如何言说真理 4

如何言说真理 4

雅克慎论拉康

I Truth, Lie’9

我,真理,说谎

Here, we feel that we are really “getting very warm,” as Lacan says at the moment when he enters on “Freudian truth” and the “revelation” of the unconscious made to Freud (1977a, 158/509). What is this burning truth, which we reach only in blindness (or blindfolded, since there seems to be a game of hide-and-go-seek going on)? We need not look very far, since Lacan leads us by the hand, citing the “being-toward-death” in the presence of which Freud’s speech could only “be extinguished.” The allusion to Being and Time is clear: this “Freudian truth” is apparently none other than the aletheia of Martin Heidegger—to whom, by the way, Lacan’s references become more and more insistent, and whose “sovereign word” (1977a, 175/528) begins to compete seriously with that of the “master,” Kojeve.14

在此,我们感觉确实「较为温暖」,如同拉康说,当他进入「弗洛依德的真理」与无意识给予弗洛依德的「启示」的时刻91977a.158/509)。这个正在燃烧的真理是什么?我们仅是在盲目中抵达的真理(或眼睛被蒙住,因为似乎正在进行捉迷藏的遊戏)。我们并不需要眼看远方,因为拉康用手引导我们,引述「朝向死亡的生命实存」。在这个「朝向死亡的生命实存」面前,弗洛依德的言说仅能被消灭。这里清楚地提到海德格的「存在与时间」:「弗洛依德的真理」显而易见地实实在在地就是马丁、海德格的aletheia真理。顺便说一下,拉康越来越持续地提到海德格。海德格的「统辖的道」(1977a,175/528)开始认真地競争,跟科耶夫的「主人的道」。

Indeed, to say that repression (that is, forgetting) is the truth of desire amounts to saying that this truth reveals nothing (“causes to be what is not”) and thus veils itself in its very unveiling. As we know, this is the principal characteristic of truth as rethought by Heidegger in terms of presentation/withdrawal of Being. “Truth,” as Heidegger continually recalls, is called a-letheia in Greek, which literally means “unveiling.” In other words, what is “true” in this initial sense “is” what holds itself “unveiled” in the light, what presents itself in the “opening” of the “non-occulted,” of the “non-hidden.” Prior to any truth conceived in terms of “correctness” of gaze or “accuracy” of enunciation, “truth” is a pure offering to a gaze—and thus, by the same token, a pure withdrawal in the face of that gaze.

的确,说潜抑(也就是,遗忘)是欲望的真理,等于是说,这个真理启示「空无」(导致并不存在的东西),因此遮蔽它自己,在它的揭示当中。我们知道,这是作为真理的特性的原则,如同海德格重新思索的,用生命实存的呈现与隐退的术语。海德格继续提醒,真理就是希腊文所谓的「道」,实质的意思是「揭示」。换句话说,属于「真理」的东西,在它最初的意义,意味着光亮里的「揭示」。呈现它自己,在「非-神秘」,「非隐藏」的「展露」。早先于任何用凝视的「正确」,或表达的「正确」的术语构想的真理,「真理」是一种纯粹的提供给凝视—因此,同样地,面临那个凝视时,「真理」是一种纯粹的隐退。

To see (to be ek-statically open to what opens itself, in what Heidegger calls the “dimensionality” or the “lightening” of Being) is always to see something, and thus not to see something else. Unless one is God, one never sees the two sides of the tree simultaneously, the six faces of the cube. The dimension of the transcendent exteriority (where philosophy has always placed the problem of truth) is necessarily the dimension of the shown/hidden, and the same is true of the transcendental and ek-static archispatiality of Heideggerian “dimensionality,” although here the structure of the shown/hidden is thought in its essence. For Heidegger, the “revealing” (apophantic) essence of truth is to “hide”—what? Nothing, no being (for such a being, once unveiled, would in turn veil, and so on). The aletheia (according to Heidegger, still hammering away) inevitably carries a portion of occultation and forgetting (lethe): nothing can unveil itself in the opening of presence except on condition of occulting—not this or that, but its own essential disocculta-tion. Unveiled, the being-present “veils” the unveiling itself—which is nothing, for it “is” the very thing that opens the possibility of everything that is (being, present, and so on). It follows that truth is essentially an unveiling (a presentation, an “offering” of being) that is equivalent to a veiling (since Being, in its very disclosure, withdraws into veiling).

