Aion 永恒纪元

Aion
永恒纪元
By Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

Chapter I
第一章

THE EGO
自我
Investigation of the psychology of the unconscious confronted
me with facts which required the formulation of new
concepts. One of these concepts is the self. The entity so denoted
is not meant to take the place of the one that has always been
known as the ego, but includes it in a supraordinate concept.

对于无意识心理学的研究让我面对要求新观念的诠释的这些事实。其中一个观念就是自性。如此被指明的实体,并不是被用来取代总是众所周知,作为自我的这个实体。而是包括它在一个早先于安置的观念。

We understand the ego as the complex factor to which all conscious
contents are related. It forms, as it were, the centre of the
field of consciousness; and, in so far as this comprises the empirical
personality, the ego is the subject of all personal acts of
consciousness. The relation of a psychic content to the ego forms
the criterion of its consciousness, for no content can be conscious
unless it is represented to a subject.

我们理解自我,作为是跟所有的意识内容息息相关的这个因素。它形成所谓的意识的领域的中心。因为它组成这个经验的人格,自我就是一切的意识的行动的主体。心灵跟自我的关系形成它的意识的标准。因为没有内容能够具有意识,除非它作为针对一位主体的代表。

With this definition we have described and delimited the
scope of the subject. Theoretically, no limits can be set to the
field of consciousness, since it is capable of indefinite extension.
Empirically, however, it always finds its limit when it comes up
against the unknown. This consists of everything we do not
know, which, therefore, is not related to the ego as the centre
of the field of consciousness. The unknown falls into two groups
of objects: those which are outside and can be experienced by
the senses, and those which are inside and are experienced immediately.
The first group comprises the unknown in the outer
world; the second the unknown in the inner world. We call this
latter territory the unconscious.

用这个定义,我们已经描述主体的范围,并且除掉主体的范围的限制。理论上,对于意识的领域,并无法竖立任何的限制。因为意识能够从事扩散的延伸。可是,经验上,意识总是发现它的限制,当它遭遇到未知的领域。这个未知的领域包括我们并没有全部知道的一切。因此,这个我们并没有全部知道的一切,作为意识的领域的中心,跟自己并不相关。这个未知的领域可分成两类的客体:在外部,而且被各种感官经验到的客体,与在内部,而且当下被经验的客体。第一类的客体组成外部世界的未知的领域;第二类则是组成在内部世界的未知的领域。我们称后者的这个领域为无意识。

The ego, as a specific content of consciousness, is not a simple
or elementary factor but a complex one which, as such,
cannot be described exhaustively. Experience shows that it rests
on two seemingly different bases: the somatic and the psychic.
The somatic basis is inferred from the totality of endosomatic
perceptions, which for their part are already of a psychic nature
and are associated with the ego, and are therefore conscious.

这个自我,作为意识到明确的内容,并不是单纯,或是基本的因素,而是复杂的因素。作为如此复杂的因素,自我无法全面性地被描述。我们从经验得知,自我依靠两个表面上不同的基础:身体的基础与心灵的基础。身体的基础根据身体内部知觉的整体性,就它们而言,这些身体内部的知觉已经是属于心灵的特质,而且跟自我息息相关,因此是意识。

They are produced by endosomatic stimuli, only some of which
cross the threshold of consciousness. A considerable proportion
of these stimuli occur unconsciously, that is, subliminally. The
fact that they are subliminal does not necessarily mean that their
status is merely physiological, any more than this would be true
of a psychic content. Sometimes they are capable of crossing the
threshold, that is, of becoming perceptions.

这些知觉由身体内部的刺激所产生。这些身体内部的刺激,仅有一些跨越过意识的门槛。这些刺激,有大多数是无意识地发生,也就是,升华地发生。这些刺激作为升华的这个事实,未必就是意味着,它们的地位仅是生理层面,正如就心灵的内容而言,这也并非真实。有时候,它们能够跨越这个门槛,也就是,跨越成为知觉的门槛。

But there is no
doubt that a large proportion of these endosomatic stimuli are
simply incapable of consciousness and are so elementary that
there is no reason to assign them a psychic nature—unless of
course one favours the philosophical view that all life-processes
are psychic anyway. The chief objection to this hardly demonstrable
hypothesis is that it enlarges the concept of the psyche
beyond all bounds and interprets the life-process in a way not
absolutely warranted by the facts.

无可置疑,大多数的这些身体内部的刺激偏偏就是无法成为意识。它们是如此基本,以致于没有理由将它们指定一个心灵的特质。当然,除非我们偏爱这个哲学的观点:无论如何,所有的生命-过程都是心灵的生命-过程。对于这个几乎无法被证明的假设的主要的反对理由是,它将心灵的观念扩大到超越所有的限制,并且解释生命-过程,所用的方式,并没有受到事实的绝对保证。

Concepts that are too broad
usually prove to be unsuitable instruments because they are too
vague and nebulous. I have therefore suggested that the term
“psychic” be used only where there is evidence of a will capable
of modifying reflex or instinctual processes. Here I must refer
the reader to my paper “On the Nature of the Psyche,” * where
I have discussed this definition of the “psychic” at somewhat
greater length.

太过于广泛的观念,通常证明并不是合宜的工具。因为它们太过模糊与朦胧。我因此建议,「心灵」这个术语仅是应该被使用在有证据证明,意志能够匡正反射或本能的过程。在此,我必须推荐读者阅读我的论文「论心灵的特性」。在那篇论文里,我已经相当详细地讨论「心灵」的这个定义。

The somatic basis of the ego consists, then, of conscious and
unconscious factors. The same is true of the psychic basis: on
the one hand the ego rests on the total field of consciousness,
and on the other, on the sum total of unconscious contents.

因此,自我的身体的基础是由意识与无意识的因素组成。就心灵的基础而言,情况也是同样真实。一方面,自我依靠意识的完整的领域;另一方面,自我依靠无意识内容的总数。

These fall into three groups: first, temporarily subliminal contents
that can be reproduced voluntarily (memory); second,
unconscious contents that cannot be reproduced voluntarily;
third, contents that are not capable of becoming conscious at all.
Group two can be inferred from the spontaneous irruption of
subliminal contents into consciousness. Group three is hypothetical;
it is a logical inference from the facts underlying group
two. It contains contents which have not yet irrupted into consciousness,
or which never will.

这些无意识内容分成三类:第一类是暂时升华的内容,这些内容能够自愿地被复制(记忆);第二类,无意识的内容,它们无法自愿地被复制。第三类,根本就无法成为意识的内容。第二类能够被推论出来,根据升华的内容自动自发地爆发成为意识。第三类则是假设;这个假设是逻辑的推论,根据作为第二类的基础那些事实。它包括那些还没有被爆发成为意识的那些内容,或是永远不会爆发成为意识的内容。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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