语言的神秘6

语言的神秘6
Linguisteries

雅克慎论拉康
Lacan TheAbsolute Master
拉康,绝对主人

It is well known that this schema’s purpose, in Saussure, was to illustrate the simultaneous segmentation of otherwise “amorphous*’ masses of “sounds” and “thoughts,” Thus it involves a sort of syn-chronic “cross section” intended to illustrate, in quasi-mythical form, the strictly nontemporal principle of any languex either there is discontinuity (there are “discrete” unities) or there is only an un-differentiated continuity where nothing makes sense.

众所周知,这个基模的目的,在索绪尔,就是要说明这个同时性的分隔,其他方面「无定形」的「声音」与「思想」的质量。因此,它牵涉到一种同时性的「跨越」,以类似神秘的形态,被用来说明任何语意的这个严格是非-时间的原则。要就是存在着不连续(有各种「分开的」统合),要不就是仅是存在着非-差异的连续性,没有一样东西具有意义。

Lacan, very significantly, sees in this the figuration of an uninterrupted sentence. More precisely, he connects the Saussurian schema to the linear combination of signifiers on the syntagmatic axis, which is itself surreptitiously applied to the “diachrony [of] discourse” (1981, 66; my emphasis)39—a way of putting the aforesaid “amorphous” masses into movement and introducing the idea of “an incessant sliding of the signified under the signifier” (1977a, 154/ 502). Indeed, what happens if I add one signifier after another, to form a sentence (a “signifying chain,” in Lacan’s vocabulary, inspired here by Hjelmslev)?

意味深远地,拉康在这里看出一个非中断的句子的寓意。更贴切地说,他将索绪尔的基模,跟以句法为轴心的能指的直线组合连接一块。这个句法的轴心本身被秘密地运用到「辞说的历时性」(1981,66)—这一种方式将以上所说的「不定形」的质量付诸行动,并且介绍这个观念:「所指在能指之下不断地滑动」。(1977a,154/502)。的确,假如我增加一个能指又一个能指,为了形成一个句子(用拉康的词彙,能指化的锁链,受到希姆丝列夫达启发),那会发生什么事?

According to Lacan, no signifier will have any definite signified before being combined with other signifiers, until the point where a period retroactively and provisionally seals the meaning of the sentence (1981, 303, 338; 1977a, 153-154/502-503, 304/806)—as we see if we successively consider the signifying unities that compose the present sentence (“Ac)cording/to/Lacan/… /./”/). Whence Lacan’s conclusion: “We can say… that none of [the elements of the chain of the signifier] ‘consists* in the signification of which it is at the moment capable” (1977a, 153/502).

依照拉康,在能指跟其他能指组合之前,没有能指将会有任何明确的所指。直到一个句点反顾而暂时地认可这个句子的意义,能指才会有任何明确的所指。(1981,303,338)。我们将会看出,我们是否连续地考虑到这些能指化的同合,它组成目前的句子(依照拉康说、、、)。拉康的结论是:「我们能够说,能指的锁链的元素,没有一样在于这个意义,它当下能够的意义」(1977a,153)。

The operative phrase here, certainly, is “at the moment.” Lacan means to say that there is no synchronic correspondence between signifier and signified because the meaning of a signifier is always yet to come in another punctuating signifier (baptized S2 in Lacanian “algebra”), which in turn, and so on: “The signifier, by its very nature, always anticipates meaning by unfolding its dimension before it” (1977a, 153/502; my emphasis).

在此的这个运作的词语,确实就是这个「当下」。拉康意图要说:能指与所指之间,没有同时性的对应,因为能指的意义总是有待未来,在另外一个标点的能指(被洗礼命名的S,用拉康的「代数」来说),然后轮到那个标点的能指,等等:「能指,根据其特性,总是预期意义,凭借在它面前展开它的维度。」(1977a,153/502)

We can understand this only if we concede a sort of intentionality of the signifier (or of the subject?), akin to the “signifying intention” spoken of by Merleau-Ponty: “The reason why a language finally intends to say and does say (veut dire et dit) something is not that each sign is the vehicle for a signification that allegedly belongs to it, but that all the signs together allude to a signification which is always in abeyance when they are considered singly, and which I go beyond them toward, without their ever containing it.”40

我们能够理解这个,只要我们承认一种能指的意图性(或主体的意图性),类似梅洛、庞帝谈论的「能指化的意图」:「语言最后意图要说,而且确实说出某件东西的理由,并不是每个符号都是宣称属于它的意义的媒介,而是,所有的符号一块提到的意义,总是处于悬置状态,当它们单独被考量时。我超越它们朝向这个悬置状态,因为它们从来没有包含它。

This empty intentionality, never filled, is what Lacan calls “metonymy” (inspired by Jakobson’s article on aphasia41), successively (and dangerously) identifying it with (i) the “word-to-word” of syntagmatic combination (1977a, 156/506); (2) metonymy in the rhetorical sense (1977a, 156/505); (3) the Freudian mechanism of “displacement” (1977a, 160/511), which, however, refers in Freud only to affective “emphasis”; and (4) desire as a perpetual “desire for something else” (1977a, 166/518). Hence this “formula” for metonymy: f(S . . . S’)S s S(—)s, which is read in the following way: The function of the metonymic connection of the signifier is congruent (more or less: =) with the maintenance of the bar that prevents the signifier from ever corresponding to its elusive signified except “at infinity.”

这个空洞的意图,从来没有被填满,就是拉康所谓的「换喻」(受到雅克慎探讨主体消失的启发),连续地,而且危险地,将它认同是句法组合的「字对字」的这个“我”(1977a,156/506);在修饰学的意义的换喻。弗洛依德的「替换」的机制(1977a,160-511)。可是,在弗洛依德,它仅是提到情感的「强调」,欲望作为是「对于某件其他东西的」永恒的欲望。因此,换喻的这个公式:f(S . . . S’)S s S(—)s, 被阅读如下:能指的换喻的连接的功能,对应于(相当等于: =)这条横杠的维持,阻止能指不要对应用它的躲闪的所指,除了处于「永恒」。

In short, the more you speak, the less you know what you mean to say (or desire), for the signification retroactively produced by the “punctuation” that pins one signifier to another always runs behind the signifying production itself. In a word, the signified fluctuates and “slips” indefinitely as a function of the signifiers, insofar as none of them manages to furnish the “last word” of meaning (and when that happens, Lacan says, we are in the realm of psychosis; cf. 1981, 30-31, 219—220). We can illustrate this point with the following (algorithmic?) diagram:
Sl,S2, S3.. .Sn

总之,你言说得越多,你知道你意图要说(或欲望)的越少,因为将一个能指钉住另外一个能指的这个「标点」反弹地产生的意义,总是落后于能指的能指化产生本身的背后。总之,所指不确定地摇摆并滑动,作为能指的功能。因为它们没有一个成功于供应意义的「最后真理」(假如发生那样的事情,拉康说,我们处于精神病的领域)。我们能够说明这点,用以下的图表运算式:

Sl,S2, S3.. .Sn

Better yet, we can use a sort of eternal cascade as illustration (since Lacan also speaks of “stages” with respect to the two elements of the “algorithm,” presupposing that the signifier falls regularly to the level of the signified, in order to “toss a cobblestone into the pond of the signified”; 1970, 68):42

更好的是,我们能够使用一种永久的「瀑布图」作为说明(因为拉康也提到「阶段」,关于这个「运算式」的两个元素。它预先假设:能指规律地掉落在所指的层面之下,为了抛掷一块小石头,到所指的池塘里(1970,68)

S1
S2
S3
Sn

*******s
******s

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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