看见(狂喜地开展给开展它自己的东西,在海德格所谓的生命实存的「维度」或「轻盈」),看见总是想要看见某件东西,因此,并不是想要看见某件其他的东西。除非我们是上帝,我们永远无法同时看见这棵树的两边,立方体的六个刻面。超验的外在性的维度(哲学总是将真理的难题摆放在那里),必然是显示/隐藏的维度。就海德格的「维度」超验与狂喜的「建筑-空间」而言,道理也是一样。虽然在此显示/隐藏的结构,在它的本质被思维。对于海德格,真理的「启示」的本质就是「隐藏」–什么?隐藏空无,生命实存的不存在(因为这样的生命实存,一旦被「揭示」,会反过来遮蔽,等等)。
这个真理(海德格依旧孜孜不倦地探索),无可避免地带着些微的奥秘与遗忘:在存在的开展时,没有一样东西能够揭示它自己,除了就是在奥秘的情况—不是这个,或是那个,而是它自己的本质的「除掉奥秘」。当它被揭示时,生命实存-存在「遮蔽」这个揭示的本身—那就是空无。因为就是这个「生命实存」的东西,开展一切(生命实存,存在,等等)的可能性。因此,我们推论,真理基本上是一种揭示(一种呈现,生命实存的一种提供)。它相等于是一种遮蔽(因为生命实存,由于它自己的封闭,隐退进入遮蔽)。

A passage from Heidegger’s article “Logos” will perhaps state the matter even more clearly, and it is worth the trouble of citing here, for it is probably one of the principal “sources” of what is, as we shall see, Lacan’s rather peculiar Heideggerianism.15 In this article, Heidegger closely ties aletheia, understood as (un)veiling, to logos, even going so far as to make the two terms synonyms. Note, however, that this in no way means that language “speaks” the truth; even less does it mean that language, by this very fact, is the condition of truth. Just as aletheia initially has nothing to do with truth (understood as adequate judgment or statement), so logos originally has nothing to do with language (understood as phone semantike, a sonorous emission “signifying” or “expressing” something). Logos, as Heidegger was already saying in Being and Time, is a “letting something be seen” (apophansis),16 and here he says the same thing again, defining logos etymologically as a “gathering-presencing” that “lets lie before”:

从海德格的文章「逻各斯」的一个段落,或许将这件事情陈述得更加清楚,值得在这里引述一下。我们将会看出,因为它或许是拉康对于特殊的海德格思想的其中一个主要的来源。在这篇文章里,海德格仔细地将被理解作为揭示的真理,跟逻各斯连接一块。甚至过分到让两个术语成为同义语。可是,请你们注意,这丝毫并不意味着,语言「言说」真理。更没有意味著,根据这个事实,语言就是真理的条件。正如「道」最初跟真理无关(被理解作为响亮的发出「能指化」或「表达」某件事情)。如同海德格在「存在与时间」已经说出的,逻各斯是「让某件东西被看见」的东西。在此,他再次说相同的事情,将逻各斯从词源学定义为「先前让躺在那里的聚集-存在」。

A&yos lays that which is present before and down into presencing. … Because the A6yo9 lets lie before us what lies before as such, it discloses [unveils] what is present in its presencing. But disclosure is ‘AX^^eta. This and Aoyo? are the Same. Aeyevv lets akr)$ea, the unconcealed as such, lie before us. . . . Ail disclosure releases what is present from concealment. Disclosure needs concealment. The *A-A*»)08MX rests in A^fli?, drawing from it and laying before us whatever remains deposited in M\By). Aoyos is in itself and at the same time a revealing and a concealing. It is ‘AX^flfiux.17

A&yos 将先前存在在底下的东西,摆放进入存在。因为A&yos 让先前存在的本身,躺在我们的面前。它在它的存在当中揭示所存在的东西。但是揭示是AX^^。 这个AX^^eta跟A&yos 是相同的。被揭示者的本身,躺在我们面前。所有的揭示都释放存在的东西,不再隐藏。揭示需要隐藏。前者依靠后者,从它那里获得剩余的东西,摆放在我们面前。生命实存的本身,同时既是揭示,又是隐藏。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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