Archive for February, 2014

精神病 268

February 23, 2014

精神病 268
雅克、拉康

Just recently, reading an old text by Aristotle, the Nicomachean Ethics,
with the intention of rediscovering the origin of Freudian themes on pleasure
in it – it makes salubrious reading – 1 came across a curious term that means
something like fearful. And this explained many things to me, in particular
why it’s sometimes the best minds among young psychiatrists that rush headlong
down this mistaken path by which they seem to be captivated. I think
as a matter of fact that paradoxically they are the best, dreadfully intelligent
young men. They’re afraid to be so, they frighten themselves – Where would
we be if we gave way to our fine intelligence} And so they enter analysis where
they’re taught that their intellectualization is a form of resistance. Once they
have finished they’re delighted, they’ve encountered at first hand this famous
intellectualization, which for so long had been an obstacle for them. At this
stage my discourse can no longer address them.

就在最近,我阅读亚里斯多德的古老文本「伦理学」,为了在它那里,重新找到弗洛依德探讨快乐的主题的起源。我偶然发现一个耐人寻味的术语,它意指著像是「令人骇惧」的东西。就我而言,这个术语解释很多东西。特别是,为什么有时候,年轻的精神科医生,即使具有最聪慧的心灵,会往这条错误的途径盲目前进。他们似乎被这条错误的途径所著迷。事实上,我认为,悖论地,他们是最聪慧,才华横溢的年轻人。他们害怕这样做,他们让自己吓到:「假如我们让我们高贵的才智尽情发挥,我们将会是什么情况?」所以,他们进入精神分析,在那里,他们被教导,他们的知识的表现,就是一种抗拒的形式。一旦他们已经大功告成,他们就乐不可支。他们跟这个著名的知识的表现首当其冲。长久以来,这种知识的表现,对于他们而言,始终是一个阻碍。在这个阶段,我的辞说对于这个问题仅能点到为止。

By contrast, what is at issue in Freud’s work? What stands out in it? What,
in a word, is its style? Freud’s own style would alone suffice to characterize
its significance. To see this, I ask you to refer to another form of resistance,
which hasn’t been much better appreciated than the one I alluded to just
before.

对比起来,弗洛依德的研究,受到争议的是什么?他的研究引人注意的是什么?总之,他的研究的风格是什么?光是弗洛依德自己的风格,就足以表现它的重要性的特性。我请求你们参照抗拒的另外一种形式。比起前头刚刚提到的这种抗拒的形式,这种抗拒形式比较没有人赏识。

For a long time it was thought that the main resistance encountered by
Freud’s work was due to the fact that he was touching on sexual matters.
Good God, why would sexual matters have been any less welcome at that
time than in our own, where they appear to be the delight of everyone?

长久以来,人们认为,弗洛依德的研究遭遇到主要抗拒,是由于这个事实: 他碰触到性的问题。我的天,比起我们的时代,在那个时代,为什么性的问题会是比较不受欢迎?而在我们的时代,性的问题似乎是每个人最喜欢谈论的。

Besides, we have had to wait until our own day for some well intentioned
scholar to point out the kinship between Freud’s work and the Naturphilosophie
that prevailed in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century.

除外,直到我们自己的时代,我们必须等待某位善意的学者,来跟我们指出这个关联,弗洛依德的研究,与十九世纪初,在德国盛行的自然哲学之间的关联。

This time was far from having been as fleeting and contingent as Jones represents
it to us from an Anglo-Saxon perspective, nor were we in France,
above all at the time Freud began to become known here, lacking certain
irrationalist or intuitionist tendencies that were advocating recourse to an
affective, or sentimental, effusion to understand man or, even, natural phenomena
– 1 don’t need to mention the name of Bergson. Why did honest and
cultivated people suddenly see in Freud’s work some kind of excessive scientism?

这个时代,绝非像琼斯从安格鲁-萨克逊的观点跟我们呈现的,那样的短暂与偶然。我们也不是在法国,尤其重要的是,在弗洛依德开始在这里成名的时代,法国欠缺某些的非理性主义,或直接主义的倾向。这些倾向主张诉诸于情意,或情感的热情洋溢,来理解人。或甚至主张诉诸于自然的各种现象。柏格森的名字,我不需要提,大家也知道。为什么真诚而有文化素养的人们,突然在弗洛依德的研究里,看见某种过度的科学理性主义?

Why didn’t the scholars themselves, who seemed repelled by the results
and the originality of the method whose status they didn’t immediately identify,
ever think of referring Freud to the vitalist or irrationalist philosophy
that was much more alive then?

为什么学者们自己会想到将弗洛依德,跟当时更加活跃度生命主义,或非理性哲学相提并论?
学者他们对这种研究方法的这些结果及原创性,似乎颇为厌恶。因为这个研究方法,他们并没有马上认同。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神病 267

February 23, 2014

精神病 267
雅克、拉康

2
I want to pause here to try to restore the point of view, currently effaced,
from which Freud’s work can be viewed in its proper light.

我想要在此停顿一下,为了尝试恢复这个观点,目前被抹除的观点。从这个观点,弗洛依德的研究能够恰如其分地看待。

I shall ask you straightaway to be prepared for a contrast between what
Freud’s work authentically signifies and what is currently being offered as
the sense of psychoanalysis. For many of you, the students, as you draw
nearer to things in the mental sphere, psychoanalysis is, it’s said, first of all
a means to a better understanding of the mentally ill.

我将立即要求你们要有心理准备接受一种对比,弗洛依德的研究真诚意涵的东西,跟目前正在被提供作为精神分析的理解的东西之间的对比。对于你们许多人,学生们,当你们更加接近精神领域的东西,精神分析据说首先是一种工具,更加清楚理解精神疾病的工具。

I can’t recommend too highly that those of you who have the opportunity
to become acquainted with the analytic literature – and God knows how enormous,
almost diffuse, it has become – combine this reading with an at least
equivalent measure of Freud himself. The difference will leap out at you.

你们那些拥有机会熟稔精神分析文献的人们,天晓得,那些文献已经变得多么繁杂,几乎是汗牛充栋。我必须再三建议,你们应该将这种阅读,跟弗洛依德自己几乎是同样的衡量连接一块。你们将会立刻发现其中的差异。

The term frustration, for example, has become the leitmotiv of the prolific
mothers of analytic literature in English, with the abandonism and relationship
of dependence it comprises. Now, this term is quite simply absent from
Freud’s work. The simplistic use of notions taken out of context, like that of
reality testing, or of bastardized notions like that of the object relation, the
recourse to the ineffability of affective contact and of lived experience – all
of this is strictly foreign to the inspiration behind Freud’s work.

