庞帝论自由 521

庞帝论自由 521
We therefore recognize, around our initiatives and around that
strictly individual project which is on self, a zone of generalized existence
and of projects already formed, significances which trail between
ourselves and things and which confer upon us the quality of man,
bourgeois or worker.

环绕我们的创议,环绕那个针对自己的严格的个人的计划,我们因此体认出一般化存在的地区,已经被形成的计划的地区,追逐在我们自己与事物之间的各种意义,赋予我们作为人,布尔乔亚,或工人的特征。

Already generality intervenes, already our presence
to ourselves is mediated by it and we cease to be pure consciousness,
as soon as the natural or social constellation ceases to be an
unformulated this and crystallizes into a situation, as soon as it has a
meaning—in short, as soon as we exist.

一般性已经介入,我们呈现给自己受到它的调节,我们不再是纯粹的意识,当自然或社会的汇集不再是没有被说明的「这个」,并且具体成为一种情境,当它具有一种意义—总之,当我们存在。

Every thing appears to us
through a medium to which it lends its own fundamental quality; this
piece of wood is neither a collection of colours and tactile data, not
even their total Gestalt, but something from which there emanates a
woody essence; these ‘sensory givens’ modulate a certain theme or
illustrate a certain style which is the wood itself, and which creates,
round this piece of wood and the perception I have of it, a horizon of
significance. The natural world, as we have seen, is nothing other than
the place of all possible themes and styles.

每样事情经由媒介发生到我们身上。它借助它自己的基本的特质。这块木材既不是颜色与触觉资料的收集,甚至也不是它们的整个的格式塔行为。而是某件木材的本质从那里散发出来的东西。这些「感官的指称物」调节某个主题,或是说明属于木某种个风格。环绕这块木材,及我对于它的感知,它创造意义的视阔。如同我们所见的,自然的世界实实在在就是所有的可能主题与风格的地方。

It is indissolubly an
unmatched individual and a significance. Correspondingly, the generality
and the individuality of the subject, subjectivity qualified and
pure, the anonymity of the One and the anonymity of consciousness
are not two conceptions of the subject between which philosophy has
to choose, but two stages of a unique structure which is the concrete
subject.

无法解决地,这是一个无与伦比的个人与意义。作为对应,主体的这个一般性与个人性,被给予特质与纯粹的主体性,「整体的一」的匿名与意识的匿名,并不是哲学必须做选择的主体的两个观念。而是独特结构的两个阶段,这个结构是具体的主体。

Let us consider, for example, sense experience. I lose myself in this red which is before me, without in any way qualifying it, and it
seems that this experience brings me into contact with a pre-human
subject. Who perceives this red? It is nobody who can be named and
placed among other perceiving subjects.

譬如,让我们考虑一下意义的经验。我迷失于在我面前的这个红色,而没有以任何方式给予它的特质。似乎,这个经验带领我跟一位前人类的主体接触。是谁感知这个红色?没有人能够被提出名字,然后被放置在其他的感知的主体里。

For, between this experience
of red which I have, and that about which other people speak to me, no
direct comparison will ever be possible. I am here in my own point of
view, and since all experience, in so far as it derives from impression, is
in the same way strictly my own, it seems that a unique and unduplicated
subject enfolds them all.

因为,在我拥有的红色的这个经验,关于这个经验,别人跟我谈论,两者之间,不可能做直接的比较。我在此,处于我自己的观点。因为所有的经验以相同的方式严格来说都是我自己的经验,当它从印象获得。似乎,一位独特而无法复制的主体将它们全部展开。

Suppose I formulate a thought, the God
of Spinoza, for example; this thought as it is in my living experience is
a certain landscape to which no one will ever have access, even if,
moreover, I manage to enter into a discussion with a friend on the
subject of Spinoza’s God. However, the very individuality of these
experiences is not quite unadulterated.

假如我说明一个思想,譬如,史宾诺莎的上帝,如同在我生活的经验,这个思想是某种的风景,没有人将会接近的风景。而且,即使我成功地跟一位朋友从事讨论,关于史宾诺莎的上帝的主体。可是,这些经验的个人性并不完全是没有受到混杂。

For the thickness of this red, its
thisness, the power it has of reaching me and saturating me, are attributable
to the fact that it requires and obtains from my gaze a certain
vibration, and imply that I am familiar with a world of colours of
which this one is a particular variation. The concrete colour red, therefore,
stands out against a background of generality, and this is why,
even without transferring myself to another’s point of view, I grasp
myself in perception as a perceiving subject, and not as unclassifiable
consciousness.

