无意识的形成 28

无意识的形成 28
雅克、拉康
20.11.57 39
But naming them is not what is important. The core of what he
puts forward, the key to his analysis is this recognition of
common structural laws. This, as he says, is how you recognize
that a process has been drawn into the unconscious. It is what
is structured according to the laws, structured according to
their types. This is what is in question when the unconscious is
in question.

但是命名它们并非重要的事情。弗洛伊德提出的东西的核心,他的精神分析的关键是要体认出共通的结构的价值。如他所说,这就是你体认的方式:过程已经被吸收到无意识里。这就是依照法则所作为结构的东西,依照它们的类型作为结构的东西。这就是受到质疑的东西,当无意识受到质疑。

What happens then? What happens at the level of what I am
teaching you, is that we are now able, that is after Freud, to
recognize this event that is all the more demonstrative because
it is really extremely surprising.

那么,发生什么事情呢?在我正在教导你们的东西的层次,所发生的事情是,追随弗洛依德之后,我们现在能够体认出这个事件。这个事件更加具有展示性,因为它确实极端令人吃惊。

That these laws, this
structure of the unconscious, that by which a phenomenon can be
recognized as belonging to the formations of the unconscious is
strictly identifiable with, overlaps, and I would even say
further, overlaps in an exhaustive fashion what linguistic
analysis allows us to detect as being the essential modes of the
(6) formation of meaning, in so far as this meaning is engendered
by combinations of signifiers.

这些法则,无意识的这个结构,凭借它,现象能够被体认出来,作为归属于无意识的形成的东西,可严谨地被辨认出来。它重叠,我甚至不妨更深入地说,它重叠,以语言学的分析容许我们觉察的穷尽一切的方式重叠,作为是基本上是意义形成的基本模式。因为这个意义被产生,根据各种能指的联结。

The term signifier takes on its full meaning from a certain
moment in the evolution of linguistics, that at which there is
isolated the notion of the signifying element, a notion very
closely linked in the actual history to the separating out of the
notion of the phoneme.

从语言学的进化的某个时刻开始,能指这个术语就具有它充分的意义。能指意义的元素的观念在语言学被揭示出来。这个观念跟语素的观念的分隔出来的实际历史息息相关。

Since it is uniquely localized by its
associations with this notion, the notion of signifier, in so far
as it allows us to take language at the level of a certain
elementary register, can be doubly defined, on the one hand as a
diachronic chain, and, as a possibility within this chain, of a
permanent possibility of substitution in the synchronic sense.

因为它独特地被找出位置,凭借跟这个观念的联想,能指的这个观念。因为它让我们能够在某个初级的铭记接纳语言。它能够双重地被定义;一方面,作为历时性的锁链;另一方面,作为这个锁链里面的可能性,根据共时性的意义,作为替换的永久价值。

This grasp at an elementary level of the functions of the
signifier is a recognition at the level of this function of an
original power which is precisely that in which we can localize a
certain generation of something called meaning, and something
that in itself is very rich in psychological implications, and
that receives a kind of complement, without even needing to push
any further its own way, its research, to plough any further its
own furrow, in what Freud himself had already prepared for us at
this point of conjunction between the field of linguistics and
the proper field of psychoanalysis.

从能指的功能的初级层次的这种理解,是从原初的力量的这个功能的层次的体认。这个原初的力量,确实就是我们在那里能够找出某件所谓的意义的东西某个产生的位置。这个东西非常富有心理学的意涵,它接收某种的辅助,它甚至不需要更进一步前进,或探索,不需要更深入挖掘它自己的犁耕。在弗洛依德自己已经为我们准备好的东西,在语言学的领域与精神分析的本土领域之间的联结的这个时刻。

It is to show us that these
psychological effects, that these effects of the generation of
(7) meaning are nothing other than this, and overlap exactly what
Freud show us as being the formations of the unconscious.

它要跟我们显示,这些心理的影响,意义产生的这些影响,实实在在就是这个,并且确实重叠,跟弗洛依德告诉我们的东西重叠,作为无意识的形成的东西。

In other words, we are able to grasp something that remained
elided up to then in what can be called the place of man, and it
is precisely this: the relationship that there is between the
fact that for him there exist objects of a heterogeneity, of a
diversity, of a variability that is truly surprising compared to
the biological objects that we could expect as corresponding to
his existence as a living organism, namely something particular
that presents a certain style, a certain superabundant and
luxuriant diversity, and at the same time something impossible to
grasp as such as a biological object, something that comes from
the world of human objects, something that is found in this
instance to be closely and indissolubly related to the
submission, to the subduction, of the human being by the
phenomenon of language.

换句话说,我们能够理解直到当时始终失落的某件东西,在所谓的人的位置。
确实就是这个:对人而言,存在着异质性的各种客体,多样性的各种客体,变异的各种客体。这个事实之间的关系确实令人惊奇,跟生物的各种客体比较起来。我们能够预期生物的各种客体,作为对应于他作为生命有机体的存在。换句话说,某件特殊的东西呈现某种的风格,某种的超级丰富与奢华的多样性。同时,它本身作为生物的客体,又是不可能理解的东西,某件来自人的各种客体的世界。在这个例子里,这个东西被发现息息相关,跟人类由于语言的现象,受到屈服,受到压制息息相关,密不可分。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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