庞蒂论自由 517

庞蒂论自由 517

Both find their journey’s end
in revolution, which would perhaps have terrified them had it been
described and represented to them in advance. One might say at the
most that revolution is at the end of the road they have taken and in
their projects in the form of ‘things must change’, which each one
experiences concretely in his distinctive difficulties and in the depths
of his particular prejudices. Neither the appointed order, nor the free
act which destroys it, is represented; they are lived through in ambiguity.

两者都发现他们的旅途,以革命作为结束。或许,他们当时假如被给予描述及具体呈现,他们本来会感到惊吓。我们充其量可以说,他们採取的道路的终端就是革命,以「事情必须改变」的形式从事的他们的计划。在每个人的不同的困难里,与在他特别的偏见的深度里,每个人都具体地经验到「事情必须改变」。既没有被指定的秩序,也没有毁灭它的自由的行动,被代表出来。它们在模糊当中被经历。

This does not mean that workers and peasants bring about revolution
without being aware of it, and that we have here blind, ‘elementary
forces’ cleverly exploited by a few shrewd agitators. It is possibly in this
light that the prefect of police will view history.

这并不意味着,工人与农夫不知不觉地导致革命。在此,我们遭遇盲动的「基本的力量」被一些精明的煽动家狡猾地利用。警察总长看待历史,可能就是从这个观点。

But such ways of
seeing things do not help him when faced with a genuine revolutionary
situation, in which the slogans of the alleged agitators are immediately
understood, as if by some pre-established harmony, and meet
with concurrence on all sides, because they crystallize what is latent in
the life of all productive workers.

但是当他面对真正的革命的情境时,这些看待事情的方式对他并无帮助。在那个情境里,被宣称是煽动家的口号,好像凭借某种先前建立的和谐,当下被理解,并且从四面八方都同时响应。因为它们具体表现在所有的生产的工人的生活里潜藏的东西。

The revolutionary movement, like the
work of the artist, is an intention which itself creates its instruments and its means of expression. The revolutionary project is not the result
of a deliberate judgement, or the explicit positing of an end. It is these
things in the case of the propagandist, because the propagandist has
been trained by the intellectual, or, in the case of the intellectual,
because he regulates his life on the basis of his thoughts.

革命的运动,就像艺术家的作品,它是创造它的工具与它作为表达的方法的的意图。革命的计划并不是深思熟虑的判断的结果,或是明确地提出一个目标。在宣传家的情况,它是这些东西,因为宣传家曾经接受知识份子的训练,或者,在知识份子的情况,因为他根据他的思想,规划他的生涯。

But it does not
cease to be the abstract decision of a thinker and become a historical
reality until it is worked out in the dealings men have with each other,
and in the relations of the man to his job. It is, therefore, true that I
recognize myself as a worker or a bourgeois on the day I take my stand
in relation to a possible revolution, and that this taking of a stand is not
the outcome, through some mechanical causality, of my status as
workman or bourgeois (which is why all classes have their traitors),
but neither is it an unwarranted evaluation, instantaneous and
unmotivated; it is prepared by some molecular process, it matures in
co-existence before bursting forth into words and being related to
objective ends.

但是它仍然是思想家的抽象决定,直到它在人们互相来往的处理当中运作,以及在人跟他的工作的关系当中运作,它才成为历史的现实。因此,这是真实的,我体认出我自己,作为工人,或布尔乔亚,在我採取我的立场,跟可能的革命的关系。这个立场的採取,经过某些机制的因果关系,并不是我作为工人或布尔乔亚的地位的结果。(这就是为什么所有的阶级都有他们的背叛者)。但是它也不是没有保证的评估,临时发生而且没有动机。某些的分子的过程准备着,它在共同的存在中成熟后,它才突然绽放成为文字,并且跟客观的目的息息相关。

One is justified in drawing attention to the fact that it is
not the greatest poverty which produces the most clear-sighted revolutionaries,
but one forgets to ask why a return of prosperity frequently
brings with it a more radical mood among the masses. It is because the
easing of living conditions makes a fresh structure of social space possible:
the horizon is not restricted to the most immediate concerns,
there is economic play and room for a new project in relation to living.

我们很有理由提醒注意这个事实:并不是极度的贫穷 才产生明目张胆的革命。而是,我们忘记去询问,为什么繁荣的回转在大众眼中,经常随之带来更加激烈的情绪。这是因为生活情况的安逸让社会空间的更新结构成为可能。前途的展望并没有局限于日常生活所需。

This phenomenon does not, then, go to prove that the worker makes
himself into worker and revolutionary ex nihilo, but on the contrary that
he does so on a certain basis of co-existence. The mistake inherent in
the conception under discussion is, in general, that of disregarding all
but intellectual projects, instead of considering the existential project,
which is the polarization of a life towards a goal which is both
determinate and indeterminate, which, to the person concerned, is
entirely unrepresented, and which is recognized only on being
attained. Intentionality is brought down to the particular cases of the
objectifying acts, the proletarian condition is made an object of
thought, and no difficulty is experienced in showing, in accordance
with idealism’s permanent method, that, like every other object of
thought, it subsists only before and through the consciousness
which constitutes it as an object.

因此,这个现象并们足以证明,工人并不是从空无中创造,让他自己成为工人及革命份子。而是相反地,他这样做,是根据共同-存在的某个基础。探讨中的这个观念本质上的错误,一般而言,是忽视几乎是知识份子的计划的错误,而没有考虑到生命实存的计划。这个生命实存的计划,就是生活朝向一个目标的极端化。这个目标既是决定性,也同时并不是决定性。对于相关的这个人,这个目标完全没有被代表,仅有在被获得时,这个目标才被体认。意图性被运用到客观化的行动的特殊个案,普罗阶级的情况被迫成为思想的对象。跟理想主义的永久的方法不谋而合,它没有经历任何困难就会显示,就像思想的每个其他目标,它仅是存在于以前,并且通过构成它作为对象的意识才存在。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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