精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4

精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4
雅克、拉康

And the two moments, when the subject denies himself and when he charges the other,
become confused, and one discovers in him that paranoiac structure of the ego that finds
its analogue in the fundamental negations described by Freud as the three delusions of
jealousy, erotomania, and interpretation. It is the especial delusion of the misanthropic
‘belle âme’, throwing back on to the world the disorder of which his being is composed.

当主体否定他自己,以及当他攻击他者,这两个时刻变得混淆起来。我们在他身上发现自我的偏执结构,这个结构找到它的类同,在弗洛依德所描述的基本的否定里,作为是妒忌,色情狂,与解说狂等三种妄想症。这就是这位善心的美丽的灵魂特别妄想症,将他的生命实存组成的混乱抛回给这个世界。

Subjective experience must be fully enabled to recognize the central nucleus of
ambivalent aggressivity, which in the present stage of our culture is given to us under the
dominant species of resentment, even in its earliest aspects in the child.

主体性的经验必须充分地被启动,才能体认出爱恨交加的侵凌性的核心。在我们文化的目前阶段,爱恨交加的核心被给予我们,以「怨恨」作为支配性的一种,即使是在儿童的最早期。

Thus, because he
lived at a similar time, without having to suffer from a behaviourist resistance in the
sense that we ourselves do, St Augustin foreshadowed psychoanalysis when he expressed
such behaviour in the following exemplary image: ‘Vidi ego et expertus sum zelantem
parvulum: nondum loquebatur et intuebatur pallidus amaro aspectu conlactaneum suum’
(I have seen with my own eyes and known very well an infant in the grip of jealousy: he
could not yet speak, and already he observed his foster-brother, pale and with an
envenomed stare).

因此,因为圣奥古生活在类似的时代,他没有必要像我们一样遭受行为主义的抗拒。他预示精神分析的来临,当他用以下的意象表的如此的行为: 「我曾经亲眼看见,并且清楚知道充满妒嫉的婴孩。婴孩还不会说话,可是已经脸色苍白,目光凶狠地旁观收养家庭的兄弟。

Thus, with the infans (pre-verbal) stage of early childhood, the
situation of spectacular absorption is permanently tied: the child observed, the emotional
reaction (pale), and this reactivation of images of primordial frustration (with an
envenomed stare) that are the psychical and somatic co-ordinates of original aggressivity.

因此,在童年早期的前文辞阶段,被镜像吸引的情景永远地联接。被观看的小孩,情感的反应(脸色苍白),原初挫折的意象的重新启动(恶狠狠的眼光)。这些都是原初侵凌性在心理与生理的共同指标。

Only Melanie Klein, working on the child at the very limit of the appearance of
language, dared to project subjective experience back to that earlier period when
observation enables us nevertheless to affirm its dimension, in the simple fact for
example that a child who does not speak reacts differently to punishment or brutality.

梅兰妮、克莱恩研究处于语言出现受到限制的儿童。只有她敢于将主体性的经验,投射回到那个较早期的阶段。可是,我们凭借观察,能够肯定这个时期的维度。譬如,事实仅是,没有说话的儿童,对于惩罚与残酷的反应并不一样。

Through her we know the function of the imaginary primordial enclosure formed by
the imago of the mother’s body; through her we have the cartography, drawn by the
children’s own hands, of the mother’s internal empire, the historical atlas of the intestinal
divisions in which the imagos of the father and brothers (real or virtual), and the
voracious aggression of the subject himself, dispute their deleterious dominance over her
sacred regions.

通过克莱恩,我们知道,由母亲的形象所形成的想像的原初封闭的功能。通过克莱恩,我们拥有母亲的内部王国的地图,由孩子们亲手所绘。那是内部割据的历史的地图,父亲与兄弟们(无论是真实或虚拟的)的那些形象,以及主体自己的贪婪的侵凌性,互相争夺他们对于她的神圣的领域,形成有害的掌控。

We know, too, the persistence in the subject of this shadow of the bad
internal objects, linked with some accidental association (to use a term that we should
accept in the organic sense that it assumes in our experience, as opposed to the abstract
sense that it retains in Humean ideology).

