如何言说真理

如何言说真理

雅克慎论拉康

\How Can We Speak the Truth?
我们如何言说真理?

For God’s sake!—quick!—quick!—put me to sleep— or, quick!—waken me!—quick!—I say to you that I
am deadl —Edgar Allan Poe •

看在上帝份子!—快!—快!让我沉睡—要不然,快!–唤醒我!—快!–我跟你们说我死了!
艾格尔、爱伦坡

The imaginary, we have just been saying, is a “denial” of death, a meconnaissance of desire, a “defense” against the anxiety of the absolute Master. Must we conclude, then, that desire is repressed in the specular relation (in the “imaginary transference”)? Indeed, according to good Freudian doctrine, it could be argued that desire—or, rather, the wish (Wunsch)2—is fulfilled “in the imaginary,” in phantasy (Phantasie), only on condition that repression and censorship forbid its fulfillment in reality. “A dream? Freud declares, “is a (disguised) fulfillment of a (suppressed or repressed) wish?3 and the same goes for all phantasmatic productions, not to mention the symptoms and transferences that prolong them. To reconcile Freud and Lacan, then, could we say that the analyst’s action consists in disengaging desire from the various imaginary formations in which it is deceptively “fulfilled” because of repression?

我能刚刚一直在说,想像界是死亡的「否认」,欲望的「误识」,对抗绝对主任的焦虑的「防卫」。我们因此必须下结论地说:欲望在魅影理想的关系里被压抑吗?在「想像界的移情」里被压抑吗?的确,依照美好的弗洛依德的信条,我们能够主张:仅有当欲望,或愿望的满足在现实受到压抑与审查时,它们才会在「想像界」里,在「幻见」里获得满足。弗洛依德宣称:「梦是受到压抑或潜抑的愿望的一种(伪装的)满足。相同的道路适用于幻见成形的产生,更不用说是延长幻见的病征与移情。那么,将弗洛伊德与拉康融合来看,我们能够说:精神分析家的行动就在于将欲望与各种的想像的形成分开吗?因为在各种想像的形成里,欲望因为受到潜抑的关系,欺骗地「被满足」?

What is the goal of an analysis (and, more generally, of an analytic interpretation)? To become conscious of the repressed wish, says Freud; to recognize the desire of the subject, says Lacan (“That the subject should come to recognize and to name his desire, that is the efficacious action of analysis”; 1988b, 228-229/267). Isn’t this the same thing? Once the Freudian Wunsch has been reinterpreted in terms of Kojevian “Desire,” doesn’t Lacan, in sum, propose to conceive of analysis as an unveiling of desire from its imaginary coverings—in short, as a progression through the realm of truth, as a “passage from ignorance to knowledge”?

精神分析的目标是什么?更通俗地说,精神分析的解释的目标是什么?弗洛依德说,那是为了意识到被潜抑的欲望,拉康则是说,是为了体认主体的欲望(主体应该逐渐体认,并且命名他的欲望,那就是精神分析的有效的行动」1988a,228-229/267)。这难道不是一件相同的事情吗?一旦弗洛依德的Wunsch,用科耶夫的「欲望」的术语来重新解释,总之,拉康难道不就是建议要将精神分析构想成为,将欲望从想像的掩饰里揭露出来?总之,作为通过真理的领域的一种进展,作为从「无知通过到启悟」?

Yes; but how can we continue to speak of the repression, disguising, veiling of desire, if this repression represses nothing, veils nothing} And how can we unveil “nothing”? How can we speak (name, recognize) the truth of desire?

是的,但是我们如何继续谈论潜抑,伪装,欲望的揭露,假如这种潜抑空无,遮蔽空无?我们如何能够揭露「空无」?我们如何能够言说(命名,体认)欲望的真理?

“Herr, What Is there to Be Said?”