譬如,「挫折」这个术语,已经成为是英文版的精神分析文献的多产作者的主题。他们对于「挫折」对于这个术语形成的依赖的关系,浮滥地应用。其实,这个术语在弗洛依德的研究著作里,就是相当罕见。将文本抽离出来的各种观念,简化地使用,譬如,像现实界的测试的观念的简化使用,或受到扭曲的各种观念的简化使用,譬如,客体关系的使用,诉诸于情感接触与生活经历的不可思议。所有这一切,跟弗洛依德的研究所启发的东西完全背道而驰。

This style has for some time tended to descend to the level of a foolish
optimism which stems from an equivocal moralism and is founded on an
equally crude schematism, which really is the most superficial image ever
given to man to apply to his own development – the famous sequence of so called
pregenital phases of the libido. The reaction has not failed to make
itself felt, so much so that we have now got to the pure and simple restoration
of an orthopedics of the ego, which only a hundred years ago everyone would
have laughed at as being the most simplistic question begging.

有段时间,这种风格倾向于沦落到愚蠢的乐观主义的层次。这种乐观主义起源于受到质疑的道德主义,它的基础是同样简陋的基模主义。基模主义确实是人类被给予的最肤浅的意象,为了专注于他自己的发展。所谓的生命力比多的性器官前期的那个著名的系列。这种反动必然会让它自己被感受到。它发展到,我们现在必须将自我的体型恢复纯粹的原状。一百年前,面对这个规避问题的简单作法,每个人本来会捧腹大笑。

This rather improbable slide is due, I believe, to the fact that there is a profound misrecognition in thinking that analysis is meant to be used as a
bridge for gaining access to a sort of intuitive penetration and easy communication
with the patient. If analysis had only been an improvement in the
doctor-patient relation, we would literally have no need of it.

我相信,这个相对不可能的景象,是由于这个事实。在思想方法,有一个深深的误识。认为精神分析是被用来当作一个桥梁,获得进入一种直觉地洞察病人,并且轻易地跟他沟沟。假如精神分析仅是医生与病人之间关系的改善,我们实质上大可不需要它。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神病 266

February 22, 2014

精神病 266
雅克、拉康

In point of fact, we shall not follow the geography of these ravages over
time.

事实上,我们将不会追寻随着时代进展的这些掠夺的地理。

One day I heard Freud spoken of in these terms – without ambition and
without needs. The thing is comical if one thinks of the number of times
throughout his work that Freud confessed his ambition which, while
undoubtedly quickened by all sorts of obstacles, is much more extensive in
his unconscious, as he was able to show. To make you appreciate this, must
I depict for you – as Jung, speaking to me personally, did one day – the
scene of Freud’s reception at the University he placed on the world’s stage?
I mean, depict the stream, whose symbolic meaning he was the first to have
shown, blossoming out into a growing stain on his pale trousers?

有一天,我听见弗洛依德用「没有企图心,没有需求」的这些术语被谈论到。这种事情是滑稽的,假如我们想到有好几次,在他的著作里面,弗洛依德坦诚他的企图心。虽然无可置疑地,由于各种的阻碍所激励,这个企图心在他的无意识里是更加瀰漫。依照他能够显示的。为了让你们赏识这点,我必须跟你们描述弗洛依德放置在世界舞台上的大学的接受的场景吗?如同荣格亲口跟我说的。我的意思,我必须跟你们描述这个潮流,他是第一位曾经揭露这个潮流的象征的意义。这个潮流兴盛成为他的卑微的企图心逐渐增加的污点?

Shall I say it? This isn’t the point from which I would like to throw light
upon the figure of Freud, for really it seems that nothing can go beyond what
he disclosed in his long autobiography that his first works constitute – Die
Traumdeutung, The Psychopathobgy of Everyday Life and Der Witz.4 Nobody,
in a sense, has ever taken the confession so far, at least within the limits that
a man’s concern for his authority imposes on him. And this isn’t to diminish
its importance, far from it. The sigh at which these confidences stop perhaps
gives us the feeling of a barrier, but nothing ever since has enabled us to cross
it – even the most indiscreet hypothesis makers have never managed to add
anything to what he himself disclosed to us.

我应该说出来吗?这并不是我想要对弗洛依德这样的人物揭示的重点。因为确实没有一样东西能够超越他在他漫长的自传里所显露的东西,他的早期著作形成的自传。「梦的解析」,「日常生活的心理学」,「机智语」。从某个意义来说,从来没有人曾经将这个告白认真看待,至少由于对他的威望的敬重的的这个范围之内。这并不是减损这个告白的重要性。丝毫没有。这些坦诚告白为之停止的这个讯息,让我们感觉有一个阻碍,但是从此以后,没有一样东西让我们能够跨越它。对于弗洛依德自己跟我们揭露的东西,即使有人再冒昧白目的提出假设,也没有成功地加油添醋。

There is something here worth dwelling on, which is well suited to make
us feel the value of a critical method I shall surprise you with by saying that
someone’s work is to be judged by the standard of its own criteria.

在此,有某件东西值得详述。这个东西很适合让我们感觉到批判的方法的价值。我这种批判的方法让你们大吃一惊,因为我说,某个人的著作应该被判断,根据著作自己的标准的准绳。

If the discovery of psychoanalysis really is to have reintegrated into science
an entire objectifiable field of man and to have shown its supremacy, and if
this field is the field of sense, why seek the genesis of this discovery outside
the meanings that its inventor encountered within himself along the path
leading him to it? Why look elsewhere than in the register to which this
discovery must, if one is to be rigorous, be limited? If we must have recourse
to some other source foreign to the field discovered by our author, and by
nobody else, to explain what it is, the prevalence of this field becomes null
and void, through having been made subordinate.

假如精神分析的发现,确实想要将人类的完整的可客观化的领域。融合进入科学,并且显示科学的崇高地位。假如这个领域就是理智的领域,为什么要在各个意义的外面,去寻求这个发现的创世纪?当这个理智的发现者在他自身之内,沿着引导他前往这个理智的途径,他遭遇的各种的意义。为什么要在别的地方寻找?而不是在这个发现必须受到限制的铭记里寻找?假如我们想要严谨从事的话。我们的作者,而不是任何其他人,发现这个领域,假如我们必须诉诸于某个我们的作者发现的领域感到陌生的其他的来源,来解释那个领域是什么,这个领域的优越价值会因此变成失效及空无。因为它已经被迫成为附属物。

To suppose the supremacy, and not the subordination, of sense as efficient
cause is apparently to repudiate the principles of modern science. In fact, for
the positive science to which Freud’s masters, this Pleiad that Jones quite
rightly mentions at the beginning of his study, belonged, the entire dynamics
of sense can, question-beggingly, be neglected — it is all fundamentally
superstructure.5 It’s therefore a revolution in science that Freud introduces,
if this science has the value he claims for it.

假设理智作为有效的原因,具有崇高地位,而不是附属地位,显而易见是抛弃现代科学的各种原理。事实上,弗洛依德的老师们,都隶属于这种激进的科学,琼斯在他的研究的开始,相当恰当提到的这个科学的卯宿星。对于这样的科学,理智的整个动力结构能够被忽略,虽然不无争议。理智的整个动力结构基本上是超级结构。因此在科学,这是弗洛依德介绍的革命。假如这个科学具有他宣称给予它的价值。

Does it have this value? Does it have this meaning?
这个科学具有这个价值吗?这个科学具有这个意义吗?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神病 267

精神病 264

February 21, 2014

精神病 264
雅克、拉康

1
I wish to begin by saying what, while appearing under Freud’s name, extends
beyond the time of his appearance and conceals its truth even in its very
unveiling – that Freud’s name signifies joy.

我希望以这样说作为开始,以弗洛依德之名义出现,但是超越他出现的时代,并且即使在它的被揭发状态,仍然隐藏它的真理的东西。弗洛依德的名字意涵著快乐。

Freud himself was conscious of this, as is demonstrated by a good number
of things – an analysis of a dream that I could adduce, dominated by a sum
of composite words, more especially by a word of ambiguous resonance, both
English and German at the same time, and in which he enumerates the
charming little spots in the environs of Vienna.1

依照许多的东西证明,弗洛依德自己意识到这点。我能够提出梦的分析作为证据,因为梦由组合的字词的总和所支使。更加特别的是,由具有暧昧回响的字词所支使。英语与德语都一样。在梦的解析,弗洛依德列举维也纳的周遭环境里的那些迷人的小地点。

If I pause at this name, it’s not that my procedure is panegyrical. I’m
anticipating what I shall articulate in my discourse by recalling that his family,
like all the families of Moravia, of Galicia, of the outlying provinces of
Hungary, owing to an edict of 1785 by Joseph II, had to choose this name
from a list of first names – it’s a feminine first name, in fairly frequent use at
the time. But this name is a much older Jewish name which throughout history
one already finds translated differently.

假如我听到这个名字就停顿下来,那并不是因为我的程序是可被推崇的。我正在预期在我的辞说将表达的东西,凭借提醒,他的家庭,就像莫拉维亚,像加利西亚,像匈牙利的周遭省份的所有的家庭一样。由于1785年的敕令,由若瑟二世教皇颁发,弗洛依德必须选择这个姓,从百家姓的名单里选择。那是女性化的犹太人的姓。自古以来,我们总是发现有不同的翻译。

This is well suited to remind us that this recurrence of a purely literal
tradition persists through the cultural assimilation of hidden signifiers and
takes us very close to the heart of the structure with which Freud answered
his questions. To be sure, to grasp this properly we would immediately need
to evoke the extent to which he acknowledged belonging to the Jewish tradition
and its literal structure which, he says, goes so far as to imprint itself
upon the structure of language. Freud could make the striking observation
in a message addressed to a confessional community on the occasion of his
seventieth birthday that he acknowledges that this was where his most intimate
identity lay.2

这非常适合用来提醒我们,纯粹实际的传统的重新发生持续下来,经由隐藏的能指的文化的吸纳。它带领我们靠近结构的核心,弗洛依德用来回答他的问题的结构。的确,为了恰当地理解这个,我们将立即需要召唤这个程度,他承认属于犹太的传统,及其实际的结构。他说,犹太传统及其实际结构甚至铭记自身在语言的结构上。弗洛依德发表这个引人注意的观察,在一篇针对忏罪社团的讯息,在他七十岁的场合,他承认,这是他最亲密的认同所在。

精神病 265

There is, to be sure, a contrast between this acknowledgment and his early
rejection – offensive, almost insulting, for those close to him whom he had
the most reason to spare – of the religious faith of his fathers. Perhaps this is
the angle from which we might be best introduced to what would help us
understand how questions were raised for Freud.

的确,有一个对照,存在于这个承认与他的早期的排斥之间。早期,他具有攻击性,几乎是污辱性的排斥他的祖先的宗教信仰。对于那些接近他的人们,他理由充分地省掉这种排斥。或许,从这个角度,我们最能够被介绍将会帮助我们理解的东西。理解对于弗洛依德,问题是如何被提出的。

However, this isn’t how I shall be going about it. For, in point of fact, it’s
not always the simplest approaches that seem the clearest. In a word, they
aren’t the ones we are the best prepared for. And it’s certainly not for nothing
that we often have to take a more complex route to make truths heard.
Nor is it in Freud’s biography that we shall find the source of the subversion
brought about by his discovery.

可是,这并不是我将从事探讨它的方式。事实上,最显而易见的的方法,未必就是最简单的方法。总之,这些方法并不是我们最适宜接受的方法。这确实并不是白费力气,我们经常必须採取更加复杂的途径,为了让真理被听见。我们也不是从弗洛依德的传记,才会发现,由于弗洛依德的发现导致的这个颠覆的来源,

It does not seem that a touch of neurosis, which can certainly help us
understand Freud, has ever guided anyone before him down the same path.
, Nothing is less perverse, it seems to me, than the life of Freud. If this were
where one had to seek the price of his daring, neither his poverty as a student
nor his years of struggle as the father of a large family seems sufficient to me
to explain something that I would call an abnegation of love relations, which
one really has to point out when it concerns the person who renewed the
theory of Eros.

在弗洛依德之前,对于神经症的接触,似乎并没有引导任何人走向这个相同的途径,尽关它确实能够帮助我们理解弗洛依德。我觉得,弗洛依德的一生可说是叛逆连连。假如这就是我们必须寻求他的勇气必须付出的代价。我认为,并不是他学生时代的贫困,也不是他作为大家庭父亲的多年的奋斗,就足以解释某件我将称之为爱的关系的自我否定。我们确实必须指出爱的这个自我否定,因为它关系到更新性爱理论的这个人。

Recent revelations, the letters to his fiancee, the great attraction of a recent
biography,3 seem to me to be complemented by a certain something which I
shall call a touching egocentrism that consisted of demanding from the other
an unreserved compliance with the ideals of his beautiful soul and of being
torn apart at the thought of the favors shown to another the unforgettable
evening that he received from her the first token of her love. All this comes
down to what I should call the rawness of a virgin, which we may excuse him
for, on discovering its equally indiscreet equal in the same published letters
to a fiancee of our own Hugo.

最近的显示,他写给未婚妻的信件,最近的传记最吸引人的地方,我觉得可作为某件东西的补充,我称之为令人感动的自我中心主义。这个自我中心主义的形成,在于要求他者毫无保留地顺从他的美丽的灵魂的理想,以及顺从他天人交战的理想,当他一想到在难忘的夜晚,他赐予另外一个人的恩爱,他从她那儿接收到她的初恋的象征证物。所有这一切总结成为我所谓的处女的纯真。当我们在法国作家雨果给予未婚妻的相同的被出版的信件里发现,它具有同样不顾一切的爱情相许,我们可能理解弗洛依德的一往痴情。

This disclosure, quite opportune in the final analysis, prevents me from
dwelling on the dignity of a union where what Freud himself confides indicates
mutual respect and attention to parental tasks – in short, the high tradition
of Jewish family values. For what one cannot fail to detect in his early
letters is some kind of reduction to the smallest common denominator of a
petit-bourgeois convention of a love the sentimental extravagance of which
doesn’t exclude reserve or Freud’s long-held rancor towards his fiancee forhaving caused him, through an ill-timed journey, to miss the glory of having
been the inventor of the surgical use of cocaine. This is indication enough of
a relationship of psychical forces for which the term of ambivalence, employed
without rhyme or reason, would be entirely inappropriate.

