间。

As magic circles they bind and
subdue the lawless powers belonging to the world of darkness,
and depict or create an order that transforms the chaos into a
cosmos.10 The mandala at first comes into the conscious mind as
an unimpressive point or dot, 11 and a great deal of hard and
painstaking work as well as the integration of many projections
are generally required before the full range of the symbol can
be anything like completely understood.

作为魔术圈,它们将没有法则的归属于黑暗的各种力量联接一块并征服。它们描述或创造一个秩序,将混乱转化成为宇宙。曼荼罗起初进入意识的心灵,作为是不引人注意的点或小点。众多的辛苦与努力的工作,以及许多的投射的合并,通常被要求,然后象征的充分范围才能够像是某件完全被理解的东西。

If this insight were
purely intellectual it could be achieved without much difficulty,
for the world-wide pronouncements about the God within us
and above us, about Christ and the corpus mysticum, the personal
and suprapersonal atman, etc., are all formulations that
can easily be mastered by the philosophic intellect.

即使这个洞识纯粹是知识,它能够不费太多困难地被完成。因为关于上帝的全世界的宣告,在我们内部,在我们上方,关于耶稣基督与神秘团体,个人与超出个人的自性,等等。所有这一切诠释都能够轻易地受到哲学知识的掌控。

This is the
common source of the illusion that one is then in possession of
the thing itself. But actually one has acquired nothing more
than its name, despite the age-old prejudice that the name magically
represents the thing, and that it is sufficient to pronounce
the name in order to posit the thing’s existence.

这就是我们当时拥有一件东西的幻觉的共同来源。尽管古老的偏见,这个名字魔术般代表这个东西。它充分宣告这个名字,为了提出这个东西的存在。

In the course
of the millennia the reasoning mind has been given every opportunity
to see through the futility of this conceit, though that has
done nothing to prevent the intellectual mastery of a thing from
being accepted at its face value. It is precisely our experiences
in psychology which demonstrate as plainly as could be wished
that the intellectual “grasp” of a psychological fact produces no
more than a concept of it, and that a concept is no more than a
name, a flatus vocis. These intellectual counters can be bandied
about easily enough.

在千禧年的期间,推理的心灵被给予充分的机会,看透这个自负的徒劳。虽然那并没有丝毫阻止知识对于东西的掌控,不能按照表面价值被接受。那确实是我们在心理学的经验,尽可能如所愿望地被证明,从知识「理」解心理的事实,产生的仅是对它的观念。观念仅仅是一个名字,一个文字的声音。这些知识的铭记能够轻易地被交换。

They pass lightly from hand to hand, for
they have no weight or substance. They sound full but are hollow;
and though purporting to designate a heavy task and obligation,
they commit us to nothing. The intellect is undeniably
useful in its own field, but is a great cheat and illusionist outside
of it whenever it tries to manipulate values.

它们轻快地从一个手传递到另一个手,因为它们并没有重量或物质。它们听起来充实,但是空洞。虽然它们用来指明一个沉重的工作与义务,它们什么都没有跟我们承诺。这个知识无可否认在它自己的领域是有用的。但是在它的领域的外面,每当它尝试操控价值时,它是个骗子与幻觉师。

61 It would seem that one can pursue any science with the intellect
alone except psychology, whose subject—the psyche—has
more than the two aspects mediated by sense-perception and
thinking. The function of value—feeling—is an integral part of
our conscious orientation and ought not to be missing in a psychological
judgment of any scope, otherwise the model we are
trying to build of the real process will be incomplete.

似乎,光是使用知识,我们能够追求任何的智慧,除了心理学。心理学这个科目,这个心灵,拥有不仅感官-感觉与思维的两个面向。价值-感觉的功能是我们意识的定向的完整部分,在心理的判断的范围里,不应该被缺少。否则,我们用真实过程尝试建造的模式,将会是不完整。

Every
psychic process has a value quality attached to it, namely its
feeling-tone. This indicates the degree to which the subject is
affected by the process or how much it means to him (in so far
as the process reaches consciousness at all). It is through the
“affect” that the subject becomes involved and so comes to feel
the whole weight of reality.

每个心灵的过程让价值的品质跟它联接一块。也就是,它的感觉-色调。这指示著,主体受到这个过程影响的程度,或是它对他具有多大的意义。(当这个过程到达意识时)。通过这个「情感」,主体牵涉进入,并且逐渐感觉到现实的整个重量。

The difference amounts roughly to
that between a severe illness which one reads about in a textbook
and the real illness which one has. In psychology one possesses
nothing unless one has experienced it in reality. Hence a
purely intellectual insight is not enough, because one knows
only the words and not the substance of the thing from inside.

这个差异差不多等于是我们在教科书阅读到的严重的疾病与我们罹患的真实疾病之间的差异。在心理学,我们什么都没有拥有,除非我们在现实中经验到它。因此,光是纯粹知识的洞识是不够的,因为我们知道的仅是文字,而不是从内部感受的东西的物质。

62 There are far more people who are afraid of the unconscious
than one would expect. They are even afraid of their own
shadow. And when it comes to the anima and animus, this fear
turns to panic. For the syzygy does indeed represent the psychic
contents that irrupt into consciousness in a psychosis (most
clearly of all in the paranoid forms of schizophrenia). 12 The
overcoming of this fear is often a moral achievement of unusual
magnitude, and yet it is not the only condition that must
be fulfilled on the way to a real experience of the self.

害怕无意识的人们,比我们所预期的还要多。他们甚至害怕他们自己的阴影。当我们提到阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯时,这个害怕变成惊慌。因为融合并没有代表心灵的内容,在精神病患者,突然闯入意识的心灵的内容。(在精神分裂症的妄想的形态,表现最为清楚。)克服这种恐惧往往等同非凡的道德成就。可是,这并不是唯一必须被满足的情况,在前往自性的经验的途中。

63 The shadow, the syzygy, and the self are psychic factors of
which an adequate picture can be formed only on the basis of
a fairly thorough experience of them. Just as these concepts
arose out of an experience of reality, so they can be elucidated
only by further experience.

