Aion 13

Aion 13
Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

CHRIST, A SYMBOL OF THE SELF
耶稣基督,自性的象征

73 The God-image in man that was damaged by the first sin
can be ”reformed” 20 with the help of God, in accordance with
Romans 12:2: “And be not conformed to this world, but be
transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may prove
what is . . . the will of God” (RSV).

在人身上的上帝的意象受到首次原罪的损害,凭借上帝的帮助,能够被「修复」,以符合「罗马书12:2」:「人身上的上帝的意象无法符合这个世界,但是能够凭借你的心灵的更新来转化。这样,你可以证明什么是上帝的意志」。(RSV)

The totality images which
the unconscious produces in the course of an individuation
process are similar “reformations” of an a priori archetype (the
mandala). 21 As I have already emphasized, the spontaneous symbols
of the self, or of wholeness, cannot in practice be distinguished
from a God-image.

在个体化的过程,无意识产生的完整性意象,是先验的原型(曼荼罗)的类似「修复」。如同我已经强调的,自性或完整性的自动自发的象征,实际上,无法跟上帝的意象区别。

Despite the word ^era^op^ovaBe (‘be
transformed’) in the Greek text of the above quotation, the
“renewal” (dyaKaiVwo-is, reformatio) of the mind is not meant as
an actual alteration of consciousness, but rather as the restoration
of an original condition, an apocatastasis.

尽管「被修复」这个字词,在以上引述的希腊文本,心灵的更新并不是用来作为意识的实际轮换,而是作为原初的情况的恢复,复原。

This is in exact
agreement with the empirical findings of psychology, that there
is an ever-present archetype of wholeness 22 which may easily
disappear from the purview of consciousness or may never be
perceived at all until a consciousness illuminated by conversion
recognizes it in the figure of Christ.

这是确实符合心理学的经验的发现。有一个完整性的永久存在的原型,很容易就从意识的关注里消失,或直至受到转化启明的意识,从耶稣基督的人物体认出它,它才可能被感知。

As a result of this “anamnesis”
the original state of oneness with the God-image is restored.
It brings about an integration, a bridging of the split in
the personality caused by the instincts striving apart in different
and mutually contradictory directions.

由于这个「病历」,原初跟上帝的意象合一的状态被恢复,它导致一种融合,人格的分裂的弥合,因为本能导致的分裂,朝不同而且互相矛盾的方向裂开的本能。

The only time the split
does not occur is when a person is still as legitimately unconscious
of his instinctual life as an animal. But it proves harmful
and impossible to endure when an artificial unconsciousness—
a repression—no longer reflects the life of the instincts.

唯有一次分裂没有发生,当一个人跟动物一样,同属他的本能的生命的合理的无意识。但是那证明是有害,而且不可能持久,当人为的无意识—一种压抑—不再反映本能的生命。

74 There can be no doubt that the original Christian conception
of the imago Dei embodied in Christ meant an allembracing
totality that even includes the animal side of man.

无可置疑,原初的基督教具有神性意象的观念,具体表现在耶稣基督身上,用意是要拥抱一切的完整性,甚至包括人的动物的一面。

Nevertheless the Christ-symbol lacks wholeness in the modern
psychological sense, since it does not include the dark side of
things but specifically excludes it in the form of a Luciferian
opponent.

可是,基督的象征在现代的心理学意义,欠缺完整性。因为它并没有包括事情的黑暗面,而是明确地排除它,以魔鬼的对手的形态。

Although the exclusion of the power of evil was
something the Christian consciousness was well aware of, all it
lost in effect was an insubstantial shadow, for, through the doctrine
of the privatio boni first propounded by Origen, evil was
characterized as a mere diminution of good and thus deprived
of substance.

虽然邪恶的力量的被排除,是基督教徒的意识清楚知道的事情,它实际上所丧失的东西,是一个非实质的阴影。通过起源论提倡的原罪的教条,作为仅是善的缩影,因此被剥夺掉物质。

According to the teachings of the Church, evil is
simply “the accidental lack of perfection.” This assumption
resulted in the proposition “omne bonum a Deo, omne malum
ab homine.” Another logical consequence was the subsequent
elimination of the devil in certain Protestant sects.

依照教会的教导,邪恶仅是「偶然地欠缺完美」。这个假设造成这个命题:「所有的善来自上帝,所有的恶归诸人类。」另外一个逻辑的结果是,在某些的基督教派里,魔鬼随后被减除。

75 Thanks to the doctrine of the privatio boni, wholeness
seemed guaranteed in the figure of Christ. One must, however,
take evil rather more substantially when one meets it on the
plane of empirical psychology.

由于原罪的教条,完整性似乎被保证,以耶稣基督的形态。可是,我们必须以更加实质的方式看待邪恶,当我们在经验心理学的层面遇到它。

There it is simply the opposite
of good. In the ancient world the Gnostics, whose arguments
were very much influenced by psychic experience, tackled the
problem of evil on a broader basis than the Church Fathers. For
instance, one of the things they taught was that Christ “cast off
his shadow from himself.” 23

恶仅是善的对立面。在古代的世界,诺斯教派的论点相当受到心灵经验的影响,他们处理恶的难题,比教会的祖先更加广泛的基础。譬如,他们教导的一件事是,耶稣基督将阴影从他自己身上祛除。

If we give this view the weight it
deserves, we can easily recognize the cut-off counterpart in the
figure of Antichrist. The Antichrist develops in legend as a perverse
imitator of Christ’s life. He is a true avn/u/xov wvevfia, an
imitating spirit of evil who follows in Christ’s footsteps like a
shadow following the body.

