精神病 204

There is Wahrnehmung, perception, first of all. This is a primordial, primary
position which remains hypothetical since in a way none of it comes to
light in the subject. Then there is Bewusstsein, consciousness.

Consciousness and memory as such are mutually exclusive. This is a point
on which Freud never varied. It always seemed to him that pure memory,
qua inscription and acquisition by the subject of a new means of reacting,
should remain completely immanent to the mechanism and bring no apprehension
of the subject by himself into play.


The Wahrnehmung stage is there to show that something simple must be
presupposed at the origin of memory, conceived as consisting of a plurality
of registers. The first registration of perceptions, which is also inaccessible to
consciousness, is arranged according to associations by simultaneity. Here
we have the original requirement of a primitive installation of simultaneity.


This is what I showed you last year in our probative exercises concerning
symbols.4 Things became interesting, you’ll remember, when we established
the structure of groups of three. Putting these groups of three together effectively
establishes a relationship of simultaneity between them. Simultaneity
is the birth of the signifier and, equally, its existence is a synchronic coexistence.
Saussure emphasizes this point.


Unbewusstsein is of the order of conceptual memories. The notion of causal
relation as such appears here for the first time. This is the moment at which
the signifier, once constituted, is secondarily arranged according to something
else, which is the appearance of the signified.


It’s only subsequently that the Vorbezvusstsein, the third mode of rearrangement,
comes into play. It’s from this preconscious that investments will become
conscious, according to certain precise rules. This second thought conscious-
ness is in all likelihood linked to the hallucinatory experience of word representations,
5 the emission of words. The most radical example of this is verbal
hallucination, connected with the paranoid mechanism by which we auditivate
word representations. The appearance of consciousness which is linked
to this would otherwise always be without any link to memory.


In everything that follows, Freud shows that the phenomenon of Verdrdngung
consists in the loss of something of the order of a signifying expression
at the moment of passage from one stage of development to another. The
signifier recorded at one of these stages doesn’t cross over into the next, with
the mode of retroactive regrouping required by any new phase of signifier meaning
organization that the subject enters.


This is where any explanation of the existence of repression has to begin.
The notion of inscription in a signifier that dominates the registration is essential
to the theory of memory insofar as it’s at the basis of Freud’s first investigation
of the phenomenon of the unconscious.
21 March 1956



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