阴影,融合,与自性,都是心灵的因素。仅有根据非常彻底的关于它们的经验,才能够充分形成它们的画面。正如这些观念起源于现实的经验,它们也能够被阐述,仅有凭借更进一步的经验。

Philosophical criticism will find
everything to object to in them unless it begins by recognizing
that they are concerned with facts, and that the “concept” is
simply an abbreviated description or definition of these facts.
Such criticism has as little effect on the object as zoological criticism
on a duck-billed platypus.

哲学的批评在它们身上,将发现每一样反对的东西,除非是先开始体认:它们跟事实息息相关。「观念」仅是这些
事实的缩减到描述或定义。这样的批评对于客体没有什么影响,如同动物学的批评,对鸭嘴兽的动物美有什么影响。

It is not the concept that matters;
the concept is only a word, a counter, and it has meaning
and use only because it stands for a certain sum of experience.
Unfortunately I cannot pass on this experience to my public.
I have tried in a number of publications, with the help of case
material, to present the nature of these experiences and also the
method of obtaining them. Wherever my methods were really
applied the facts I give have been confirmed. One could see the
moons of Jupiter even in Galileo’s day if one took the trouble
to use his telescope.

重要的并不是观念。观念仅是一个字词,一个铭记。观念具有意义与用途,仅是因为它代表某些经验的总和。不幸地,我无法将这个经验传递给大众。凭借个案材料的帮助,我曾经在许多出版物,尝试呈现这些经验的特性,以及获得这些经验的方法。在我的方法确实被运用的地方,我给予的这些事实曾经被证实。即使在伽利略的时代,我们能够看出木星的卫星,假如我们用心使用望远镜的话。

64 Outside the narrower field of professional psychology these
figures meet with understanding from all who have any knowledge
of comparative mythology. They have no difficulty in recognizing
the shadow as the adverse representative of the dark
chthonic world, a figure whose characteristics are universal. The
syzygy is immediately comprehensible as the psychic prototype
of all divine couples. Finally the self, on account of its empirical
peculiarities, proves to be the eidos behind the supreme ideas
of unity and totality that are inherent in all monotheistic and
monistic systems.

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

黑暗太阳 3

September 20, 2014

黑暗太阳 3
The Black Sun

史坦顿、马伦
Stanton Marlan

chapter 1
第一章
The Dark Side of Light
光的黑暗面

Jung has noted that darkness “has its own peculiar intellect and its
own logic which should be taken very seriously,” and it is my intent to
give darkness its due—not to rush beyond it but to enter its realm to
learn more about its mysteries.4 To turn toward darkness in this way is
an odd reversal of our ordinary propensity. To more fully understand
the turn toward darkness it is first important to pause and consider
how much the historical primacy of light has infused our understanding
of consciousness itself.

荣格注意到,黑暗拥有它自己的特殊知识与它自己的逻辑,那是应该非常认真看待。我的意图是给予黑暗它应得的东西—不是冲撞超越它,而是进入它的领域,为了学习更多关于它的神秘。以这种方式转向黑暗,奇怪地倒转我们普通的习性。更加充实地理解向黑暗的转向,首先重要的是停下来考虑,历史给予光的优先性,输入我们对于意识被身的理解有多严重。

The image of light and its corresponding metaphor of the sun are
fundamentally intertwined with the history of consciousness. Our
language demonstrates the pervasiveness of these images, and it is difficult
to envision a way of thinking that does not rely on them. In myth,
science, philosophy, religion, and alchemy we find these metaphors
widely disseminated. Our language is filled with metaphors of illumination:
to bring to light, to make clear, to enlighten, and so on, all serve
in these and in many other contexts.
光的意象及其对应的太阳的阴喻,基本上跟意识的历史纠缠一块。我们的语言证明这些意象的瀰漫。我们很难构想一种不依靠它们的思维方式。在神话,科学,哲学,宗教,与炼金术,我们发现这些隐喻广泛地被扩散。我们的语言充满了照亮的隐喻,为了启明,澄清,开导,等等,一切都以这些内涵与许多其他内涵服务。

In Memories, Dreams, Reflections Jung seems to have captured
something of the primordial experience that must have been generative
in the development of sun worship.

在「回忆、梦,反思」里,荣格似乎曾经捕捉某件原始的经验,在对太阳膜拜的发展,一定曾经具有启发性。

While visiting the Elgonyi tribe
of Africa, Jung writes, “the sunrise in these latitudes was a phenomenon
that overwhelmed me anew every day.”5 He goes on to describe his
observations a little before dawn, when he was in the habit of watching
the sunrise:

当荣格拜访非洲的阿甘尼部落时,他写到:「在这些纬度的日出,是每天重新让我惊奇的现象。他继续描述他的观察天刚破晓之前,他习惯于观看日出。

(12) Chapter 1
At first, the contrasts between light and darkness would be extremely
sharp. Then objects would assume contour and emerge
into the light which seemed to fill the valley with a compact
brightness. The horizon above became radiantly white. Gradually
the swelling light seemed to penetrate into the very structure
of objects, which became illuminated from within until at last
they shone translucently, like bits of colored glass.

