庞蒂论自由 525

庞蒂论自由 525

What, then, becomes of the freedom we spoke about at the outset, if
this point of view is taken? I can no longer pretend to be a nihilation
(neant), and to choose myself continually out of nothing at all. If it is
through subjectivity that nothingness appears in the world, it can
equally be said that it is through the world that nothingness comes into
being.

假如这个观点被採纳,那么,我们从一开始谈论的自己是什么情况呢?我不再伪装是一位虚无主义者,也不再从空无当中自己选择。假如空无出现在这个世界,凭借主体性。我们同样可以说,空无存在,是凭借这个世界。

I am a general refusal to be anything, accompanied surreptitiously
by a continual acceptance of such and such a qualified form of
being.

我通常是拒绝成为任何一个,秘密地伴随继续接纳生命实存的如此这般的特质的形式。

For even this general refusal is still one manner of being, and has its place in the
world. It is true that I can at any moment interrupt my projects. But what
is this power? It is the power to begin something else, for we never
remain suspended in nothingness.

即使是这个通常的拒绝,依旧是生命实存的一个方式,在世界里拥有它的位置。的确,我能够在任何时刻中断我的计划。但是这个力量是什么?这是开始某件其他东西的力量,因为我们没有永远保持在空无当中。

We are always in a plenum, in being,
just as a face, even in repose, even in death, is always doomed to express
something (there are people whose faces, in death, bear expressions of
surprise, or peace, or discretion), and just as silence is still a modality
of the world of sound.

我们总是处于压力空间,处于生命实存。正如一个脸孔,甚至休息时,甚至死亡时,总是注定表达某件东西 (有些人们的脸孔,在死亡时,呈现出惊奇、详和、或谨慎的表情),正如沉默依旧是声音的世界的模式。

I may defy all accepted form, and spurn everything,
for there is no case in which I am utterly committed: but in this
case I do not withdraw into my freedom, I commit myself elsewhere.
Instead of thinking about my bereavement, I look at my nails, or
have lunch, or engage in politics. Far from its being the case that my freedom is always unattended, it is never without an accomplice, and
its power of perpetually tearing itself away finds its fulcrum in my
universal commitment in the world.

我必须挑衅一切被接纳的形式,并且搅乱一切。因为并没有任何情况,让我完全奉献。但是在这个情况,我并没有撤退进入我的自由。我奉献自己在别的地方。非但没有想到我的丧失自由,我观看我的指甲,或是吃午餐,或是参与政治。这根本就不是我的自由总是没有行使的情况,它总是有某个共犯。它具有永远将自己撕扯开的力量,在我奉献于普世的世界里,找到它的枢纽。

My actual freedom is not on the
hither side of my being, but before me, in things. We must not say that
I continually choose myself, on the excuse that I might continually
refuse what I am. Not to refuse is not the same thing as to choose. We
could identify drift and action only by depriving the implicit of all
phenomenal value, and at every instant arraying the world before us in
perfect transparency, that is, by destroying the world’s ‘worldliness’.
Consciousness holds itself responsible for everything, and takes everything
upon itself, but it has nothing of its own and makes its life in the
world.

我实际的自由并不是在我生命实存的这一边。而是在我之前,在事物里。我们一定不要说,我继续地自己选择,根据这个藉口:我可能继续地拒绝我的真实样子。没有拒绝跟选择并不是相同的事情。我们仅是凭借着剥夺掉所有的现象的价值的暗示意义,我们才能辨认漂浮与行动。然后在每个瞬间安顿我们面前的世界在完美的透明当中。换句话说,凭借毁灭世界的「世俗化」。意识自己承担一切的责任,并且将一切都承担到自己身上。但是它并没有属于它自己的东西,并且在世界里创造它的生命。

We are led to conceive freedom as a choice continually remade
as long as we do not bring in the notion of a generalized or natural
time. We have seen that there is no natural time, if we understand
thereby a time of things without subjectivity. There is, however, at least
a generalized time, and this is what the common notion of time envisages.
It is the perpetual reiteration of the sequence of past, present and
future.

我们被引导构想自由,作为是不断地重新所做的选择,只要我们没有带进一般性时间或自然时间的观念。我们已经看出,假如我们因此理解一个没有主体性的事物的时间,并没有自然的时间。可是,至少有一个一般性的时间。这是时间的共同观念所构想的。这是过去,现在,与未来的系列的永远的重复。

It is, as it were, a constant disappointment and failure. This is
what is expressed by saying that it is continuous: the present which it
brings to us is never a present for good, since it is already over when it
appears, and the future has, in it, only the appearance of a goal towards
which we make our way, since it quickly comes into the present,
whereupon we turn towards a fresh future. This time is the time of our
bodily functions, which like it, are cyclic, and it is also that of nature
with which we co-exist. It offers us only the adumbration and the
abstract form of a commitment, since it continually erodes itself and
undoes that which it has just done.

这就是所谓的不断的失望与失败。这就是凭借说它是继续的,所被表达的东西。它带给我们的现在,永远不是永恒的现在。因为当它出现时,它已经过去。在它里面,未来仅有一个目标的外表,我们就朝着这个目标前进。因为它很快地就进入现在。在那里,我们转向一个新鲜的未来。这一次是我们身体运作的时间。这些身体的运作,像它一样,是循环的。它也是我们与之共同存在的自然的时间。它提供我们仅是奉献的轮廓与抽象的形式。因为它继续地腐蚀它自己,并瓦解它刚刚做的东西。

As long as we place in opposition,
with no mediator, the For Itself and the In Itself, and fail to perceive,
between ourselves and the world, this natural foreshadowing of a subjectivity,
this prepersonal time which rests upon itself, acts are needed
to sustain the upsurge of time, and everything becomes equally a matter
of choice, the respiratory reflex no less than the moral decision,
conservation no less than creation.

只要我们将「为了它自己」与「在它自己本身」处于对立状态,没有中介调节,并且在我们自己与世界之间,没有看出主体性的这个自然的预兆,这个依靠它自己的前个人的时间,就有需要採取行动来维持时间的洶涌。每样事情都同样地变成是选择的问题。呼吸的反射作用跟道德的决定一样,保存跟创造一样。

As far as we are concerned, consciousness
attributes this power of universal constitution to itself only
if it ignores the event which provides its infrastructure and which is its
birth. A consciousness for which the world ‘can be taken for granted’,
which finds it ‘already constituted’ and present even in consciousness
itself, does not absolutely choose either its being or its manner of
being.

就我们而言,意识将普世的形成的这个力量归属于它自己,只有当它忽略这个供应它的内部结构的,也是诞生它的事件。这个世界「能够被视为理所当然」的这个意识,发现它「已经被构成」,并且甚至在意识里呈现它自己,这样的意识并没有绝对地选择它的生命实存,或是它的生命实存的方式。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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