追根究底,这个显露相当合乎时宜。它让我不会去详述弗洛依德的爱恋结合的尊严。他所告白的东西指示著,互相的尊敬及专注父母的工作。总之,犹太家庭的长年传统重视的东西。在他的早期的信件,我们一定会觉察出来的东西,可简化成为小布尔乔亚传统的爱情观的最小公约数。这种爱情观虽然具有丰沛情感,仍然没有排除保留,没有排除弗洛依德长久蓄积的对于他的未婚妻的怨恨。由于蜜月旅行的时间很不凑巧,让他丧失可以成为古柯硷应用到外科手术的发明者的荣衔。这足够指示心理的各种力量的关系。俗语所说的爱恨交加的这个术语,并无法完整地贴切。

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精神病 262

February 20, 2014

精神病 262
雅克、拉康

第十九章
An address: Freud in the century
演讲词:世纪人物,弗洛依德

The session is opened by Professor Jean Delay.
演讲会由珍、帖列开场白。

For the centenary of Freud’s birth, who was bom May 16,1856, contmemoraiive
occasions have been organized in Paris.

弗洛依德诞生于1856年,5月16日,作为他的百年诞辰,在巴黎许多场合,举行纪念。

Its appropriate to recall that it was in Paris while following Char cots
teaching at la Saparire when he was only twenty-nine years old, that Freud
found his calling. And in the article in the edition of his complete works he
himself stressed all he owed to the teaching at la Salpitri&re.

让我们合宜地提醒一下,在巴黎的萨帕瑞,弗洛依德追随蔡寇兹的教学。那时,弗洛依德仅二十九岁。他在巴黎找到他的天职。在他著作全集的编辑的文章里,他自己强调他完全归功于在萨帕瑞的教学。

This filiation in no way detracts from his obvious, brilliant originality,
since its really to him that we owe the method and doctrine of psychoanalysis.
One can, indeed one must, have reservations about certain theoretical
and practical aspects of psychoanalysis. But it remains no less true that in
highlighting the role of affective conflicts and instinctual disorders in the
neuroses he has made a very important contribution to psychiatry. Moreover,
by highlighting the role of the unconscious in all manifestations of mental life
it can be said that his contribution goes beyond the framework of medical
science and is applicable to all human sciences.

这种师承丝毫没有折损弗洛依德显著而杰出的原创力。因为精神分析的方法与信条,以及精神分析的实践层面,确实是要归功于他。但是同样真实的是,当他强调在神经症,情意的冲突与本能的疾病扮演的角色,他对于精神病学提供重要的贡献。而且,凭借强调在所有的精神生活的展示里,无意识扮演的角色,我们可以说,他的贡献超过医学科学的架构,并且被运用到各个人文的科学。

This is why I thought it necessary on the occasion of this centenary to ask
Jacques Lacan, who is the director here, with Daniel Lagache and Mme
Favez-Boutonier, of the Soctiti franqaise de psychanalyse, to address us on
Freud and his influence in the century. I believe he is particularly well qualified
for this since he has an admirable knowledge of the life and work of
Freud.

这就是为什么我认为在这个百年纪念的场合,邀请雅克、拉康,他说这里的院长,跟拉伽丘,法兰西精神分析协会的费维、博腾,前来跟我们演讲,探讨弗洛依德及他对世纪的影响。我相信,他特别有资格胜任,因为他对于弗洛依德的生平及研究的理解,相当令人赞赏。

Here I am, then, today entrusted by Professor Jean Delay with a commis-
sion that, through being different from the teaching that under his patronage
takes place here on this same day each week, greatly honors me – namely, to
speak about Freud to an audience, new to the subject, of students in their
psychiatry course, with the intention of commemorating the centenary of his
birth.

今天在此,我受到珍帖列的信托委任。由于跟他赞助的每周的这相同的日子举行的教学性质上有差异,他的委任,也就是演讲关于弗洛德,作为他的诞生的百年纪念。这让我受宠若惊。因为面临的听众所我是陌生的,他们是精神医学课程的学生。

I have a twofold aim here, which will perhaps give my talk some sort of
double vision, that of instructing through honoring, of honoring through
instructing – and I should have to apologize for it were I not hoping to adapt
the aim of this talk to making the man’s arrival in the world coincide with
his arrival at the supreme sense of his work.

我在此有双重目的。这或许会让我的演讲具有某种的双重视野。一是通过尊崇而从事教学,另一是通过教学而获得尊崇。我必须抱歉,假如我演讲的这种目的,不适合于弗洛依德的诞生于这个世界,巧合于他的研究的崇高意义的来临。

This is why my title, Freud in the century, is intended to suggest more than
a chronological reference.

这就是为什么我的标题「世纪人物:弗洛依德」,被用来建议不仅是历史的指称。

雄伯译
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精神病 261

February 20, 2014

精神病 261
It’s on the basis of the metonymic articulation that this phenomenon is
able to take place. The coordination of signifiers has to be possible before
transferences of the signified are able to take place. The formal articulation
of the signifier predominates with respect to transference of the signified.
How do we now raise the question of the repercussions on the function of
language of disturbances in the relationship to the other? Just as metaphor
and metonymy are opposed to one another, so the fundamental functions of
speech are opposed to one another – foundational speech and passwords.
Why are they both fundamentally necessary? What distinguishes them?

以换喻的表达作为基础,这个现象才能够发生。各种能指的协调必须是可能的,这样所指的移情才能够发生。能指的正式的表达具有优势,对于所指的移情而言。现在,我们如何提出这个难题:在跟他者的关系,各种困扰的语言的功能的反弹。正如隐喻与换喻彼此互相对立,言说的基本的各种功能也互相对立。作为基础的言说与通关密语。为什么它们两者在基本上都是必须的?是什么区别它们?

This is something that arises in relation to a third term. If it’s necessary for
man to use speech to make discoveries or to get his bearings, it’s as a function
of his natural propensity to decompose in the presence of the other.
In what way does he compose and recompose himself? We shall come back
to this on another occasion, but in the phenomena that Schreber presents you
can already grasp the use we can make of these categories.

这个某件产生的东西,关于一个第三术语。假如人们必须使用言说来从事发现,为了找到他的关心。作为他具有瓦解的自然天性的功能,在他者面前。他用怎样的方式来形成,并且重新形成他自己?在另外一个场合,我们将会回到这个问题。但是在许瑞伯呈现给你们的这个现象,我们已经能够理解我们如何使用这些范畴。

I spoke to you last time of the interrupted sentences, but there is also
question and reply. This has to be understood as having the value of being
opposed to the dimension of foundational speech, where one doesn’t ask the
other for his opinion. The function of question and reply, insofar as it is given
value through initiation into language and is its complement and its root, lays
bare the signifying foundation of foundational speech in relation to what is
profoundly significant in such speech. The delusional phenomenon lays bare,
at all levels moreover, the signifying function as such.