起初,光与黑暗的对比极端显著。然后,各种物体形成轮廓,并且出现进入光里。这个光似乎替山谷充满紧密的光辉。地平线之上成为灿烂地泛白。慢慢地,逐渐膨胀的光似乎贯穿进入各种物体的这个结构。这些物体从内部变得被照亮,直到最后,它们透明地照亮,像是好几块彩色玻璃。

Everything
turned to flaming crystal. The cry of the bell bird rang around
the horizon. At such moments I felt as if I were inside a temple.
It was the most sacred hour of the day. I drank in this glory with
insatiable delight, or rather in a timeless ecstasy.6

每样东西都转变成燃烧的水晶。钟鸟的鸣叫在地平线到处响彻。在这些时刻,我感觉好像我是在庙堂里。那是那天最神圣的时刻。我带着无法满足的喜悦,或永恒的狂喜,陶醉在这个荣耀里。

Jung goes on to say that “for untold ages men have worshiped the
great god who redeems the world by rising out of darkness as a radiant
light in the heavens. At the time, I understood that within the soul
from its primordial beginnings there has been a desire for light and an
irrepressible urge to rise out of the primal darkness.”7 Against this
background it is evident to Jung why for the Elgonyi “the moment in
which the light comes is God.”8

荣格继续说,「无数的岁月以来,人们曾经膜拜伟大的太阳。太阳救赎这个世界,从黑暗里升起,作为天上灿烂的光。在那时,我理解,在灵魂内部,从它的原始的开始,就有渴望光的欲望,及无法压抑地从原初的黑暗里升起。以这个背景,显而易见地,对于荣格,为什么对于阿甘尼人,光来临的那个时刻就是上帝。

Jung recognizes the importance of the sun and light in his alchemical
writings, where he states that the soul is “an eye destined to behold
the light.”9
荣格体认出太阳与光的重要性,在他的炼金术的著作里。在那里,他陈述:灵魂是注定要观看光的眼睛。

Likewise, James Hillman, a Jungian analyst as well as the
founder of archetypal psychology, wonders whether the “human eye
prefers light to darkness” and whether human beings are “heliotropic,
fundamentally adapted to light.”10

同样地,詹姆斯、希尔曼,一位荣格的精神分析家以及原型心理学的创办者,想要知道是「否人类的眼睛喜欢光亮胜过黑暗」,以及「人类是否就是倾向太阳,基本上适应于光。」

The power of this image is also recognized
by the postmodern philosopher Jacques Derrida, who comments,
“each time there is a metaphor, there is doubtless a sun somewhere,
but each time there is a sun, metaphor has begun.”11

这个意象的力量也被后现代哲学家雅克、德希达承认。他评论道,「有隐喻的时候,无可置疑,某个地方就有太阳。但是有太阳的时候,隐喻就已经开始。」

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

黑色太阳 2

September 20, 2014

黑色太阳
The Black Sun

史坦顿、马伦
Stanton Marlan

chapter 1
第一章
The Dark Side of Light
光的黑暗面

In C. G. Jung Speaking, Jung describes the alchemical process as “difficult
and strewn with obstacles; the alchemical opus is dangerous.
Right at the beginning you meet the ‘dragon,’ the chthonic spirit, the
‘devil’ or, as the alchemists called it, the ‘blackness,’ the nigredo, and
this encounter produces suffering.”2

在荣格演讲,荣格描述炼金术的过程,作为是困难与阻碍重重,炼金术的任务是危险的。就在开始的地方,你遇见龙,这个地下的精神,这个恶魔,或如同炼金术师称它的,黑暗,阴间。这个遭遇产生痛苦。

He goes on to say that in “psychological
terms, the soul finds itself in the throes of melancholy locked
in a struggle with the ‘shadow.’” The black sun, Sol niger, is one of the
most important images representing this phase of the process and this
condition of the soul.

他继续说,用心理学的术语,灵魂发现它自己处于忧郁的剧痛,困锁于跟「阴影」的奋斗里。黑色太阳是最重要的意象之一,代表这个过程的这个时期与灵魂的这个情况。

Usually this image is seen as phase specific to
the early part of the opus and is said to disappear “when the ‘dawn’
(aurora) emerges.” Typically blackness is said to dissolve, and then
“the ‘devil’ no longer has an autonomous existence but rejoins the profound unity of the psyche. Then the opus magnum is finished: the human
soul is [said to be] completely integrated.”3

通常,这个意象被视为这个任务的早期部分特有的时期。据说它会消失,当黎明出现时。典型而言,黑暗据说会瓦解,然后,恶魔不再拥有自主权的存在,而是重新加入心灵的深奥的一致性。因此,这个巨大任务被完成:人类的灵魂据说完成地被融合。

In my experience, this is an idealized goal of alchemy, and there is a
danger in bypassing the autonomous core of darkness that always remains
as an earmark of the condition of any humanness.
根据我的经验,这是炼金术的理想化的目标。绕过黑暗的自主权的核心,会有危险存在。这个黑暗始终作为任何人类的情况的标志。

Thus, my approach
to the image of the black sun pauses with the blackness itself
and examines it in its own right, not simply as a stage in the development
of the soul. As such we see that blackness itself proves to contain
in its own realm the gold we seek in our attempts to transcend it.

因此,我接近黑暗太阳的意象,会随着黑暗本身稍有停止,然后检查它应有的权利,不仅是作为灵魂发展的阶段。作为这样的阶段,我们看见,黑暗本身证明包括我们寻求的善,在它自己的领域,当我们企图超越它。

This
focus contributes to a new appreciation of the darkness within.
Jung’s exploration was influenced by the seventeenth-century alchemist
Mylius, who refers to the ancient philosophers as the source of
our knowledge about Sol niger.

这个焦点促成我们重新赏识内部的黑暗。荣格的探索受到17世纪炼金术师麦立斯的影响。麦立斯提到古代的哲学家,作为是我们有关黑暗太阳的知识的来源。

In several places in his collected works,
Jung writes of Sol niger as a powerful and important image of the unconscious.
To consider the image in the context of the unconscious is
both to recognize its vastness and unknown quality as well as to place it
in the historical context of depth psychology and of the psyche’s attempt
to represent the unrepresentable.
在他的全集的好几个地方,荣格描述黑暗太阳,作为是无意识的强大而重要的意象。在无意识的内文里考虑这个意向,既是承认它的广大与未知的特质,又是将它放置在深度心理学与心灵企图的历史的内文,为了代表这个无法被代表的东西。

Imagining Sol niger in this way
is to see it in its most general sense, but Jung has also extracted from the
alchemical literature a rich and complex, if scattered, phenomenology
of the image. The black sun, blackness, putrefactio, mortificatio, the nigredo,
poisoning, torture, killing, decomposition, rotting, and death all
form a web of interrelationships that describe a terrifying, if most often
provisional, eclipse of consciousness or of our conscious standpoint.