假如我们给予这个观念它应有的重视,我们能够容易地体认出这个被切割的类同之物,以反-基督的人物。反-基督在传说里发展,作为一位变态的模仿耶稣基督的一生。他是一位真实的邪恶的模仿精灵,他遵循耶稣基督的榜样,就像阴影遵循身体。

This complementing of the bright
but one-sided figure of the Redeemer—we even find traces of it
in the New Testament—must be of especial significance. And
indeed, considerable attention was paid to it quite early.

救赎者作为光辉但是单面的人物的互补,意义特别重要—我们甚至在新约都找得到它的痕迹。的确,很早前,就有人给予它相当的关注。

76 If we see the traditional figure of Christ as a parallel to the
psychic manifestation of the self, then the Antichrist would correspond
to the shadow of the self, namely the dark half of the
human totality, which ought not to be judged too optimistically.

假如我们看待耶稣基督的传统的人物,作为是跟自性的心灵的展示相提并论。那么,反-基督将就是对应于自性的阴影。换句话说,人的完整性的黑暗面,它不应该过于乐观地判断。

So far as we can judge from experience, light and shadow are so
evenly distributed in man’s nature that his psychic totality
appears, to say the least of it, in a somewhat murky light. The
psychological concept of the self, in part derived from our
knowledge of the whole man, but for the rest depicting itself
spontaneously in the products of the unconscious as an archetypal
quaternity bound together by inner antinomies, cannot
omit the shadow that belongs to the light figure, for without it
this figure lacks body and humanity.

只要我们能够根据经验判断,光与阴影在人的天性里如此平均地分配,以致人的心灵的完整性出现在相当朦胧的光里,这尚是委婉的说法。自性的心理的观念,部分从我们对完整的人的知识获得。但是对于其余的自动自发地描述它自己,以无意识的产物,作为被内部的对立物质联接一块的原型四位一体,无法省略属于光的人物的阴影。因为假如没有这个阴影,这个人物欠缺身体与人性。

In the empirical self, light
and shadow form a paradoxical unity. In the Christian concept,
on the other hand, the archetype is hopelessly split into two
irreconcilable halves, leading ultimately to a metaphysical dualism—
the final separation of the kingdom of heaven from the
fiery world of the damned.

在这个经验的自性,光与阴影形成一个悖论的一致性。另一方面,在基督教的观念,原型没有希望地被分裂成为两个无法和解的对半。最后导致一个形上学的双重性—天上的王国跟天谴的烈火世界分开。

77 For anyone who has a positive attitude towards Christianity
the problem of the Antichrist is a hard nut to crack. It is nothing
less than the counterstroke of the devil, provoked by God’s
Incarnation; for the devil attains his true stature as the adversary
of Christ, and hence of God, only after the rise of Christianity,
while as late as the Book of Job he was still one of God’s
sons and on familiar terms with Yahweh.24

对于任何对基督教持积极态度的人,反-基督的难题是很难破解的难题。它实实在在就是魔法的反击,受到上帝的具体化身所激发。因为魔法获得他真实的地位,作为是耶稣基督的敌人,因此就是上帝的敌人。就在基督教興起之后,晚至约伯记的时代,魔鬼依旧是上帝的儿子中的一位。他跟耶和华相处甚为熟稔。

Psychologically the
case is clear, since the dogmatic figure of Christ is so sublime
and spotless that everything else turns dark beside it. It is, in
fact, so one-sidedly perfect that it demands a psychic complement
to restore the balance.

从心理学而言,这个情况甚为清楚。因为耶稣基督的教条人物是如此崇高,没有瑕疵,以致在它旁边,每样其他东西都变成黑暗。事实上,基督在单方面是如此完美,以致它要求心灵的互补,才能恢复平衡。

This inevitable opposition led very
early to the doctrine of the two sons of God, of whom the elder
was called Satanael.25 The coming of the Antichrist is not just a
prophetic prediction—it is an inexorable psychological law
whose existence, though unknown to the author of the Johannine
Epistles, brought him a sure knowledge of the impending
enantiodromia.

这个无可避免的对立很早就导致上帝的两个儿子的教条。年长的那位儿子被称为撒旦尔。反-基督的来临并不仅是预言的预测—它是一个无情的心理的法则。这个法则的存在,让他确实地知道,「善复为妖」的来临。虽然传道书的作者自己并不知道。

Consequently he wrote as if he were conscious
of the inner necessity for this transformation, though we may be
sure that the idea seemed to him like a divine revelation. In
reality every intensified differentiation of the Christ-image
brings about a corresponding accentuation of its unconscious
complement, thereby increasing the tension between above and
below.

结果,他书写,好像他知道内部需要有这种转化。虽然我们可以确定,他觉得这个观念似乎是神性的启示。实际上,基督的意象的每次强化的差异,都导致对应地强调它的无意识的互补。因此增加上界与下界的紧张对立。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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