我们也知道,这些「不良的内部客体」的这个阴影在主体身上,会流连不去。这些不良的内部客体跟某个意外关联联接一块(我们接纳意外关联这个术语,应该用我们精神分析经验所具有的有机体的意涵,对照于它在休谟的观念论所包留的抽象意涵。

Hence we can understand by what structural
means the re-evocation of certain imaginary personae, the reproduction of certain
situational inferiorities may disconcert in the most strictly predictable way the adult’s
voluntary functions: namely, their fragmenting effect on the imago of the original
identification.

因此,我们能够理解,凭借怎样的工具的手段,某个想像的「人格面具」personae的重新召换,某些情境的卑下的复制,可能会让这位成年人的自愿的各种功能狼狈不堪,以完全可预测的方式。换句话说,原初的认同的这个「形象」imago,产生碎片化的影响。

By showing us the primordiality of the ‘depressive position’, the extreme archaism of
the subjectification of a kakon, Melanie Klein pushes back the limits within which we can
see the subjective function of identification operate, and in particular enables us to situate
as perfectly original the first formation of the superego.

凭借跟我们揭示「沮丧的立场」的原初性,「恶物」的主体化的这个极端的陈腔滥调,梅兰妮、克莱恩将这些限制推后。在这些限制里面,我们看见主体对于认同的功能在运作,她特别让我们能够定位超我的首次形成,作为是非常原始的

But it is of particular importance to define the orbit within which, as far as our
theoretical reflexion is concerned, are ordered the relations – by no means all elucidated –
of guilt tension, oral noxiousness, hypochondriacal fixation, even that primordial
masochism that we exclude from our field of study, in order to isolate the notion of an
aggressivity linked to the narcissistic relation and to the structures of systematic
méconnaissance and objectification that characterize the formation of the ego.

但是特别重要的是要定义这个轨道。就我们的理论的反思而言,在这个轨道里,这些关系被排列顺序—根本就全部没有说明—罪恶感,出口恶毒,忧郁的固著,甚至从我们研究领域排除掉的那种原初的自虐狂,为了要将跟自恋的关系息息相关的侵凌性的观念区隔出来,因为侵凌性跟形成自我的特性的系统的「误识」与客体化的结构息息相关。

To the Urbild of this formation, alienating as it is by virtue of its capacity to render
extraneous, corresponds a peculiar satisfaction deriving from the integration of an
original organic disarray, a satisfaction that must be conceived in the dimension of a vital
dehiscence that is constitutive of man, and which makes unthinkable the idea of an
environment that is preformed for him, a ‘negative’ libido that enables the Heraclitean
notion of Discord, which the Ephesian believed to be prior to harmony, to shine once
more.

自我的形成的原型urbild,由于具有让事情外显的能力,它虽然让人异化,可是跟它对应的却是是一种特殊的满足,从原初的有机体的溃散的融合而获得的满足。这一种满足必须从生命力的绽放的维度来构想。生命力的绽放是人的构成本质。生命力的绽放,对于人而言,让环境优先于人形成的这个观念匪夷所思。生命力的绽放是一种「负面的生命力比多,让赫拉克利图斯的「不和谐」的观念再次闪亮。古代的以弗所人相信「不和谐」早先于和谐存在。

雄伯说
「精神分析中的侵凌性」,褚孝泉在「拉康选集」已经根据法文翻译过了。我现在根据英译本翻译,并不是觉得可以比他翻译得更好,而是看到Masterwho的「欺凌性就是暴力性」的提问,我自己想把它搞懂,才有办法回复。所以逐字分析翻译,主要是帮助自己理解。当然,能逐字解说更好。困难在于,如同拉康所说的,属于换喻metonym的东西,要用隐喻metaphor来解说,有时就是辞不达意。要理解换喻,有时就是自己必须进入换喻的语境,而不是停留在隐喻的语境。

台湾最近发生一位大二学生在捷运持刀无缘无故砍死4人,伤22人。被捕后面临死刑的控诉,他心里坦荡荡,一点罪恶感或良心不安都没有。甚至还有生命力终于绽放的欢爽 jouissance。这就是我想要理解与翻译的动机。欢迎大家加入讨论,看看能不能将问题看得更清楚些。

When speaking of the problem of repression, Freud asks himself where the ego
obtains the energy it puts at the service of the ‘reality principle’ – we need look no
further.