以这种方式想像黑暗太阳,等于是用它最通俗的意义看待它。但是,荣格也从炼金术的文献抽取出丰富,复杂但是分散的意象现象学。黑暗太阳,黑暗,毒药,酷刑,杀戮,瓦解,腐烂,与死亡,这一切形成关系的网络。这个关系网络描述意识或我们意识观点的可怕的衰微,虽然经常的情况是暂时的衰微。

The nigredo, the initial black stage of the alchemical opus, has been
considered the most negative and difficult operation in alchemy. It is
also one of the most numinous, but few authors other than Jung have
explored the theme in its many facets.

黑暗,炼金术的任务的最初的黑暗阶段,曾经被认为是炼金术最负面,最困难的运作。它也是最具神性之一。但是除了荣格之外,很少作者曾经探索这个主题及其许多面向。

In addition to the aspects just
described, Jung also finds in this image of blackness a nonmanifest latency,
a shadow of the sun, as well as an Other Sun, linked to both Saturn
and Yahweh, the primus anthropos. For the most part, Sol niger is
equated with and understood only in its nigredo aspect, while its more
sublime dimension—its shine, its dark illumination, its Eros and wisdom—
remains in the unconscious.

除了刚才被描述的层面外,荣格也发现黑暗的这个意象,是没有展示的潜藏存在,太阳的阴影,以及一个另外的太阳,跟土星与雅威神,这个最初的人息息相关。大部分,黑暗太阳仅有在黑暗层面,相等于与被理解。至于它更加崇高的维度—它的闪亮,它的黑暗照明,它的情欲与智慧,始终保留在无意识里。

I imagine my work on the black sun as an experiment in alchemical
psychology. It is concerned with this difficult and enigmatic image and
with our understanding of darkness. My contention is that darkness
historically has not been treated hospitably and that it has remained in
the unconscious and become a metaphor for it.

我想像我对黑暗太阳的研究,作为炼金术心理学的试验。它关注这个困难而谜团的意象,以及我们对黑暗的理解。我的主张是,黑暗自古以来从来没有慷慨地对待,它始终保持在无意识里,成为无意识的象征。

It has been seen primarily
in its negative aspect and as a secondary phenomenon, itself
constituting a shadow—something to integrate, to move through and
beyond. In so doing, its intrinsic importance is often passed over. This
attitude has also been perpetuated in alchemy, which places darkness
at the beginning of the work and sees it primarily in terms of the nigredo.

它主要是以它的负面被看待,作为次要的现象,它的本身形成一个阴影—某件有待融合,有待穿越与超越的东西。当我们这样做时,它的本质的重要性往往被忽略。这个态度在炼金术也曾经被强调。炼金术将黑暗放置在工作的开始,并且看待黑暗,主要是根据黑暗的术语。

Yet in its usage of the black sun there is a hint of a darkness that
shines. It is this shine of the paradoxical image that captures my attention.
How is it possible to imagine a darkness filled with light or a shine
that contains the qualities of both light and darkness?

可是,在炼金术使用黑暗太阳时,它暗示着黑暗会闪亮。就是这个悖论的意象的闪亮,捕捉我的注意力。我们如何可能想像充满光的黑暗或闪亮?想像它包括光与黑暗的两种特质?

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黑色太阳

September 19, 2014

黑色太阳
The Black Sun

史坦顿、马伦
Stanton Marlan

chapter 1
第一章
The Dark Side of Light
光的黑暗面

When you see your matter going black, rejoice, for this
is the beginning of the work.
—Rosarium Philosophorum

当你看见你的物质变黑,请欢欣,因为这是工作的开始。
–罗萨琳、菲洛索弗伦
Jung considered alchemy in a way that few people, if any, before him
had imagined. Alchemy for the most part had been relegated to the status
of a historical anachronism or hidden away within the confines of
esoteric occultism. To the contemporary mind, alchemists were viewed
as working in their laboratories, hopelessly trying to change lead into
gold. At best, their practice was seen as a precursor to the modern science
of chemistry.

荣格考虑炼金术的方式,在他以前,很少人曾经想像过的,即使是有的话。炼金术大部分都分配给历史过时的地位,或隐藏在奥秘的神秘教派的范围里。对于当代心灵,炼金术被看待,作为是实验室里的工作,没有指望地尝试将铅改变成为黄金。充其量,他们的做法被看待作为现代的化学的科学的先驱。

Jung began his reflections with a similar attitude, but as his inquiry
grew deeper, he concluded that the alchemists were speaking in symbols
about the human soul and were working as much with the imagination
as with the literal materials of their art. The gold that they were
trying to produce was not the common or vulgar gold but an aurum
non vulgi or aurum philosophicum—a philosophical gold (Jung 1961).

荣格开始他的沉思,带着类似的态度。但是当他的研究变得更加深入时,他的结论是:炼金术师正在用象征言说关于人的灵魂,并且使用同样的想像工作,如同用他们的艺术的实质材料。他们正在尝试产生的黄金,并不是普通或俗陋的黄金,而是哲学家的黄金(荣格1961年)。

They were concerned with both the creation of the higher man and the
perfection of nature. In a 1952 interview at the Eranos conference, Jung
stated that “The alchemical operations were real, only this reality was
not physical but psychological. Alchemy represents the projection of a
drama both cosmic and spiritual in laboratory terms. The opus magnum
had two aims: the rescue of the human soul and the salvation of
the cosmos.”1 This move brought alchemy into the realm of contemporary
thought and was the beginning of a sustained psychology of
alchemy.