我上次跟你们谈论到被中断的句子。但是,这里也存在着问题与回答。这必须被理解,作为是具有跟基础的言说的维度相对立的价值。问题与回答的功能,因为它是通过引进语言,才被给予价值。因为它是语言的互补及语言的根源,它揭露基础的言说的能指意涵的基础,相关于在这样的言说里,深刻具有所指意涵的东西。而且,在各个层次,幻觉的现象都揭露能指意涵的功能的本身。

I shall give you another example. You know these famous equivalences
that the delusional Schreber gives as having been formulated by the birds
from the sky parading in the twilight. One finds assonances here – Santiago
or Carthago, Chinesenthum orJesum-Christum.4 Is the absurdity of this all that
is to be retained? What strikes Schreber is the fact that the birds from the
sky are brainless. On this Freud is in no doubt – they are young girls.5

我将给予你们另外一个例子。你们知道这些著名的相等语,妄想症的许瑞伯给予的相等语。这些相等语是由暮光时刻飞翔天空的众鸟所诠释。我们在此发现相同母音的重复– Santiago
or Carthago, Chinesenthum orJesum-Christum.4 这种的荒谬难道不就是所有应该被保留的东西?让许瑞伯印象深刻的是这个事实:从天空飞来的这些鸟都是没有脑袋的。对于这点,弗洛依德深信不疑。这些众鸟都是女孩。

But what’s important isn’t the assonance, it’s the term-by-term correspondence
between closely neighboring elements of discrimination, which only
have importance for a polyglot like Schreber within the linguistic system of
German.

但是,重要的并不是这个母音的重复。重要的是,术语对术语的对应,存在于密切邻近的区别的各种元素之间。这些区别的各种元素,仅有在德语的语言系统里,针对像许瑞伯这样精通数种语言的人,才具有重要性。

Schreber, with all his perspicacity, once again shows that what is being
sought is of the order of the signifier, that is, of phonematic coordination.
The Latin word Jesum-Christum here is, as we know, an equivalent of Chinesenthum
only insofar as in German the ending turn has a particular sound
quality.

许瑞伯由于天资聪慧,再一次跟我们显示:正在被追寻的东西,属于能指的秩序。换句话说,属于音素协调的秩序。据我们所知,在此,拉丁语的Jesum-Christum,是Chinesenthum 的相等语。仅有在德语,turn的结尾才会有特别的声音的特质。

Promoting the signifier as such, the emergence of this always hidden substructure
that is metonymy, is the condition of any possible investigation of
the functional disorders of language in neurosis and psychosis.
9 May 1956

提升能指的本身,让换喻的这个总是隐藏的次级结构出现,就是这个情况,让神经症与精神病,语言的功能的疾病的研究成为可能。

雄伯译
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精神病 260

February 20, 2014

精神病 260
雅克、拉康

People speak of the concrete nature of language in children. This is something
that, contrary to appearances, refers to contiguity. Someone recently
confided to me what had been said by his child, a boy, who at the age of two
and a half had grabbed his mother as she was leaning over him to say goodnight
and said to her – My big girl full of bottom and muscles.

人们谈论儿童的语言的具体的特性。跟外表相反,这是某件提到邻近的东西。最近,某个人坦诚跟我说,他的小孩曾经说过的话。一位两岁半大的小孩紧捉住他的母亲,当她倾靠他,跟他道晚安时,他对母亲说:「我的大女孩屁股丰满,肌肉发达。」

This language is obviously not the same as that of His sheaf was neither
miserly nor spiteful. The child doesn’t do that yet. Nor does he say that love is
a pebble laughing in the sun. We are told that children understand surrealist
and abstract poetry, which would be a return to childhood. This is stupid –
children detest surrealist poetry and find repugnant certain stages of Picasso’s
painting. Why? Because they’re not yet up to metaphor, but only metonymy.
And when they do appreciate certain things in Picasso’s paintings it’s because
metonymy is involved.

这个语言显而易见不同于「他的禾束既不吝啬,也不怨恨。」小孩还没有做到那样。他也没有说:「爱是阳光下欢笑的小石头。」我们被告上,小孩理解超现实主义与抽象诗。超现实主义与抽象诗将会回归童年。那是愚蠢的说法。小孩会觉察出超现实主义的诗,并且觉得毕卡索的的图画令人厌恶。为什么?因为小孩还没有到达隐喻的阶段,仅是换喻。虽然小孩确实会欣赏毕卡索的图画的某些东西,那是因为换喻被牵涉到。

We can also see metonymy in certain passages in Tolstoy, where whenever
a woman approaches you see the shadow of a fly, a spot on the upper lip,
etc., emerge in place of her – the metonymic process of a great stylist. In
general metonymy animates this style of creation called the realist style, as
opposed to the symbolic style and to poetic language. The promotion of detail
that characterizes it is no more realist than anything else. Only quite specific
paths can make a detail the guide of the desiring function – not just any detail
can be promoted as equivalent to the whole.

我们也在托尔斯泰的小说的某些段落看见换喻。在那里,每当一位女人接近,你看见一只苍蝇的阴影,上嘴唇的班点,等等,出现作为她的代理。伟大风格的换喻的过程。通常,换喻会激发所谓的写实主义的创造的这个风格,跟象征的风格与诗的语言相对立。表现它的特性的细节的提升跟别的东西一样,并不是写实主义。仅有相当明确的途径才会让细节成为这个欲望的功能的引导。而不是任何细节都能够被提升到跟整体相等。

The proof of this is the trouble we go to to emphasize certain of these
details, through a series of significant transferences, in our experiments with
mazes designed to bring out what we call the intelligence of animals. Call it
intelligence if you wish – it’s merely a question of definition. It’s a matter of
the extension of the field of the real in which we can include the animal with
its current capacities of discrimination, provided that it’s instinctually, libidinally,
interested.

这个的证据是我们花费力气来强调某些的细节,凭借一系列的所指意涵的移情,当我们试验那些的迷宫,它们被设计来揭露我们所谓的具有智慧的动物。称它为智慧,未尝不可。那仅是定义的问题。问题是实在界的领域的延伸。在那里,我们能够包括动物,它具有它的目前的辨识能力。只要它的本能与生命力比多感到興趣。

The supposed realism of describing the real by details is only conceivable
in the register of an organized signifier, due to which, by virtue of the fact
that the mother is my big gtrl full of bottom and muscles, the child will evolve
in a certain way. It’s clearly as a function of his early metonymic abilities that
at a certain moment the bottom can become an equivalent of the mother for
him. Whatever the sense by which we can conceive the sensitization on the
vital level, it alters absolutely nothing in the problem.

凭借细节描述实在界被认为是写实主义,仅有当它处于有组织的能指的铭记时,它才能够被构想。由于这个有组织的能指,凭借「母亲是我的大女孩,屁股丰满,肌肉发达」的这个事实,小孩将以某种方式发展。显而易见作为是他早期的换喻的能力的功能,对于小孩,在某个时刻,屁股会成为母亲的相等语。不管凭借怎样的意涵,我们能够构想生命力层次的敏感意涵,它对于问题,根本没有任何改变。

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精神病 258

February 19, 2014

精神病 258
雅克、拉康

Do get it into your heads that language is a system of positional coherence,
and secondly that this system reproduces itself within itself with an extraordinary,
and frightful, fecundity.

请你们不妨这样想,语言是立场一贯性的系统。其次,这个系统在自身之内繁殖它自己,特别而且令人惊畏的丰饶多产。

It’s not for nothing that the word prolixity is the same word as proliferation.
Prolixity is the frightening word. All use of language incurs fright, which
stops people and finds expression in the fear of intellectuality. He intellectualizes
too much, people say. This serves as an alibi for the fear of language. In
fact, you can observe that there is verbalism wherever one makes the error of
granting too much weight to the signified, whereas it’s by heading further in
the direction of the independence of the signifier and die signified that all
operations of logical construction adopt their full effect.

「长篇大论prolixity」这个字词,跟「繁殖proliferation」这个字词是同义字,并非是偶然。「长篇大论」是令人惊畏的字词。各种语言的使用的都引人惊畏,因为它阻止人们,并且由于对于学识的惊畏,而侃侃而谈。人们说,「他太过于买弄学识」。这可充电一种藉口,作为对语言的惊畏。事实上,你们能够观察到,每当我们犯了错误,给予所指过多的份量时,就会文辞天花乱坠。尽管它进一步的方向是朝着能指与所指定各自独立。逻辑建构的各种运作都将它们发挥得淋漓尽致。

At least for the phenomena that interest us, one always falls into verbalism
by further adhering to what I call the mythology of significance [mythologie
significative]. Mathematics on the other hand uses a language of pure signifier,
a metalanguage par excellence. It reduces language to its systematic function
upon which another system is built, grasping the former in its articulation.
The efficacity of this way of doing things isn’t in doubt in its own register.

至少,对于我们感到興趣的现象,我们总是掉入文辞的天花乱坠。由于更进一步坚持我所谓的能指意义的神话。另一方面,数学使用一种纯粹能指的的语言,无与伦比的一种形上语言。它将语言还原成为它的系统的功能。根据这个功能,另外一个系统被建造,在它的表达里,理解前者。无可置疑地,这种做事情的方式的有效性,就在于它自己的铭记。

精神病 259
隐喻与换喻
3

When one reads the rhetoricians, one realizes that they never get to an entirely
satisfactory definition of metaphor, or of metonymy.

当我们阅读修饰学,我们体会到,它们对于隐喻,或换喻,从来没有获得完全令人满意的定义

This results in* for example, the formula that metonymy is an impoverished
metaphor. One might say that the thing is to be taken in exactly the
opposite sense – metonymy exists from the beginning and makes metaphor
possible. But metaphor belongs to a different level than metonymy.

譬如,这造成这个公式:换喻是隐喻的精炼。我们不妨说,事情应该从恰恰相反的意义来看待。换喻从一开始就存在,并且让隐喻成为可能。但是隐喻属于跟换喻的不同层次。

Let’s study the most primitive phenomena, and let’s take an example that
for us analysts is particularly alive. What is more primitive as the direct
expression of a meaning – that is of a desire – than what Freud relates about
his youngest little daughter, the one who has since occupied such an interesting
place in analysis, Anna?

让我们研究最原始的现象。让我们举个例子:对于我们而言,精神分析家是特别的活跃。作为意义的表达,欲望的表达,比弗洛依德叙述关于他最小的女儿的东西,是更加原始的东西。他的小女儿从此就在精神分析佔有一个有趣的地位,那是弗洛依德、安娜?

Anna Freud asleep – things are, you see, in their pure state – she talks in
her sleep – Big strawberries, raspberries, cakes, porridge.3

弗洛依德、安娜睡着—你们瞧,事情处于它们的纯粹的状态。她在睡梦中谈话:「大草莓,鹅莓,蛋糕,燕麦粥。

There’s something here that looks like the signified in its pure state. And
it’s the most schematic, the most fundamental form of metonymy. There’s
no doubt that she desires these strawberries, these raspberries. But it isn’t
self-evident that these objects should all be there together. The fact that they
are there, juxtaposed, coordinated in this articulated naming is due to the
positional function that places them in a situation of equivalence. This is the
essential phenomenon.

在此,有某件东西看起来像是处于纯粹状态的所指。这是换喻最典型,最基本的形式。无可置疑地,她欲望这些草莓,这些鹅莓。但是这并非是自明的,这些东西应该全部汇集一块。在这个被表述的名称里,它们在那里,相提并论,而且调和的这个事实,是由于立场的功能。这种立场的功能让它们处于相等的情境。这就是基本的现象。

If there is anything that shows indisputably that it’s not purely and simply
a question here of a phenomenon of expression that a psychology, say Jungian,
could get us to see as an imaginary substitute for die object appealed
to, it’s precisely the fact that the sentence begins with what? With the name
of the person, Anna Freud. She’s an infant of nineteen months, and we are at
the level of naming, of equivalence, of nominal coordination, of signifying
articulation as such. It’s only within this framework that the transference of
meaning is possible.

假如有任何东西无可争议地显示:在此,这并不纯粹而单纯是表达的现象的问题。譬如,荣格学派的心理学就能让我们看待这种表达,作为是对被诉求的客体的想像的替代品。确实的事实是:这个句子开什么开始?对于这个人的名字,弗洛依德、安娜。她是十九个月大的婴孩。我们处于命名的层次,相等的层次,名称调和的层次,能指意涵的表达自身的层次。仅有在这个架构里,意义的移情才有可能。

This is the heart of Freud’s thought. His work begins with the dream, its
mechanisms of condensation and displacement, of figuration – these are all
of the order of metonymic articulation, and it’s on this foundation that metaphor
is able to intervene.

这就是弗洛依德思想的核心。他的著作从梦开始,梦的凝缩与替换的心理机制,比拟的心理机制开始。这些都属于换喻的表达的秩序。根据这个基础,隐喻才能够介入。

It’s even more apparent at the level of the erotization of language. If there
is an order of acquisition, it’s certainly not what makes it possible to say that
children begin with such and such an element of the verbal stock rather than
by some other. There is the greatest diversity. One doesn’t take hold of language
by one end, like certain painters who start their paintings at the lefthand
corner. For language to be born, it must always already be grasped as
a whole. On the other hand, for it to be able to be grasped as a whole, it has
to be grasped at the outset by means of the signifier.