「先生,有什么能够被说的吗?」

Let us take a famous example of repression: the forgetting of the name Signorelli, an incident that Freud analyzed in the opening chapter of Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Freud is on a train that is taking him from Ragusa to Herzegovina, and he is talking with a fellow traveler. At one point in the conversation, he has just mentioned the impressive frescoes in Orvieto cathedral, representing the Apocalypse (Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven) and painted by … by whom? Botticelli? Boltraffio? No, that’s not it. Freud can see the images of the Apocalypse quite clearly before him—and even the image of the painter himself.4 Nevertheless, no matter how hard he tries, he can no longer remember the painter’s name: Signorelli. Why not?

让我们举出潜抑的一个著名例子:Signorelli这个名字的遗忘,在「日常生活心理病理学」的开头章节,弗洛依德分析这个意外事件。弗洛依德正搭乘congRagus到Herzegovina的火车,他正在跟同车乘客谈话。在交谈的某个时刻,他刚刚提到在Orvieto大教堂的令人印象深刻的壁画,代表启示录(死亡,最后审判,地狱,天堂)的壁画,那是谁画的?Bortticelli?Boltraffio?不,并不是他。弗洛依德能够相当清楚地看出,在他面前的这个启示录壁画—甚至画家本人的形象。可是,无论他怎么尝试,他就是不再能够想起画家的名字:Signorelli。为什么?

It was, Freud tells us, as if this name had been swallowed up by the repression of other thoughts that the immediately preceding conversation had evoked. This conversation concerned the customs of the Turks living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially their fatalistic attitude toward death: “Herr [Sir], what is there to be said?” was their customary reply to the doctor who gave them the bad news. At that moment, Freud had also thought of their diametrically opposed attitude toward the loss of sexual potency: “Herr, you must know that if that comes to an end, then life is of no value.” But Freud had said nothing about this to his companion, out of a sense of propriety. Sex? Death? At any rate, Freud preferred not to think about it any more, shaken as he was at the time by the news, which he had learned at Trafoi, about the suicide of one of his patients, who suffered from “an incurable sexual disorder.” He, too, Herr Doktor Freud, had failed in the face of death. Well, what was there for him to say?

弗洛依德告诉我们,好像这个名字已经被其他思想的潜抑所吞没,就在先前谈话所召唤的其他的思想。这个谈话牵涉到居住在Bosnia与Herzegovina的土耳其人的海关,特别是他们对待死亡的宿命论的态度:「先生,还有什么能够被说的?」当医生告诉他们不治之病的坏消息时,他们的习惯性回答。在那个时刻,弗洛依德也想到他们的极端对立的态度,对于性的能力的丧失:「先生,你必须要知道,假如没有了性的能力,那么人生就没有价值。」但是弗洛依德由于礼貌客气,对于他的同车乘客并没有说出什么话。性?死亡?无论如何,弗洛依德宁可不要再去思想它,虽然他当时对于这个坏消息不无震惊。他在Trafoi那里曾经获知,关于他的一位病人的死亡。这位病人遭受「无法治疗的性的疾病」的痛苦。在面临死亡时,他,弗洛依德先生,也束手无策。呵呵,他能够有什么话好说?

Right away, he said what there was to say, without saying it, by forgetting (repressing) the name Signorelli into the Hell of the expressible, where it was henceforth to burn along with Herr (Sig-nor)y in Herzegovina. All that remains now are halves of words (rather like the chosen ones in the fresco of Judgment, whose half-bodies emerge from the earth where they had been lying): Bottice///, Boltraffio . .. which gives us the following “fresco”:5

马上,他说出应该被说出的话语,但是没有将Signorelli这个名字说出来,因为他将它遗忘(潜抑),进入无法被表达的地狱里。在那里,Signorelli这个名字,跟Herr(Signor)一同应该被焚烧,在Herzegovina。现在仅剩下的东西,各个字词的一半(有点像是在「最后审判」壁画里,那些被选择的人们,他们的身体的一半从他们横躺那里的地面出现:Botticelli, Boltraffio、、、这些名字给予以下的「壁画」:

Signorelli—Herzegovian andBoani—Botticelli
Signorelli—Hersegovina and Bosina—Boltraffio
Signorelli—Herr, what is there to be said,etc。
Signorelli—Herr—Death and sexuality — (repressed thoughts)
(Repressed thought)—Trafoi—Boltraff

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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