庞蒂论时间 3

庞蒂论时间 478

Now, no sooner
have I introduced an observer, whether he follows the river or whether
he stands on the bank and observes its flow, than temporal relationships
are reversed. In the latter case, the volume of water already carried by is
not moving towards the future, but sinking into the past; what is to
come is on the side of the source, for time does not come from the
past. It is not the past that pushes the present, nor the present that
pushes the future, into being; the future is not prepared behind the
observer, it is a brooding presence moving to meet him, like a storm on
the horizon.

现在,当我介绍一位观察者,无论他遵循这条河流,或无论他站在岸边,观察河流的流动,时间的关系立即逆转过来。在后者的情境,带领前进度水的数量,并没有朝着未来前进,而是沉入过去。将有来临的东西在来源的这边,因为时间并不是来自过去。并不是过去推动现在,也不是目前推动未来进入生命实存。。在观察者背后,未来并没有被准备。未来是一种孵卵的存在,移动前来跟他相会,就像地平线的暴风雨。

If the observer sits in a boat and is carried by the current,
we may say that he is moving downstream towards his future, but the
future lies in the new landscapes which await him at the estuary, and
the course of time is no longer the stream itself: it is the landscape as it
rolls by for the moving observer. Time is, therefore, not a real process,
not an actual succession that I am content to record. It arises from my
relation to things.

假如观察者端坐船上,被水流带领前进,我们可以说,他正朝下游移动,朝着他的未来移动。但是未来在于那些新的风景,在出海口等待他的新的风景。时间的过程不再是水流本身,而是这个风景,当它对于正在移动的观察者而言,它流逝过去。因此,时间并不是一个真正的过程,也并不是我满足于记录它的一个真正的连续。时间产生自我跟各种物象的关系。

Within things themselves, the future and the past are
in a kind of eternal state of pre-existence and survival; the water which
will flow by tomorrow is at this moment at its source, the water
which has just passed is now a little further downstream in the valley.
What is past or future for me is present in the world. It is often said
that, within things themselves, the future is not yet, the past is no
longer, while the present, strictly speaking, is infinitesimal, so that time
collapses.

在各种物象的自身之内,未来与过去处于预先-存在与生存的某种永恒的状态。明天将会流逝过去的水流,在这个时刻「存在于」它的来源。刚刚流逝过去的水流,现在「存在于」河谷地稍微更下游处。对于我而言,过去与未来都存在于世界。经常有人说,在物象的自身里面,未来尚未存在,过去不再存在,而目前,严格来说,是微积分。所以,时间崩坍。

That is why Leibnitz was able to define the objective world as
mens momentanea, and why Saint Augustine, in order to constitute time,
required, besides the presence of the present, a presence of the past and
of the future. But let us be clear about what they mean.

那就是为什么莱布尼兹能够定义客观的世界,作为是瞬间的心灵mens momentanea,为什么圣奥古斯丁为了构成时间,要求过去与未来的存在,作为目前的存在旁边。但是那是什么意思,让我们弄清楚。

If the objective
world is incapable of sustaining time, it is not because it is in some way
too narrow, and that we need to add to it a bit of past and a bit of
future.

客观的世界无法维持时间。倒不是因为客观的世界在某方面过于狭隘,以及我们需要替它增添一点过去与一点未来。

Past and future exist only too unmistakably in the world, they
exist in the present, and what being itself lacks in order to be of the
temporal order, is the not-being of elsewhere, formerly and tomorrow.
The objective world is too much of a plenum for there to be time.

过去与未来无可置疑地存在于世界。它们存在于现在。生命实存自身欠缺的东西,为了属于时间的秩序,就是它方的这个非存在,先前与未来。客观的世界太过于是封闭的空间,无法让时间存在。

Past and future withdraw of their own accord from being and move over
into subjectivity in search, not of some real support, but, on the contrary,
of a possibility of not-being which accords with their nature. If
we separate the objective world from the finite perspectives which
open upon it, and posit it in itself, we find everywhere in it only so
many instances of ‘now’.

过去与未来出于自愿地从生命实存隐退,然后移动过去,进入追寻的主体性。不是追寻某个真实的支持,而是,相反地,追寻「非存在」的可能性。这个「非存在」跟它们的自然相一致。假如我们从客观世界之上展开的有限的观点,来分开客观的世界,并且在世界自身假设它,我们在世界里面的每个地方,都仅是找到如此众多的「现在」。

These instances of ‘now’, moreover, not
being present to anybody, have no temporal character and could not
occur in sequence. The definition of time which is implicit in the
comparisons undertaken by common sense, and which might be formulated
as ‘a succession of instances of now’1 has not even the disadvantage
of treating past and future as presents: it is inconsistent, since it
destroys the very notion of ‘now’, and that of succession.

而且,「现在」的这些例子,并没有存在于任何人。这些例子并没有时间的特性,它们无法按照顺序发生。由共同感知从事的比较所暗示的时间的定义,它可以被解说为「现在的诸多例子的连续性」。时间的这个定义,甚至不会有将过去与未来当作现在对待的这个缺点。这是不一致的定义,因为它毁灭了「现在」的这个观念,以及连续性的这个观念。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: