庞蒂论时间 2

We say that time passes or flows by. We speak of the course of time.
The water that I see rolling by was made ready a few days ago in the
mountains, with the melting of the glacier; it is now in front of me and
makes its way towards the sea into which it will finally discharge itself.
If time is similar to a river, it flows from the past towards the present
and the future. The present is the consequence of the past, and the
future of the present. But this often repeated metaphor is in reality
extremely confused.

我们说,时间过去,或时间流逝。我们谈论时间的过程。我们看见流转过去的水,是几天前在山里准备好的,由于冰河的融化。它现在我的面前,朝着大海前进,它最后将自己融入大海里。假如时间类同河流,它流动从过去朝向现在与未来。目前是过去的结果,未来是现在的结果。但是这个经常重复的隐喻,实际上是极端混淆的。

For, looking at the things themselves, the melting of the
snows and what results from this are not successive events, or rather
the very notion of event has no place in the objective world. When I say
that the day before yesterday the glacier produced the water which is
passing at this moment, I am tacitly assuming the existence of a witness
tied to a certain spot in the world, and I am comparing his successive
views: he was there when the snows melted and followed the water
down, or else, from the edge of the river and having waited two days,
he sees the pieces of wood that he threw into the water at its source.

因为注视各种事物的本身,雪的融化,以及因为融化造成的结果,这些并不是连续性的事件。相反地,事件的这个观念在客观的世界里并没有地位。当我说,前天,冰河产生这个时刻流通过去的水,我暗示地假定一位见证者的存在,跟世界的某个地点相关联。我正在比较他的连续性的各个注视:当雪融化,并顺着水流下时,他在那里。或是,从河里的岸边,他曾经等待了两天,他才看见他从水源处抛进水中的这些木块。

The ‘events’ are shapes cut out by a finite observer from the spatiotemporal
totality of the objective world. But on the other hand, if I
consider the world itself, there is simply one indivisible and changeless
being in it. Change presupposes a certain position which I take up and
from which I see things in procession before me: there are no events
without someone to whom they happen and whose finite perspective
is the basis of their individuality. Time presupposes a view of time. It is,
therefore, not like a river, not a flowing substance.

这些「事件」是一位有限的观察者,从客观世界的空间与时间的完整性,切割出来的形状。但是在另一方面,假如我们考虑世界的自身,仅有一个无法分割与没有改变的生命实存,在世界里。改变预先假定有我从事的某个立场,从某个立场,我看见各种事物在我面前陈列。事件发生,必然会有事件发生的人,这个人的有限的观点就是他们个体性的基础。时间预先假设时间的观点。因此,时间并不像流水,时间并不是流动的物质。

The fact that the metaphor based on this comparison has persisted from the time of
Heraclitus to our own day is explained by our surreptitiously putting
into the river a witness of its course.

根据这个比较所做的隐喻,从赫拉克利图斯的时代一直流传到我们自己的时代。这个事实解释了,我们秘密地将河流过程的见证者,放进河流里。

We do this already when we say
that the stream discharges itself, for this amounts to conceiving, where
there is merely a thing entirely external to itself, an individuality or
interior of the stream which manifests itself outside.

当我们说这条溪流发泄它自己时,我们已经这样做。因为这相等于是构想一个个体性,或溪流的内部,这条溪流从外部证明它自己。而事实上仅有一个完全外在于自己的事物。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: