庞蒂论自由 528

528
庞蒂论自由 528

The synthesis of in itself and for itself which brings Hegelian freedom
into being has, however, its truth. In a sense, it is the very definition of
existence, since it is effected at every moment before our eyes in the
phenomenon of presence, only to be quickly re-enacted, since it does
not conjure away our finitude. By taking up a present, I draw together
and transform my past, altering its significance, freeing and detaching
myself from it. But I do so only by committing myself somewhere else.
Psychoanalytical treatment does not bring about its cure by producing
direct awareness of the past, but in the first place by binding the subject
to his doctor through new existential relationships.

可是,「在物自身in itself」与「为了物自身」的综合,是黑格尔的自由存在的基础,拥有它的真理。从某个意义言,生命实存的这个意义,因为它以存在的现象,在我们眼前的每个时刻造成结果。结果仅是很快地被重新扮演。因为它并没有召唤离开我们的有限性。凭借从事于现在,我将我的过去併拢一块,并且转变它,改变它的意义,解放并且保持自己脱离它。但是我这样做,仅是凭借奉献我自己于某个其他地方。精神分析的治疗并没有导致它的痊愈,凭借产生直接知道我们的过去。但是,首先,要凭借将主体跟他的医生联接一块,通过新的生命实存的关系。

7 Fink, Vergegenwartigung und Bild, p. 285.

It is not a matter of
giving scientific assent to the psychoanalytical interpretation, and discovering
a notional significance for the past; it is a matter of reliving
this or that as significant, and this the patient succeeds in doing only by
seeing his past in the perspective of his co-existence with the doctor.

问题并不是要给予科学的认同,给精神分析的解释,然后发现过去具有一个观念上的意义。问题是要重新经历这个或那个,作为意义。病人成功地这样做,仅是凭借将他的过去播种在他跟他的医生的共同存在的观点。
The complex is not dissolved by a non-instrumental freedom, but
rather displaced by a new pulsation of time with its own supports and
motives. The same applies in all cases of coming to awareness: they are
real only if they are sustained by a new commitment. Now this commitment
too is entered into in the sphere of the implicit, and is therefore
valid only for a certain temporal cycle.

这种情结并没有凭借非工具性的自由而获得解决。相反地,它由一种新的时间的悸动所取代,拥有它自己的支持与动机。相同的道理应用到获得知觉的各种情况,只有当它们受到新的奉献所支持时,它们才是真实的。现在,在暗示的领域,这种奉献也被导入,因此仅有在某个时间段迴圈里,它才有效。

The choice which we make
of our life is always based on a certain givenness. My freedom can draw
life away from its spontaneous course, but only by a series of
unobtrusive deflections which necessitate first of all following its
course—not by any absolute creation.

我们对于我们的生活所做的选择,总是以某种的特定物作为基础。我的自由能够将生活脱离它的自动自发的途径。但是凭实凭借一连串没有阻碍的折射,首先,这对于它的途径是有必要的。而不是凭借任何绝对的创造。

All explanations of my conduct
in terms of my past, my temperament and my environment are therefore
true, provided that they be regarded not as separable contributions,
but as moments of my total being, the significance of which I am
entitled to make explicit in various ways, without its ever being possible
to say whether I confer their meaning upon them or receive it
from them. I am a psychological and historical structure, and have
received, with existence, a manner of existing, a style.

用我过去,我的性情,与我的环境的术语来说,我的行为的解释因此是真实的,只要它们被认为,不是作为分开的贡献,而是作为我完整的生命实存的时刻。这些时刻的重要性,我有资格用各种方式让它们明确表达。但是我不可能说,我是否赐予它们的意义,在它们之上,或从它们接收意义。我是一位心理与历史的结构,我用生命实存接收某种的生存方式,某种风格。

All my actions
and thoughts stand in a relationship to this structure, and even a philosopher’s
thought is merely a way of making explicit his hold on the
world, and what he is.

我所有的行动与思想都跟这个结果息息相关,甚至哲学家的思想,仅是明确地表达他对世界与他的本质的理解的方式。

The fact remains that I am free, not in spite of, or
on the hither side of, these motivations, but by means of them. For this
significant life, this certain significance of nature and history which I
am, does not limit my access to the world, but on the contrary is
my means of entering into communication with it. It is by being
unrestrictedly and unreservedly what I am at present that I have a
chance of moving forward; it is by living my time that I am able to
understand other times, by plunging into the present and the world, by
taking on deliberately what I am fortuitously, by willing what I will
and doing what I do, that I can go further. I can miss being free only if I
try to bypass my natural and social situation by refusing to take it up, in
the first place, instead of assuming it in order to join up with the natural and human world.

我是自由的这个事实始终存在。不是尽管这些动机,或是在这些动机的这一面,而是凭借这些动机。对于这个有意义的生命,我作为生命实存的自然与历史的这个某种意义,并没有限制为进入世界。相反地,这是我跟世界从事沟通的方法。凭借着没有限制,没有保留地在目前作为我的生命本质,我拥有迎向前去的机会。凭借经历我的时间,我能够理解其他时间。凭借投掷进入现在与世界,凭借深思熟虑地承担起我偶然成为的生命的本质,凭借意愿我所意愿,做我所做的事情,我能够向前进。只有当我尝试绕过我的自然与社会的情境,我才会错过我的自由,首先,凭借拒绝接纳它,而不是承担它,为了跟自然与人类的世界联接一块。

Nothing determines me from outside, not
because nothing acts upon me, but, on the contrary, because I am from
the start outside myself and open to the world. We are true through and
through, and have with us, by the mere fact of belonging to the world,
and not merely being in the world in the way that things are, all that we
need to transcend ourselves. We need have no fear that our choices or
actions restrict our liberty, since choice and action alone cut us loose
from our anchorage.

没有一样东西从外部决定我,倒不是因为没有一样东西影响到我。相反地,是因为我从一开始,就是在我自身之外,并且开放给这个世界。我们彻彻底底是真实的,仅凭借着归属于这个世界的这个事实,而不仅是以事情本来的样子存在于世界,我们与身俱来拥有一切我们所需要的东西,为了超越我们自己。我们不需要害怕,我们的选择或行为限制我们的自由。因为选择与行动仅是切割松掉我们的锚碇。

Just as reflection borrows its wish for absolute
sufficiency from the perception which causes a thing to appear, and as
in this way idealism tacitly uses that ‘primary opinion’ which it would
like to destroy as opinion, so freedom flounders in the contradictions
of commitment, and fails to realize that, without the roots which it
thrusts into the world, it would not be freedom at all. Shall I make this
promise?

正如反思从引起事物出现的知觉,借用它对于绝对充足的愿望,正如以这种方式,理想主义沉默地使用那个「原初的意见」,它想要毁灭它作为意见。自由在奉献的悖论里踉跄而行,而没有体会出,假如没有它投入世界的这些根源,那根本就不是自由。我应该做这个承诺吗?

Shall I risk my life for so little? Shall I give up my liberty in
order to save liberty? There is no theoretical reply to these questions.
But there are these things which stand, irrefutable, there is before you
this person whom you love, there are these men whose existence
around you is that of slaves, and your freedom cannot be willed without
leaving behind its singular relevance, and without willing freedom for
all.

我应该冒着生命危险,仅交换如此稀少的东西吗?我应该放弃我的自由,仅是为了拯救自由吗?对于这些问题,并没有理论的回答。但是这些事情位在那里,无可反驳地,在你们面前存在着你们所爱的这个人,这些人们的存在环绕着你们,是奴隶的存在。每当你们的自由被意愿时,它总会留下它的独特的相关物,它总是会意愿著对于一切的自由。

Whether it is a question of things or of historical situations, philosophy
has no other function than to teach us to see them clearly once
more, and it is true to say that it comes into being by destroying itself
as separate philosophy. But what is here required is silence, for only the
hero lives out his relation to men and the world, and it is not fitting
that another speak in his name. ‘Your son is caught in the fire: you are
the one who will save him. . . . If there is an obstacle, you would be
ready to give your shoulder provided only that you can charge down
that obstacle. Your abode is your act itself. Your act is you. . . . You give
yourself in exchange. . . . Your significance shows itself, effulgent. It is
your duty, your hatred, your love, your steadfastness, your ingenuity.
. . . Man is but a network of relationships, and these alone matter to
him.’8

8 A. de Saint-Exupery, Pilote de Guerre, pp. 171, 174, 176.

无论是这是事物或历史的情境的问题,哲学没有别的功能,除了教导我们再次清楚地看见它们。的确,我们可以这样说,哲学凭借毁灭它自己作为分开的哲学,哲学才存在。但是在此所被要求的是沉默,因为仅有英雄才会实践他跟人们与世界的关系。另外一个人以他的名义作为言说,是不适当的。「你的儿子陷身火焰当中,你是愿意拯救他的这个人。即使有阻碍,你愿意承担起来,只要你能够承担得起那个阻碍。你的住所就是你的行为自身。你的行为就是你、、、你奉献自己作为交换‘’‘你的意义显示它自己,焕发光辉。这是你的责任,你的恨,你的爱,你的坚毅,你的才智、、、人仅是各种关系的网络,对于他,只有这些关系的网络是重要的。」

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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