当弗洛依德谈论潜抑的问题,他询问自己,自我从哪里获得它用来服务「现实原则」的精力。这个回答,我们不需远求。

There can be no doubt that it derives from the ‘narcissistic passion’, if, that is, one
conceives of the ego according to the subjective notion that I am proposing here, as
conforming with the register of my experience. The theoretical difficulties encountered
by Freud seem to me in fact to derive from the mirage of objectification, inherited from
classical psychology, constituted by the idea of the perception/consciousness system, in
which Freud seems suddenly to fail to recognize the existence of everything that the ego
neglects, scotomizes, misconstrues in the sensations that make it react to reality,
everything that it ignores, exhausts, and binds in the significations that it receives from
language: a surprising méconnaissance on the part of the man who succeeded by the
power of his dialectic in forcing back the limits of the unconscious.

无可置疑地,这个精力从「自恋的激情」获得。换句话说,假如我们构想自我,依照我在此建议的主体性观念,作为跟我们精神分析经验的铭记符合一致。弗洛依德遭遇到的理论的困难,我认为,事实是来自对于想要将它客观化的幻景,这是由古典心理学遗传下来的幻景。构成的观念就是「知觉与意识」的系统。在这个系统里,弗洛依德似乎突然没有办法体认出,自我所忽略,所盲视,所错误解释的东西的存在,在自我对于现实反应的各种感知里。弗洛依得似乎突然没有办法体认这一切,自我所忽略,穷尽,与关联的这一切,在自我从语言接收的各种意义里。就这个人而言,这是一个令人惊叹的「误识」,因为这个人凭借他辩证的力量,成功地强力追溯到无意识的极限。

Just as the senseless oppression of the superego lies at the root of the motivated
imperatives of conscience, the passionate desire peculiar to man to impress his image in
reality is the obscure basis of the rational mediations of the will.

正如超我的无意义的压迫,就在于良心作为引发动机的命令的根源,人类特有的激情的力量,为了要让他的意象在现实界扬名立万,也是以意志的理想的调节,作为模糊的基础。

The notion of aggressivity as a correlative tension of the narcissistic structure in the
coming-into-being (devenir) of the subject enables us to understand in a very simply
formulated function all sorts of accidents and atypicalities in that coming-into-being.

侵凌性的观念,在主体的生命实存里,作为自恋结构的相对的紧张。侵凌性的观念让我们能够以简单构想的功能,来理解在那个生命实存里的各种的意外事件与异常行为。

I shall now say something about how I conceive of the dialectical relation with the
function of the Oedipus complex. In its normal state, this complex is one of sublimation,
which designates precisely an identificatory reshaping of the subject, and, as Freud wrote
when he felt the need for a ‘topographical’ co-ordination of the psychical dynamisms, a
secondary identification by introjection of the imago of the parent of the same sex.

我现在将说出某件事情,关于我如何构想这个辩证关系,跟伊狄浦斯情结的功能的辩证关系。伊狄浦斯情结在它正常的状态是昇华的情结。这个昇华情结确实指明一个认同地重新塑造主体。依照弗洛依德所写,当他感觉对心理的动力机制,有需要找出一个「地形」的座标。也就是,「次级的认同」,作为同性的父母的「形象」的内部投射。

The energy for that identification is provided by the first biological upsurge of genital
libido. But it is clear that the structural effect of identification with the rival is not self evident,
except at the level of fable, and can only be conceived of if the way is prepared
for it by a primary identification that structures the subject as a rival with himself.

供应那种认同的精力的,就是性器官的生命力比多,在生理上的首次涌出。显而易见地,认同敌人的这个结构的结果,并不是自明的,除了在寓言的层面。认同敌人的结构的结果能够被构想,,仅有当一个初级的认同替它铺路。这个初级认同作为主体的结构,把自己充当是敌人。

In fact,
the note of biological impotence is met with again here, as is the effect of anticipation
characteristic of the genesis of the human psyche, in the fixation of an imaginary ‘ideal’,
which, as analysis has shown, decides the conformity of the ‘instinct’ to the physiological
sex of the individual.

实际上,在此生理上的无能为力会被注意到。如同预期的结果,在固著于想像的「理想」时,作为人类心灵的开始的特性会被注意到,。如同精神分析曾经显示,这种想像的「理想」的固著,决定了「本能」跟个人的生理上的性别互相一致。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: