庞蒂论自由 515

庞蒂论自由 515

Let us suppose that I have a certain style of living, being at the mercy
of booms and slumps, not being free to do as I like, receiving a weekly
wage, having no control over either the conditions or the products of
my work, and consequently feeling a stranger in my factory, my nation
and my life. I have acquired the habit of reckoning with a fatum, or
appointed order, which I do not respect, but which I have to humour.

让我们假设,我有某种的生活的风格,受生活的興衰起落的支配,没有办法如我所愿地自由,领个周薪。对于我的工作的情况或产品,没有掌控能力。结果感受到在我的工厂,我的国家,与我的生活里,有位陌生人。我已经养成这样的习惯: 考虑到现实,或生活得有条理。我并不推崇生活的条理,但是我必须迁就这样的条理。

Or suppose that I work as a day-labourer, having no farm of my own,
no tools, going from one farm to another hiring myself out at harvest time; in that case I have the feeling that there is some anonymous power hovering over me and making a nomad of me, even though I want to settle into a regular job. Or finally suppose I am the tenant of a
farm to which the owner has had no electricity laid on, though the
mains are less than two hundred yards away. I have, for my family and
myself, only one habitable room, although it would be easy to make
other rooms available in the house.

或是假设,我白天充电劳力工作者,没有我自己的农场,没有工具。在收获季节,从一家农场到另一家农场,寻求雇用。在那种情况,我有这种感觉,有个匿名的力量萦绕在我头上,让我成为流浪汉。即使我想要找个规律工作稳定下来。或是,最后你们假设,我就是农场的佃户,主人并没有在农场安装电力。即使主要电力杆线距离不到两百码。就我的家庭与我自己而言,我仅有一个可居住的房间,虽然要在房屋里找到其他房间很容易。

My fellow workers in factory or
field, or other farmers, do the same work as I do in comparable conditions;
we co-exist in the same situation and feel alike, not in virtue of
some comparison, as if each one of us lived primarily within himself,
but on the basis of our tasks and gestures.

我在工厂,或农地的同事,或其他农夫跟我一样,处于类似的情况,做相同的工作,。我们共同生存在相同的情境,感觉相同,并没有凭借某种的比较,好像我们每个人最初都生活在他自身之内。但是根据我们的工作与姿态的基础。

These situations do not imply
any express evaluation, and if there is a tacit evaluation, it represents the
thrust of a freedom devoid of any project against unknown obstacles;
one cannot in any case talk about a choice, for in all three cases it is
enough that I should be born into the world and that I exist in order to
experience my life as full of difficulties and constraints—I do not
choose so to experience it.

这些情境并没有暗示任何明白的评估。假如有一个沉默的评估,它代表欠缺任何计划的自由的冲动,来反抗无名的阻碍。无论如何,我们无法谈论有关选择,因为在这三个情况里,我竟然诞生到这个世界,我竟然生产,为了经验我充满困难与约束的生活,这就足够了。我并没有选择,为了经验它。

But this state of affairs can persist without
my becoming class-conscious, understanding that I am of the proletariat
and becoming a revolutionary. How then am I to make this
change? The worker learns that other workers in a different trade have,
after striking, obtained a wage-increase, and notices that subsequently
wages have gone up in his own factory. The appointed order with
which he was at grips is beginning to take on a clearer shape.

但是事情的状态持续下去,我必然会有阶级意识,因为我理解到,我是属于普罗阶级,而且成为革命份子。因此,我如何想要从事这个改变?工人获知,处于不同行业的其他的工人,经过摆工之后,获得加薪。并且注意到,随后,在他自己的工厂里,工资已经调高。他勉强应付的安排的生活条理,逐渐开始形成更清楚的轮廓。

The daylabourer
who has not often seen workers in regular employment, who
is not like them and has little love for them, sees the price of manufactured
goods and the cost of living going up, and becomes aware that
he can no longer earn a livelihood. He may at this point blame town
workers, in which case class-consciousness will not make its appearance.
If it does, it is not because the day-labourer has decided to
become a revolutionary and consequently confers a value upon his
actual condition; it is because he has perceived, in a concrete way, that
his life is synchronized with the life of the town labourers and that all
share a common lot.

这位白天的劳工并没有经常见到正规俜用的工作者,他并并不像他们,他对他们并不喜欢。他看待被制造的货物的价格,与生活费用的上涨,逐渐知道,他不再能谋取生计。在这个时刻,他可能怪罪于城市的工作者。在那个情况,阶级意识将不会出现。假如阶级意识出现,那并不是因为白日劳工己经决定成为革命份子,结果赐予某个价值给他的实际的情况。那是因为他已经感受到,以具体的方式,他的生活跟城市的生活是同步调,大家都分担共同的命运。

The small farmer who does not associate himself
with the day-labourers, still less with the town labourers, being separated
from them by a whole world of customs and value judgements,
nevertheless feels that he is on the same side as the journeyman when
he pays them an inadequate wage, and he even feels that he has something in common with the town workers when he learns that the
farm owner is chairman of the board of directors of several industrial
concerns. Social space begins to acquire a magnetic field, and a region
of the exploited is seen to appear.

小农农夫并没有将自己跟白天劳工联想一块,更不用说是城市劳工。因为他们彼此分隔许多的习俗与价值判断的差异。可是,他感觉到,他站在跟熟练工人相同的一边,当他付给他们菲薄的工资。他甚至感觉,他跟城市工人有某件相同的地方,当他获知农场主人是好几家工业会社的董事会的主席。社会的空间开始获得吸引的磁场。被剥削者的领域被看见出现。

At every pressure felt from any
quarter of the social horizon, the process of regrouping becomes
clearly discernible beyond ideologies and various occupations. Class is
coming into being, and we say that a situation is revolutionary when
the connection objectively existing between the sections of the proletariat
(the connection, that is, which an absolute observer would recognize
as so existing) is finally experienced in perception as a common
obstacle to the existence of each and every one.

从社会的领域的任何地区感受到的压力,重新聚拢一块的过程,清楚地被觉察出来,超越意识形态与各种的职业。阶级逐渐存在,我们说,一种情况是革命的,当客观地存在于普罗阶级的各部门之间的关联,(换句话说,绝对的观察者可体认出来,作为如此存在的关联)。这种关联最后在感知中被经验到,作为每个人的生命实存的共同阻碍。

It is not at all necessary
that at any single moment a representation of revolution should arise. For
example, it is doubtful whether the Russian peasants of 1917 expressly
envisaged revolution and the transfer of property. Revolution arises day
by day from the concatenation of less remote and more remote ends. It
is not necessary that each member of the proletariat should think of
himself as such, in the sense that a Marxist theoretician gives to the
word. It is sufficient that the journeyman or the farmer should feel that
he is on the march towards a certain crossroads, to which the road
trodden by the town labourers also leads.

这根本就不是必然的,在任何时刻,革命的再现表征竟然会出现。譬如,1917年的苏俄的农夫生动地构型革命,并转移财产,是值得置疑。革命每天都在出现,即使比较靠近或比较遥远的目标的协同一块。这并非是必然的,普罗阶级的每个成员,竟然会认为自己是这样的人。如同马克思的理论家给予这个字词的意义。熟练工人或农副竟然会觉得,他正朝着某个十字路口迎向前去,城市的劳工践踏的道路也通往这个十字路口。这就足够了。
雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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