他们关心更高人类与自然的完美的创造。1952年,在阿兰诺斯的会议的探访,荣格陈述说:「炼金术的运作是真实的,只是这个现实并不是物理,而是心理。用实验室的术语来说,炼金术代表宇宙与精神的戏剧的投射。炼金术的杰作有两个目标:拯救人类灵魂与救赎这个宇宙。」这个动作将炼金术带进当代思想的领域,并且是持续的炼金术心理学的开始。

To see alchemy in this way—as a psychological and symbolic art—
was a major breakthrough for Jung and a key to unlocking its mysteries.
The exploration and development of this insight led Jung eventually to
see in alchemy a fundamental source, background, and confirmation
of his psychology of the unconscious.

以这种方式看待炼金术—作为是心理与象征的艺术—对于荣格,是一种主要的突破,并且是解开它的神秘的关键。这个洞察的探索与发展,最后引导荣格在炼金术里看见他的无意识的心理学的基本的来源,背景与肯定。

His imagination was captured
by the ideas and metaphors of alchemy, with its dragons, suffering
matter, peacock’s tail, alembics, athanors, red and green lions, kings
and queens, fishes’ eyes, inverted philosophical trees, salamanders and
hermaphrodites, black suns and white earth, metals (lead, silver, and
gold), colors (black, white, yellow, and red), distillations and coagulations,
and a rich array of Latin terms.

他的想像被炼金术的观念与隐喻所捕获,带着它的龙,痛苦,物质,孔雀的尾巴,蒸馏器,止汗矿石,红色与绿色狮子,国王与皇后,鱼的眼睛,倒转的哲学家的树,蝾螈与雌雄同体动物,黑色太阳与白色地球,金属(铅,银,与黄金),颜色(黑,白,黄,与红),过滤器与凝固器,以及洋洋洒洒的拉丁术语。

All of these images are, for Jung,
the best possible expression of a psychic mystery that enunciated and
amplified his maturing vision of the parallels between alchemy and his
own psychology of the unconscious. Jung sees all of these as projected
by the alchemists into matter.

对于荣格,所有这些意象都是心灵的神秘的最佳表达。这个心灵的神秘表述并且强化他的逐渐成熟的见识,对于炼金术与他自己的无意识的心理学之间的对比。荣格看待所有这一切,当著是炼金术师投射成为物质。

Their effort was to bring about unity
from the disparate parts of the psyche, creating a “chemical wedding.”
Jung saw as the moral task of alchemy the unification of the disparate
elements of the soul, symbolically represented as the creation of the
lapis, or philosopher’s stone. Likewise, Jung’s psychology works with
the conflicts and dissociation of psychic life and attempts to bring
about the mysterious “unification” he calls Wholeness.

他们的努力是要从心灵的杂乱的部分,导致一致性,创造一个「化学的婚礼」。荣格看待灵魂的杂乱元素的统一,当著是炼金术的道德的工作。在象征方面,灵魂被呈现作为是哲学家石头的创造。同样地,荣格的心理学研究心灵生活的冲突与瓦解,并且企图导致他所谓的完整性的神秘的「统一」。

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Aion 10

September 19, 2014

Aion 10
永恒纪元
By Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

56 It is not difficult to see here that the idea of liberty has been
changed back to its original dramatic state—into the shining
figure of the anima, freed from the weight of the earth and the
tyranny of the senses, the psychopomp who leads the way to the
Elysian fields.

在此并不困难看出,自由的观念已经被改变回到它的原初的戏剧的状态—成为闪亮的阿尼玛的人物。免除大地的重量与各种感官的暴虐。引导灵魂的使者带路到灵魂的安息之地。

57 The first case we mentioned, where the collective idea is
represented in a dream by a lowly aspect of itself, is certainly the
more frequent: the “goddess” appears as a black cat, and the
Deity as the lapis exilis (stone of no worth). Interpretation then
demands a knowledge of certain things which have less to do
with zoology and mineralogy than with the existence of an historical
consensus omnium in regard to the object in question.

我们提到的第一个情况,在那里,集体的观念在梦里被代表,被较低层面的它自己。那确实是更为频繁:女神以黑猫的形态出现,神则是作为没有价值的石头。诠释因此要求了解某些事情。这些事情跟动物学与矿物学无关,而是跟历史的共识有关,关于受到质疑的东西。

These “mythological” aspects are always present, even though
in a given case they may be unconscious. If for instance one
doesn’t happen to recall, when considering whether to paint the
garden gate green or white, that green is the colour of life and
hope, the symbolic aspect of “green” is nevertheless present as
an unconscious sous-entendu. So we find something which has
the highest significance for the life of the unconscious standing
lowest on the scale of conscious values, and vice versa. The figure
of the shadow already belongs to the realm of bodiless phantoms—
not to speak of anima and animus, which do not seem to
appear at all except as projections upon our fellow human beings.

这些「神话的」层面总是出现,即使在某个特定的个案,它们可能是无意识。譬如,假如我们没有恰好回想起来。当我们考虑要将花园的大门漆成绿色或白色,绿色的生命与希望的颜色,绿色的象征层面仍然出现,作为无意识的暗示。所以,我们发现某件东西具有最高的意义,对于无意识的生命位于意识价值的天平的最低层,反过来也是一样。阴影的这个人物已经是属于没有身体的魅影—更不用说阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯。它们似乎根本就没有出现,除了作为投射到我们同胞人类。

As for the self, it is completely outside the personal sphere,
and appears, if at all, only as a religious mythologem, and its
symbols range from the highest to the lowest. Anyone who identifies
with the daylight half of his psychic life will therefore
declare the dreams of the night to be null and void, notwithstanding
that the night is as long as the day and that all consciousness
is manifestly founded on unconsciousness, is rooted
in it and every night is extinguished in it.

至于自性,则是完全外在于个人的范围之外,仅是出现作为宗教的神话论。它的象范围从最高到最低。有人若是认同他的心灵生活的白天的一半,他因此将会宣告夜晚的梦是无效与空无。虽然夜晚的时间跟白天一样长,所有的意识很明显是以无意识作为基础,根源于无意识,夜晚在无意识里被消灭。

What is more, psychopathology
knows with tolerable certainty what the unconscious
can do to the conscious, and for this reason devotes to the unconscious
an attention that often seems incomprehensible to the
layman. We know, for instance, that what is small by day is big
at night, and the other way round; thus we also know that
besides the small by day there always looms the big by night,
even when it is invisible.

而且,心理病理学勉强确定地知道,无意识能够对意识做些什么。因为这个理由,给予无意识一种专注,这是外行人似乎无法理解的专注。譬如,我们知道,白天微小的东西,夜晚变得重大。倒过来也是一样。因此,我们也知道,除了白天微小的东西外,夜晚总是隐隐出现重大的东西,即使它无法看得见。

58 This knowledge is an essential prerequisite for any integration—
that is to say a content can only be integrated when its
double aspect has become conscious and when it is grasped not
merely intellectually but understood according to its feeling-
value. Intellect and feeling, however, are difficult to put into
one harness—they conflict with one another by definition. Whoever
identifies with an intellectual standpoint will occasionally
find his feeling confronting him like an enemy in the guise of
the anima; conversely, an intellectual animus will make violent
attacks on the feeling standpoint.

对于融合,这个知识是基本的先决条件。换句话说,仅有当内容的双重层面已经知道,它不仅在知识方面被理解,而且依照它的感觉被了解,它才能够被融合。可是,知识与感觉很困难同时控制—它们在定义是就互相冲突。认同知识标准的任何人,都有时会发现他的感情跟他冲突,就像是伪装成阿尼玛的敌人。相反地,知识的阿尼玛斯将会从事暴力的攻击,对于感觉的观点。

Therefore, anyone who wants
to achieve the difficult feat of realizing something not only intellectually,
but also according to its feeling-value, must for better
or worse come to grips with the anima /animus problem in order
to open the way for a higher union, a coniunctio oppositorum.
This is an indispensable prerequisite for wholeness.

因此,想要获得这个困难的技巧的任人,不仅在知识方面体现某件东西,而且依照感觉的价值,他无论好坏,都必须克服阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的难题,为了打开这个途经,获得更高的统合,对立的统合。这是获得完整性的一个不可免除的先决条件。

59 Although “wholeness” seems at first sight to be nothing but
an abstract idea (like anima and animus), it is nevertheless empirical
in so far as it is anticipated by the psyche in the form of
spontaneous or autonomous symbols. These are the quaternity
or mandala symbols, which occur not only in the dreams of
modern people who have never heard of them, but are widely
disseminated in the historical records of many peoples and many
epochs.

虽然「完整性」乍然一看,似乎仅是一个抽象的观念,(就像阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯)。它仍然是经验的,因为它可被心灵所预期,以自动自发或自主权的象征。这些都是四分图,或是曼陀罗的象征。它们不但发生在以前未曾听过它们的现代人的梦里,而且广泛地扩散在许多民族与许多时代的历史的记录里。

Their significance as symbols of unity and totality is
amply confirmed by history as well as by empirical psychology.
What at first looks like an abstract idea stands in reality for
something that exists and can be experienced, that demonstrates
its a priori presence spontaneously.

它们作为统合与整体性的象征的意义,在历史与在经验的心理学,都获得充分地证实。起初看起来像是抽象的观念,在现实里代表某件存在的东西,而且能够被经验到,自动自发地证明它是一个先验的存在。

Wholeness is thus an objective
factor that confronts the subject independently of him, like
anima or animus; and just as the latter have a higher position in
the hierarchy than the shadow, so wholeness lays claim to a position
and a value superior to those of the syzygy. The syzygy
seems to represent at least a substantial portion of it, if not actually
two halves of the totality formed by the royal brothersister
pair, and hence the tension of opposites from which the
divine child 9 is born as the symbol of unity.

完整性因此是一个客观的因素,跟独立于他的主体相对立,就像阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯。正如后者则阶层上拥有比阴影更高的地位,完整性宣称拥有的地位跟价值,更加优越于阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的融合。这个融合似乎代表至少是它的实质的部分,即使不不是整体性的实际上的两半。这个整体性由忠诚的兄弟姐妹配对组成。因此从这些对立的紧张,神性的小孩诞生,作为统合的象征。

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Lacan: The Absolute Master 5

September 19, 2014

Lacan: The Absolute Master 5
拉康:绝对的主人

By Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen
雅克慎论拉康

We can bet that Lacan for his part would have answered affirmatively, and that this very desire—the desire for death, finite desire (1977b, 31/32)—is what Lacan recognized, beyond all knowledge, in his “master,” Kojeve. This is a great homage, if we think about it, since it would mean recognizing his own “Desire” in Kojeve’s—that is, as we know, the “desire of the Other”; it is perhaps not so well known that this last formula was originally Kojeve’s.

我们能够打赌,拉康就他自己而言,本来会肯定地回答。这个欲望—对于死亡的欲望,有限的欲望(1977b, 31/32),是拉康体认出来的欲望,超越所有的知识,在他的「主人」,科耶夫。这是奇怪的致敬,假如我们思考它,因为那将意味着,在科耶夫的欲望里,体认出他自己的欲望。换句话说,如我们所知道,大他者的欲为。或许这并不广为人知,这个最后的公式,原先是科耶夫的公式。

What human Desire desires, Kojeve asserted, is Desire as such, in its pure and insatiable vacuity: “Human Desire must be directed toward another Desire. … Thus, in the relationship between man and woman, for example, Desire is human only if the one desires … the Desire of the other.”24 And so, finally, there was as much rigorous probity as fundamental dishonesty in the way Lacan appropriated Kojeve’s formula, which under his pen became “the formula I have given of desire as unconscious—the desire of man is the desire of the Other” (1977b, 115/105). After all, why in heaven’s name render unto Kojeve what was not Kojeve’s—his desire, which tortured him beyond himself and everything he could know about it?

科耶夫主张,人类欲望所欲为的东西,就是欲望本身,处于它纯粹而无法满足的空无:「人类的欲望必须被引导朝向另外一个欲望。因此,譬如,在男人与女人之间的关系,仅有当这个人欲望他者的欲望时,这才是人的欲望。所以,最后,拉康利用科耶夫的公式的方式,有其严谨的尊严,也有基本上的不诚实。在他笔下,这个公式变成是「我曾经给予欲望的公式,作为无意识—人的欲望就是大他者的欲望」(1977b, 115/105)。毕竟,以上天的名义,为什么要将并非是科耶夫的东西,转换成为科耶夫的欲望?他的欲望苦恼著他超越他自己,以及他能够知道关于它的一切东西。

The desire that escaped from him was not his own, but completely Other than himself; and thus it was for another (Lacan, in this instance) to recognize it where it was—that is, nowhere: in the rift, in the breach, in the stumbling of the discourse of full satisfaction, in the unknown (otherwise translated as the unconscious: das Unbewusste) of absolute knowledge. Or in the Wise Man’s burst of laughter.

从他那里逃离出来的这个欲望,并不是他自己的欲望,而是完全不是他自己的欲望。因此,需要另一个人在欲望所在地地方来体认他(譬如,拉康)。换句话说,没有地方:在罅隙,在裂缝,在充分满足的辞说的结结巴巴里,在未知里(或翻译为在无意识里:绝对知识的无意识里)。或是在智慧的人的突发的笑声里。

And yet that rift, that breach, had to be inscribed somewhere in Kojeve’s otherwise impeccably closed and circular discourse. That breach, which Lacan would never cease to insist on reopening, has a name, and that name is “man.” In this regard, it was no accident that the laughter of Kojeve the man, of the Wise Man incarnated in Alexandre, is where Lacan recognized the rift of the “subject supposed to know.”

可是,那个罅隙,那个裂缝,必须被铭记在某个地方,在科耶夫的毫无瑕疵的封闭与循环的辞说里。这个裂缝,拉康将永远不会停止坚持要重新打开,它有个名字,那个名字叫「人」。关于这点,这并非偶然,科耶夫的笑声,人,智慧人的这个笑声,在亚历山大身上被具体表现。在那里,拉康体认出「应该知道的主体」的罅隙。

Indeed, Kojeve proposed a “humanist” and “anthropological” interpretation of Hegel in his course, and that was how he ended up stumbling onto the problem of death and finitude, dragging his most eminent listeners into a sort of strange Hegelian-ism of pure negativity, which rather quickly swerved into a virulent anti-Hegelianism (and anti-humanism). Insofar as Lacan, in many ways, was the most consequential representative of this tradition of thought, it is important to pause here for a moment. This problem of “humanism” was also his, and so he remained to the end “the son of his times.”

的确,科耶夫在他的课程里,建议一个「人道主义」与「人类学」地诠释黑格尔。那就是他如何结束的方式,当他遭遇死亡与有限性的问题,拉着他最杰出的听众,进入纯粹负面的黑格尔主义。这个纯粹负面很快地就转变成为恶毒的反-黑格尔主义(与反-人道主义)。因为拉康在很多方面是这个思想传统最重要的代表,我们在此稍停一下是很重要的。「人道主义」的这个难题,也是他的难题。所以,他一直到最后始终是「他的时代的儿子」。

Of his Kojevian times, that is, since this problem—the problem of the human, all too human, mortality of the Wise Man—is, we must emphasize, in no way a Hegelian problem, and for a very simple reason: namely, that absolute knowledge, as its name indicates, is not in any sense a knowledge or science of finite man. The Science of Logic, absolute knowledge’s exposition, Hegel plainly defines as “the exposition of God as he is in his eternal essence before the creation of nature and a finite mind.”25 Despite certain appearances, the same is true of the work that Kojeve chose to comment on, not accidentally entitled Phenomenology of Spirit.

他是他的科耶夫时代的儿子。也就是,这个难题—智慧的人的人类,太过人类的有限生命的难题—根本就不是黑格尔的难题,我们必须强调的。理由很简单:也就是说,那个绝对的知识,顾名思义,根本就不是有限的人的知识或智慧。「逻辑的智慧」,绝对知识的阐明,黑格尔明白定义为「上帝的阐明,因为在自然与有限心灵的创造之前,依照他处于他的永恒的本质。」尽管某些的外表,就科耶夫选择评论的著作而言,情况同样地真实。那个著作被标题为「精神现象学」,并非偶然。

This phenomenology, which admittedly describes the diverse figures of human consciousness and knowledge, is nevertheless a clearly phenomenal manifestation of the Absolute—that is, of what Hegel calls, in his preface, the “life of God”26 or the “life of the Spirit,” by which he means the life of the trinitarian Spirit that “endures [death] and maintains itself in it.”27 In this sense, Hegel’s Phenomenology is the speculative version of the Passion (as Bataille, rectifying Kojeve, understood perfectly):28 the Absolute that “rends” itself in its self-negation is strictly modeled on the kenosis of Christ (Saint Paul, Philippians 2:7; Christ “emptied himself [ekenosen], taking the form of a servant”).