在语言的性化的层次,这甚至更加地显而易见。即使学习得来的秩序存在,那确实并不是我们能够这样说的原因。小孩从文辞贮存的某某元素开始,而不是从某个其它秩序开始。有各色各样的秩序。我们并没有紧捉住语言的一端。为了让语言诞生,我们必须理解语言,总是已经作为整体。另一方面,为了让语言能够被理解作为整体,我们必须从一开始就凭借能指来理解喻语言。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神病 257

February 18, 2014

精神病 257
雅克、拉康

The mainspring of the metaphor isn’t the meaning, which is supposed to
be transposed from Booz onto the sheaf. I readily admit that someone might
object to me that Booz’s sheaf is metonymic, not metaphorical, and that
underlying this magnificent poetry, and never named directly, there is Booz’s
royal penis. But that isn’t what gives this sheaf its metaphorical quality, it’s
that the metaphor is placed in the position of subject, in Booz’s place. It’s a
phenomenon of signifiers that is involved. >

隐喻的主要动力并不是意义。意义被认为是从布兹调换到禾束。我确实承认,某个人可能反对我的意见,因为布兹的禾束是换喻,而不是隐喻。布兹的皇家的阴茎,作为这首辉煌的诗的基础,而且从来没有直接被命名。但是,那并不是让这个禾束拥有它的隐喻的特质的原因。而是,隐喻被放置在主体的立场,放置在布兹的位置。被牵涉到的是能指的现象。

Let’s move to the limit of poetic metaphor, which you wouldn’t hesitate to
describe as surrealist, even though we didn’t have to wait for the surrealists
to make metaphors. You are unable to say whether it makes sense or not. I
won’t say that this is the best way of putting things, but, in any case, it’s near
enough.

让我移动到诗的隐喻的极限。你们会毫不犹豫地描述作为超现实主义,即使我们并不需要等待超现实主义来创造隐喻。你们无法说它是否具有意义。我不愿说,这是表达事情的最好的方式。但是,无论如何,这是足够靠近。

Take an expression that we can agree is indeed a metaphor. You will see
whether it’s the sense that sustains it.

拿一个我们能够同意确实是隐喻的表达作例子。你们将会看出,维持隐喻的是否是意义。

Love is a pebble laughing in the sun .
爱是在阳光里欢笑的小碎石。

What does this mean? It’s indisputably a metaphor. It’s likely enough that
if it was born, it’s because it contains a sense. As for finding o n e . . . I could
do a whole seminar on it. This seems to me to be an indisputable definition
of love, and I shall say that it’s the last I paused at, because to me it appears
indispensable if one wants to avoid falling endlessly into irremediable confusions.
In short, a metaphor is above all sustained by a positional articulation. This
can be demonstrated even in its most paradoxical forms.

这是什么意思?它无可争议地是个隐喻。很有可能,假如这个隐喻诞生,是因为它包含意义。至于要找到一个意义,我想要花整个研究班的时间来探究它。我觉得这是无可争议的爱的定义。我不妨说,这是我没有为之暂停的事情。假如我想要避免无尽地掉落无法补救的混乱,这似乎是无可免除的。总之,隐喻尤其重要的是靠着立场的表述来维持。即使在它最悖论的形态,它也能够被证实。

None of you has, I believe, failed to hear of the exercise that a poet of our
day has carried out under the rubric of Un mot pour un outre [one word for
another]. It’s a little comedy in one act by Jean Tardieu. It concerns a dialogue
between two women. One is announced, the other goes up to her and
says:

我相信,你们没有人没听过,我们当代的一位诗人从事的这个表现,在「一个字代替另外一个字」的架构下。这是珍、塔狄由所写的独幕剧的小喜剧。它专注到两个女人之间的对话。其中一位被宣佈,另一位则走向她,并且说:

My dear, my dearest, how many pebbles is it since I have had the apprentice to
sugar you?

「亲爱的,我最亲爱的,自从我学习如何让你快乐以来,多少的小碎石已经经过?」

Alas, my dear, answers the other, / myself have been extremely unvitreous,
my three littlest oil-cakes, etc.

「啊!亲爱的,」另外一位回答,「我自己一直是不快乐,我的三个最小的油饼,等等。」

This is confirmation that, even if it’s in a paradoxical form, not only is the
sense maintained, but that it tends to manifest itself in a particularly fortunate
and metaphorical manner. It may be said that the sense is in some way
renewed. Whatever effort the poet may have made to push it in the direction
of a demonstration, one is at every instant a hair’s breadth from a poetic
metaphor. It belongs to a register that is no different from what arises as
natural poetry as soon as a powerful meaning is involved.

这种肯定不但是被维持的意义,即使用悖论的形式,而且它倾向于展示它自己,以特别幸运及隐喻的方式。我们可以说,意义在某方面被更新。无论诗人尽怎样的努力来逼迫它朝向证明的方向,我们在每个瞬间都跟诗人的隐喻仅有千钧一发。它属于一种跟自然诗没有什么不同的铭记,当强而有力的意义被牵涉到。

The important thing isn’t that the similarity should be sustained by the
signified – we make this mistake all the time – it’s that the transference of
the signified is possible only by virtue of the structure of language. All language
implies a metalanguage, it’s already a metalanguage of its own register.

重要的事情并不是,类同应该被所指所维持。我们始终犯下这个错误。而是所指的移情,仅有凭借语言的结构,才有可能。

It’s because potentially all language is to be translated that it implies metaphrase
and metalanguage, language speaking of language. The transference
of the signified, so essential to human life, is possible only by virtue of the
structure of the signifies

那是因为潜在地,所有的语言都应该被翻译,它暗示着隐喻与形上语言,谈论语言的语言。所指的移情,对人类生活是如此重要,仅有凭借能指的结构,才有可能。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神病 255

February 18, 2014

精神病 255
雅克、拉康

Therefore, there is a similarity disorder here, which is that the subject is
incapable of metaphrase, and what he has to say lies entirely within the domain
of paraphrase.

因此,在此有一个类同的疾病。那就是,主体无法从事逐字直译。他所必需说的话,完全在于意译诠释的领域之内。

Alongside sensory aphasia there is what is broadly called motor aphasia. It
ranges from disorders of agrammatism, well-known by now, to an extreme
reduction of his stock of words – its immortal image is the famous pencil that
he is unable to get out. This other dimension of aphasic deficit can be very
well ranged within the order of contiguity disorders.

除了感官的失语症,有广义的所谓的心理动力失语症。它的范围包括文法杂乱的疾病,现在这是众所周知,以及他的字词贮存的极端还原疾病。它的长久不灭的意象就是,他无法拿出那隻著名的「铅笔」。失语症的病变的这个另类维度,完全可以被放置在邻近的疾病的秩序之内,

Here it’s essentially the articulation, the syntax of language, which, progressively
along the scale of cases and in the evolution of certain subjects,
deteriorates to the point of making them incapable of articulating in a compound
sentence what they are nevertheless able to name correctly. They retain
the nominative capacity, but lose the propositional capacity. They are unable
to construct propositions.

在此,在某些主体的进化的个案的程度,基本上,这个表达,语言的句法会恶化到让他自己无法用复合的句子来表达,他们仍然能够正确地命名的东西。他们保留命名的能力,但是丧失命题的能力。他们不能够建造各种命题。

Owing to the properties of the signifier and the signified, the constant
temptation to which linguists themselves, and a fortiori those who aren’t linguists,
succumb is to consider that it’s what is the most obvious in the phenomenon
that says it all.