因为这个红的厚度,它的「这个」,它拥有到达我,饱满我的这个力量,它们都可归属于这个事实: 它从我的凝视,要求并且获得某种的震动,并且暗示,我熟悉于一个颜色的世界。这个世界是它的特殊的变化的世界。因此,这个具体的红的颜色,以一般性的背景作为衬托。这就是为什么,即使没有将我自己转移到另一个人的观点,我在感知里理解为自己,作为一位感知的主体,而不是作为一位没有被分类的意识。

I feel, all round my perception of red, all the regions of
my being unaffected by it, and that region set aside for colours,
‘vision’, through which the perception finds its way into me. Similarly
my thought about the God of Spinoza is only apparently a strictly
unique experience, for it is the concretion of a certain cultural world,
the Spinozist philosophy, or of a certain philosophic style in which I
immediately recognize a ‘Spinozist’ idea.

环绕所有我对红色的感知,我感觉我的生命实存没有受到它影响的所有领域。那个领域被保留给颜色。凭借那个视象,感知找到它的途径进入我。同样地,关于史宾诺莎的上帝的我的思想,仅表面上,是一个独特非凡的经验。因为它是某种的文化的世界的具体化,史宾诺莎的哲学,或是属于某种的哲学的风格。用这种风格,我立即体认出一个「史宾诺莎」的观念。

There is therefore no occasion
to ask ourselves why the thinking subject or consciousness perceives
itself as a man, or an incarnate or historical subject, nor must we
treat this apperception as a second order operation which it somehow
performs starting from its absolute existence: the absolute flow takes
shape beneath its own gaze as ‘a consciousness’, or a man, or an incarnate
subject, because it is a field of presence—to itself, to others and to
the world—and because this presence throws it into the natural and
cultural world from which it arrives at an understanding of itself. We
must not envisage this flux as absolute contact with oneself, as an absolute density with no internal fault, but on the contrary as a being
which is in pursuit of itself outside.

这因此并没有机会来询问我们自己,为什么这位思想的主体或意识会感知它自己,作为一个人,或一位具体化身或历史的主体。我们也一定不要对待这种统觉,当著是次级层次的运作,它从它的绝对存在开始,用某种方式执行这种运作。在它自己的凝视之下,这个绝对的流动形成形状,作为「一个意识」,或一个人,或一个具体化身的主体。因为这是一个存在的领域,属于它自己,属于别人,属于这个世界。因为这个存在将它投掷进入这个自然与文化的世界。从这个世界那里,它获得对它自己的理解。我们一定不要拟想这种流动,作为是跟自己的绝对的接触,作为是一种绝对的密度,没有内部的缺点。而是相反地,要作为在外部追寻它自己的生命实存。

If the subject made a constant and
at all times peculiar choice of himself, one might wonder why his
experience always ties up with itself and presents him with objects and
definite historical phases, why we have a general notion of time valid
through all times, and why finally the experience of each one of us
links up with that of others. But it is the question itself which must be
questioned: for what is given, is not one fragment of time followed by
another, one individual flux, then another; it is the taking up of each
subjectivity by itself, and of subjectivities by each other in the generality
of a single nature, the cohesion of an intersubjective life and a
world.

假如主体对于自己从事不断而且经常的特殊的选择,我们会想要知道,为什他的经验总是跟它自己息息相关,并且呈现给他各种客体育明确的历史的时期,为什么我们对与自古以来的正确时间,有个一般的观念。为什么最后我们每个人的经验跟别人的经验息息相关。但是必须要质疑的是这个问题本身。因为所被给予的东西,并不是接续而来的时间的碎片,接续而来的个体的流动。每个主体性自身的从事,以及在单一的自然一般性里互为主体性的从事,互为主体性与世界的凝聚。

The present mediates between the For Oneself and the For
Others, between individuality and generality. True reflection presents
me to myself not as idle and inaccessible subjectivity, but as identical
with my presence in the world and to others, as I am now realizing it: I
am all that I see, I am an intersubjective field, not despite my body and
historical situation, but, on the contrary, by being this body and this
situation, and through them, all the rest.

目前时刻调节于「为了自己」与「为了别人」之间,个人与一般性之间。真实的反思将我呈现给我自己,不是作为惰性与无法接近的主体性。而是作为认同于我存在于世界与认同于别人。因为我现在逐渐地实现它。我就是我看见的一切,我是一位互为主体性的领域。倒不是尽管我的身体与历史的情境。相反地,凭借跟这个身体,这个情境同在,经由它们,以及其余的东西。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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