庞蒂论自由 513

We shall arrive at the same result by considering our relations with
history. Taking myself in my absolute concreteness, as I am presented
to myself in reflection, I find that I am an anonymous and pre-human
flux, as yet unqualified as, for instance, ‘a working man’ or ‘middle
class’. If I subsequently think of myself as a man among men, a bourgeois
among bourgeois, this can be, it would seem, no more than a
second order view of myself; I am never in my heart of hearts a worker
or a bourgeois, but a consciousness which freely evaluates itself as a
middle class or proletarian consciousness.

我们将获得相同的结果,凭借考虑我们跟历史的关系。当我接纳我自己,作为绝对的具体,如同我在反思中呈现个自己,我发现,我是一位匿名的前人类的流体,譬如,还没有资格,作为一位「工人」,或「中产阶级」。假如我随后认为我自己是人中之人,其中一位布尔乔亚,这似乎仅是我可能观看自己的第二秩序。在我心灵的最内层,我从来就不是工人或中产阶级。而是一种意识,自由地评估自己,作为中产阶级,或普罗阶级的意识。

And indeed, it is never the
case that my objective position in the production process is sufficient to
awaken class consciousness. There was exploitation long before there
were revolutionaries. Nor is it always in periods of economic difficulty
that the working class movement makes headway. Revolt is, then, not
the outcome of objective conditions, but it is rather the decision taken
by the worker to will revolution that makes a proletarian of him.

的确,我在生产过程的客观的立场,从来没有处于足够唤醒阶级意识的情况。在各种革命之前,剥削存在已久。工人阶级运动迎向前去,也并非总是处于经济困难的时期。反叛因此并非是客观情况的结果。相反地,工人意志想要革命所做的决定,让他成为普罗阶级。

The evaluation of the present operates through one’s free project for the
future. From which we might conclude that history by itself has no
significance, but only that conferred upon it by our will. Yet here again
we are slipping into the method of ‘the indispensable condition failing
which . . .’: in opposition to objective thought, which includes the
subject in its deterministic system, we set idealist reflection which
makes determinism dependent upon the constituting activity of the subject.

目前的评估运作于自己对未来的自由的计划过程。从那里,我们可以作出结论:历史本身并无意义,仅是我们的意志赋予它的东西。可是,在此,我们正在掉落于这个方法:「无可免除的掉落的情况、、、」跟客观的思想对立。这个客观的思想包括处于它的决定系统的主体,我们从事理想主义的反思,这让决定论依靠主体的形成的活动。

Now, we have already seen that objective thought and analytical reflection are two aspects of the same mistake, two ways of overlooking the phenomena. Objective thought derives class consciousness from the objective condition of the proletariat. Idealist
reflection reduces the proletarian condition to the awareness of it,
which the proletarian arrives at.

现在,我们已经看见,客观的思想与分析的反思是相同错我的两面,忽视现象的两种方式。客观思想获得阶级意识,根据普罗阶级的客观情况。理想主义的反思将普罗阶级的情况还原成为对它的觉醒,普罗阶级获得的觉醒。

The former traces class-consciousness
to the class defined in terms of objective characteristics, the latter on
the other hand reduces ‘being a workman’ to the consciousness of
being one. In each case we are in the realm of abstraction, because we
remain torn between the in itself and the for itself. If we approach the
question afresh with the idea of discovering, not the causes of the act of
becoming aware, for there is no cause which can act from outside upon
a consciousness—nor the conditions of its possibility, for we need
to know the conditions which actually produce it—but class consciousness
itself, if, in short, we apply a genuinely existential
method, what do we find?

前者追踪阶级意识,到用客观特性的术语定义的阶级。在另一方面,后者将「成为工人」还原成为作为一名工人的意识。在每一个情况,我们都处于抽象的领域,因为我们被撕裂于「它自身」及「为了它自身」之间。假如我们重新探索这个问题,用发现的观念,而不是成为觉醒的行动的目标,因为没有任何目标能够从外面根据意识来行动,除了阶级意识到自身—也没有它的可能性的各种情况。因为我们需要知道实际上产生它的这些情况。总之,假如我们应有真诚的生命实存的方法,我们会找到什么?

I am not conscious of being working class or
middle class simply because, as a matter of fact, I sell my labour or,
equally as a matter of fact, because my interests are bound up with
capitalism, nor do I become one or the other on the day on which I
elect to view history in the light of the class struggle: what happens is
that ‘I exist as working class’ or ‘I exist as middle class’ in the first place,
and it is this mode of dealing with the world and society which provides
both the motives for my revolutionary or conservative projects
and my explicit judgements of the type: ‘I am working class’ or ‘I am
middle class’, without its being possible to deduce the former from the
latter, or vice versa.

我并没有意识到我是工人阶级或中产阶级,仅是因为实际上,我卖出我的劳力,或同样地,事实上,因为我的興趣跟资本主义息息相关。我也没有在那一天,成为工人或中产阶级,当我选择从阶级意识的观点来看历史。所发生的事情是,首先,「我存在作为工人阶级」或「我存在作为中产阶级」。处理世界与社会的这个模式供应我从事革命的动机,或保守的计划,以及我明确的那种判断:「我是工人阶级」或「我是中产阶级」。不可能从后者推论前者,也不可能从前者推论后者。

What makes me a proletarian is not the economic
system or society considered as systems of impersonal forces, but these
institutions as I carry them within me and experience them; nor is it an
intellectual operation devoid of motive, but my way of being in the
world within this institutional framework.

让我成为普罗阶级的原因,并不是经济系统,或被认为是客观力量的系统的社会。而是这些体制,当我在自身之内具有它们,并且经验它们。这也不是欠缺动机的知识的运作,而是我存在于世界的方式,在体制的架构里面。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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