由于能指与所指定的这些特性,语言学家自己,更确实地说,那些并非是语言学家的人们,他们经常耽溺的诱惑,就是认为,在现象里最为显而易见的东西,就道尽了一切。

Up to a point linguists have fallen victim to this illusion. The emphasis
they place, for example, on metaphor, which has always been studied much
more than metonymy, is proof of this. In full and living language it’s what is
the most gripping, but also the most problematical – how does it happen that
language is at its most effective when it manages to say something by saying
something else? It’s enthralling indeed, and it’s even thought that this is the
way to the crux of the phenomenon of language, in opposition to a naive
notion.

直到某个时刻,语言学家曾经成为这种幻觉的受害者。譬如,他们对于隐喻的强调。比起换喻,隐喻的研究总是比较多,就是这点的证明。在充分与活生生的语言,这是最令人著迷,但是也是最棘手的问题。语言最有效率的时刻,是当语言凭借说出某件其他东西,才成功地说出某件东西,这是怎样一回事?这确实是令人著迷,它甚至被认为,这是到达语言的现象的核心的方法,跟纯朴的观念相对立。

The naive notion has it that there is a superimposition, like a tracing, of
the order of things onto the order of words. It’s thought that a great step
forward has been made by saying that the signified only ever reaches its goal
via another signified, through referring to another meaning. This is only the
first step, and one fails to see that a second is needed. It has to be realized
that without structuring by the signifier no transference of sense would be
possible.

纯朴的观念认为,就像是一种痕迹,物象的秩序,有一种超级的赋加到字词的秩序上。有人认为,凭借说出,所指曾经抵达它的目标,经由另外一个所指,通过提到另外一个意义,我们曾经向前迈进一大步。这仅是第一步,而且我们病无法看出,有第二步的需要。我们必须体会到,假如没有能指的这个结构,不可能会有感知的移情。

A number of you rightly saw last time that this is what I meant in emphasizing
the role of the signifier in metaphor.

上次,你们很多人正确地看出,这就是我的意思,当我强调在隐喻里,能指扮演的角色。

精神病 256

The deficit, if we approach things from this angle, has two sides.
The first is the dissolution of the link between intentional meaning and the
apparatus of signifiers. The latter is on the whole retained by the subject,
who nevertheless fails to master it in relation to his intention. The second is
the dissolution of the link internal to the signifier. Here the fact is emphasized
that there is a sort of regressive decomposition, which is sufficiently
well explained by the Jacksonian theory according to which functions decompose
in the inverse order of their acquisition, not in development – language
isn’t reducible to the ideally primary language of the infant – but through a
veritable turning}

假如我从这个角度接近物象,这个缺点有两面。第一面是,意图的意义与各个能指的工具之间的连接的瓦解。大体上,各个能指的工具被主体保留。可是,主体无法掌控它跟他的意图的关联。第二面是,能指的内部的连接的瓦解。在此,这个事实被强调,有某种的退化的瓦解。这可由雅克逊的理论作充分的解释。依照雅克逊的理论,各种功能的瓦解,在于它们习得的相反的秩序,而不是在发展。语言并无法还原成为婴孩时的理想的原初的语言,而是凭借一种可验证的扭转。

For my part, is that what I wanted to emphasize?
I say – No, its not. According to a type of general law of illusion concerning
what goes on in language, it isn’t what appears in the foreground that is
important. What’s important is the opposition between two sorts of links that
are themselves internal to the signifier.

就我而言,这难道是我想要强调的东西吗?
我说:「不,并不是!」依照一种幻象的通则,关于语言正在进行的东西。重要的,并不是出现在前景的东西。重要的是两者连接的这个对立。这两种连接本身是能指的内部。

First, the positional link, which is the foundation of the link that I earlier
called propositional. This is what in a given language sets up that essential
dimension which is the order of words. To understand this it suffices to recall
that in French Pierre bat Paid isn’t equivalent to Paid bat Pierre.

首先,这个位置的连接,作为我早先所说的命题的连接的基础。 这就是在某个特定的语言,建立属于文字的秩序的基本维度的东西。为了理解这个,我们只要回忆一下,在法文,Pierre bat Paid 并不等于就是 Pierre bat Paid。

Concerning the second form of aphasic disorders, notice the strict coherence
there is between maintaining the positional function of language and
maintaining an adequate stock of terms. This is an absolutely incontestable
clinical phenomenon and shows us the fundamental binding of the signifier.
What appears at the grammatical level as characteristic of the positional
link reappears at all levels and sets up the synchronic coexistence of terms.

关于失语症的疾病的第二种形态。请你们注意这个严谨的一贯性,存在于维持语言的立场的功能,与维持充分的术语的贮存之间。这是一个绝对无法测试的临床的现象。它跟我们显示能指的基本的连接。在文法的层次出现的东西,作为立场的连接的特性,在各个层次都会重新再出现,并且建立术语的同时性的共同存在。

The verbal locution is its highest form. At a lower level there is the word,
which has the air of a stability that, as you know, has been rightly challenged.
While the independence of the word manifests itself from certain angles, it
can’t be regarded as radical* The word can in no way be regarded as a unit of
language, even though it constitutes a privileged elementary form. At an even
lower level you find the phonematic oppositions or couplings which characterize
the ultimate radical element that distinguishes one language from another.

文辞的术语是它的最高的形式。在较低的层次,会有字词。这种字词具有稳定的气氛。你们知道,稳定的气氛曾经被合理地受到挑战。虽然从某些角色来看,字词的独立会展示它自己,可是它无法被认为是语言的根源。字词根本就无法被认为是语言的单位,即使它构成具有特权的基本的形式。在更低阶的层次,你们会发现这个音素的对立,或配对,表现最后的语言根源元素的特性。这种元素区别一种语言更另外一种语言的差异。

In French for example boue and pou are opposed to one another, whatever
your accent. Even if, because you live near a border, you tend to pronounceboue like pou, you will pronounce the other pou differently, because French
is a language in which this opposition is valid. In other languages there are
oppositions totally unknown in French. This binding of opposites is essential
to the functioning of language. It must be distinguished from the link of
similarity, implicated in the functioning of language, which is tied to the
indefinite possibility of the function of substitution, which is conceivable only
on the basis of the positional relation.

譬如,在法文,boue 与bou 互相对立,不管你是什么方言。即使你倾向于将boue 发音,像是pou,因为你居住在边境地区,你将另外一个pou 发音会不同。因为法文的语言,这种对立是正确的。在其他的语言,有些的对立,是法语里完全不知道。对立面的这种连接,对于语言的功能是很重要的。它必须被区别,跟类同的差异。在语言的功能被牵涉的类同。它跟替换的功能的不明确的可能性息息相关。替换的功能,仅有根据立场的关系的基础,它有办法被构想。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com