这个现象,虽然描述人类意识与知识的多样的人物,它仍然是这个绝对真理的现象的展示,也就是,黑格尔在他的序言里,所谓的「上帝的生命」或「精神的生命」。他的意思是,三位一体的精神的生命,它承受死亡,并且在死亡里维持它自己。从这个意义言,黑格尔的「精神现象学」是生命激情的沉思版本(如同巴塔耶矫正科耶夫时,完美地理解)。这个绝对真理在它自己-否定里「撕裂」它自己。严格地模仿耶稣基督的掏空自己(圣保罗,菲利宾2:7;基督掏空他自己,扮成仆人的模样)。

We might as well say that this death is inseparable from the resurrection. There is in Hegel an incarnation of the Absolute (human manifestation, finite phenomenality), but this incarnation remains that of the Spirit that “maintains itself even in death” and thus “changes nothingness into being.” The fact that man (the “Son of Man”) dies is no problem for Hegel, since this death of the finite man is precisely the motive force behind his infinite “sublation” {Aufhebung),29 the condition of the Spirit’s finally absolute manifestation as trinitarian identity of Father and Son, of substance and subject, of the in-itself and the for-itself, of identity and difference: “That Substance is essentially Subject is expressed in the representation of the Absolute as Spirit—the most sublime Concept and the one which belongs to the modern age and its religion.”30

我们很有理由说,这个死亡跟复活是无法分开的。在黑格尔,有一个绝对真理的具体化身(人的展示,有限的现象)。但是这个具体化身始终是精神的具体化身。「即使在死亡里,精神维持它自己」,因此,「将空无改变成为生命实存」。人(人之子)死亡的这个事实,对于黑格尔并不是难题,因为这个有限生命的人的死亡,确实就是这个动机的力量,在这个无限的「钩消」的背后。精神的最后的绝对的展示,作为是天父与儿子,物质与主体,在它自身与为了它自身的三位一体的认同与差异;「物质基本上是主体,这一点被表达,在呈现绝对真理作为精神—作为最崇高的观念,属于现代与其宗教的观念。」

雄伯译
32hsiung@phome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

梦心理面面观 3

September 19, 2014

梦心理面面观 3
General Aspects of Dream Psychology

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

我们将首先从弗洛依德的因果律的观点,考虑这个材料。换句话说,我们将使用弗洛依德的表达,「诠释」这个梦。从前一天一个愿望听任没有被满足,在苹果事件的象征下。但是为什么这个满足在象征的意象下伪装与隐藏,而不是被表达,用清楚的性的思想?弗洛依德将会指向无可置疑的负罪感,并且说,从童年被灌输到这位年轻人的道德观念,倾向于压制这些愿望。为了那个目的,将自然的渴望标记为某件令人痛苦与不和谐的东西。被压抑的痛苦的思想因此表达它自己,仅是「象征方式」。当这些思想跟意识的道德内容不相和谐,弗洛依德假设会有一个心灵的权威,被称为审查官,阻止这个愿望不经伪装就进入意识。

从最终性的观点考虑一个梦,我用这个方法来对比于弗洛依德的因果律的观点。我想要强调的一点是,它并没有牵涉到梦的原因的否认。相反地,它以不同方式诠释环绕梦收集而来的联想材料。这个材料始终是相同的,但是它们被判断的标准却是不同。这个问题仅能被解释如下:这个梦的目的是什么?它被用来产生什么的影响?这些问题并不是任意性,因为它们能够被运用到每个心灵的活动。每个地方,「为什么」与「产生什么结果」的这些问题会被提出,因为每个有机生命的结构,由复杂的目的网络功能组成。每一个功能能够被解决成为一系列的个别的事实,具有目的的定向。

显而易见,这个梦增加到前一天的性爱的经验的材料,主要是强调在性爱的行为具有负罪感的元素。相同的联想已经显示它自己运用在前一天的另外一个经验里。当他跟偶然认识的女士会面,良心不安自动而且无法解释地被唤起。好像在那个例子,这位年轻人正在做某件错误的事情。这个感觉也扮演梦里的一个角色,并且更进一步受到增添的材料的联想所强化。那是伊甸园堕落的故事所描述的,然后随之而来的是如此严厉的处罚。

我主张,在作梦者身上,存在着无意识的特质或倾向,要将他的性爱的经验代表作为负罪感。特性就是,梦后面跟随着伊甸园的堕落的联想,而这位年轻人从来确实理解为什么处罚竟然会是如此严厉。这个联想让我们明白这些理由,为什么他不仅是这样思考:「我正在做的事情是不对的。」显而易见地,他并不知道,他可能谴责他的行动,作为道德上是错误的。这确实就是这个情况。他的意识的信仰是,他的行为在道德方面根本就不重要,因为他所有的朋友都在相同方式地行为。除此之外,他完全无法根据其他理由来理解,为什么会引起这样的骚乱。

现在,这个梦是否应该被认为是有意义或无意义,依靠著一个重要的问题。也就是说,道德的标准,自古传递下来,它的本身是有意义或无意义。我并不需要漫谈进入哲学的讨论这个问题。但是我仅是想要观察,人类设计这个道德,当时一定曾经有过很强烈的理由,否则我们确实无法理解,为什么这样的约束竟然会赋加在人类最强烈的欲望之上。假如我们给予这个事实它应得的东西,我们一定会宣布这个梦是由意义的。因为它显示给这位年轻人这个必要性:至少要从道德的观点来观看他的性爱行为。原始的部落在性的某些方面拥有极端严格的法则。这证明,性的道德是一个不应该被忽略的因素,从心灵的最高功能而言,并且应该充分地被考虑。在受到质疑的个案,我们应该必须说,这位年轻人,由于受到朋友例子的催眠,相当粗心地屈服于这个性爱的欲望,他没有注意到这个事实:人在道德上必须负责,无论他自愿或非自愿,接受他自己创造的这个道德。

在这个梦里,我们能够觉察无意识的一个补偿的功能。在意识的生活里,过于受到漠视的那些思想,爱嗔,与倾向,在睡眠的状态,自动自发地活跃起来。这时,意识的过程大幅度地被减少。

在此,这个问题确实会被提问:对于作梦者,这有什么用途,假如他不了解这个梦?

对于这点,我必须评论,了解并不是完全是知识的过程。如若经验显示的,一个人会受到无数的事情影响,他确实会以最有效的方式相信,对于这些事情,他并没有知识方面的了解。我仅是想要提醒我的读者,宗教的象征的有效性。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com