精神病 276

精神病 276
雅克、拉康

But for us, workers, scholars, doctors, technicians, what direction does
this return to the truth of Freud indicate?

但是对于我们,研究员,学者,医生,技术人员,回归到弗洛依德的这个真理,指示著什么方向?

It is the direction of a positive study whose methods and forms are given
to us in this sphere of the so-called human sciences, which concerns the order
of language, linguistics. Psychoanalysis should be the science of language
inhabited by the subject. From the Freudian point of view man is the subject
captured and tortured by language.

这就是积极研究的方向,它的方法与形式被给予,在所谓的人文科学的领域里。这个领域关注语言的秩序,也就是语言学。精神分析应该是主体所驻居的语言的科学。从弗洛依德的观点,人是被语言补获与折磨的主体。

Psychoanalysis introduces us to a psychology, to be sure, but which one?
Psychology properly so-called is effectively a science of perfectly well-defined
objects. But, undoubtedly, by virtue of the significant resonances of the word,
we slide into confusing it with something that refers to the soul. One thinks
that everyone has his own psychology. One would be better off, in this second
usage, to give it the name it could be given. Let’s make no mistake – psychoanalysis
isn’t an egology. From the Freudian perspective of man’s relationship
to language, this ego isn’t at all unitary, synthetic. It’s decomposed,
rendered complex in various agencies – the ego, the superego, the id. It
would certainly be inappropriate to make each of these terms a little subject
in its own right, which is a crude myth that makes no advance, illuminates
nothing.

的确,精神分析跟我们介绍心理学,但是哪一种心理学?恰如其分的所谓的心理学,实质上是定义非常清楚的客体的科学。凭借字词的意义的回响,我们逐渐陷入跟提到灵魂的某件东西的混淆。我们认为,每个人都拥有他自己的心理学。在这个次级的用法,我们最好给予心理学它恰如其分应该被给予的名称。让我们不要犯这个错误,精神分析并不是自我心理学。从弗洛依德对于人与语言的关系的观点,这个自我根本不是单一性,或综合。由于有各种代理者,自我,超我,本我,它被瓦解,变得复杂。我们确实是不适当对,假如我们让这些术语的每一个,成为各自自圆其说的小主体。这种小主体是简陋的神话,没有进步,没有启示任何东西。

Freud could not have been in any doubt about the dangers confronting his
work. When, in 1938, he took up his pen for his final preface to Moses and
Monotheism he added a very curious note -1 do not share, he says, the opinion
of my contemporary Bernard Shaw, who claims that man would be capable of
achieving something only if he could live to be three hundred years old. I do not
believe this prolongation of life would have any advantages unless, as the translation
goes, the conditions of the future were totally transformed. There you have
the sad nature of these translations. In German, this has quite a different
sense – many other thing would have to be profoundly altered, at the base, at the
root, in the determinations of life.12

对于他的研究所面临的各种危险,弗洛依德当时不可能有任何怀疑。在1938年,当他拿起笔替「摩西与一神教」写最后的跋言,他补充一个非常耐人寻味的注释:「我并没有赞同我当代作家萧伯纳的意见,」他说,「萧伯纳宣称,只要人能够活到三百岁,人就能够完成某件东西。我并不相信人的寿命的延长会有什么优点,除非未来的情况完全改观,翻译是这样说的。」在那里,你们拥有这些翻译的可悲的特性。在德文,这具有不同的意义:「许多的其他东西将必须彻底地被改变,从基础改变,从根改变,为了决定人生是什么。」

This note by Freud written when he was old, continuing to pursue his
meditation before leaving his message to decompose, to me appears to echo
the terms in which the chorus accompanies the final steps of Oedipus towards
the little wood of Colonus. Accompanied by the wisdom of the people, he
meditates upon the desires that bring man to pursue shadows, he indicates
that it’s his having strayed that makes him unable even to know where the
woods are. I’m astonished that nobody – except for someone who rendered
this into Latin reasonably well – has ever managed to translate properly the
mi phunat that the chorus then utters.13 It’s reduced to the value of a verse
that says it’s better not to have been born, whereas the sense is absolutely clear
– the only way to overcome all this business of logos, the only way to be rid
of it all, would be not to have been born like this. This is the very sense accompanying
the gesture of the old Freud, when he rejected with his hand any
wish that his life be prolonged.

弗洛依德老年时写的这个注释,当他继续追寻他的沉思,以免他的讯息瓦解消失。对我而言,这个注释迴响这些术语,合唱队伴随着伊狄浦斯的最后的脚步,朝向科伦纳斯的小树林。伊狄浦斯由这些人们的智慧伴随着,他沉思引导人追寻阴间幽魂的各种欲望。他指示著,由于自己曾经迷失,他才会甚至不能够知道,他的树林在哪里。我甚感奇怪,没有人曾经成功地正确翻译合唱队当时表达的这个me phunai,除了有某个人,将这个字合情合理地翻译成拉丁文。这个字被诠释成为一首诗的的价值,内容是说:「人最好当初就不该出生。」这个意涵绝对是清楚的:要克服理性的所有这一切的唯一方法,要摆脱理性的一切掌控的唯一方法,就是像这样,人当初就不应该出生。这个意涵伴随着老年的弗洛依德的身影。当他用他的手,排斥让他寿命延长的任何愿望。

It’s true that somewhere in his work on the Witz, in other words on the
quip, he indicates a reply – Much better not to have been born – unfortunately,
this happens barely once in two hundred thousand.”

的确,在他研究「论机智语」的某个地方,也就是研究「笑话」的某个地方,他指示著一个回答:「人最好当初就不应该出生—不幸地,这样的事情两千年,难得一次。」

I give you this reply.

我给予你们这个回答。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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