精神病 198

精神病 198
雅克、拉康
Jacques Lacan

What is this dissymmetry due to? To the primary love relation with the
mother, you will say, but Freud was a long way away from this point at the
time he was beginning to put order into the facts that he was observing in
experience. He mentions, among other things, the anatomical component,
which means that for the woman the two sexes are identical. But is this the
reason for the dissymmetry?

这个不均称是由于什么原因?由于跟母亲的原初的爱的关系。你们将会说,但是弗洛依德跟这个观点大相迳庭。当他正在开始替他在精神分析经验观察到的那些事实整理头绪时。其中,他提到解剖学的成分。那意味着,对于女人,这两种性别的一致的。但是难道这就是不均称的理由?

The detailed studies that Freud did on this subject are closely argued. I
shall name some of them – “Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical
Distinction between the Sexes,” “Female Sexuality,” “The Dissolution of the
Oedipus Complex.” What do they bring out, if it isn’t that the reason for the
dissymmetry is located essentially at the symbolic level, that it’s due to the
signifier?

弗洛依德对于这个议题所做的细节的研究,受到密切的争议。我将提出其中一些争议。「两性之间的解剖学的区别,导致心理的结果」,「女性的性」,「伊狄浦斯情结的解决」,「他们所揭露的,难道不就是,因为不均称基本上被定位在象征的层次,难道不是因为这个能指?」

I should say that strictly speaking there is no symbolization of woman’s
sex1 as such. In any case, the symbolization isn’t the same, it doesn’t have
the same source or the same mode of access as the symbolization of man’s
sex.1 And this is because the imaginary only furnishes an absence where elsewhere
there is a highly prevalent symbol.

我应该说,严格地说,并没有女性本身的象征化。无论如何,这种象征化并不相同。它并没有相同的来源,或相同的接近模式,如同男性的象征化。这是因为想象界仅是供应一种缺席,在这个缺席的它方,存在着非常盛行的象征。

It’s the prevalence of the phallic Gestalt that in bringing about the oedipal
complex forces the woman to take a detour via identification with the father
and therefore for a while to follow the same paths as the boy. The woman’s
access to the oedipal complex, her imaginary identification, is accomplished
via the father, exactly as in the boy’s case, by virtue of the prevalence of the
imaginary form of the phallus, but insofar as this form is itself taken as the
symbolic element central to the Oedipus complex.

当伊狄浦斯情结被触发时,阳具的格式塔学派的盛行,女人被迫採取迂回方式,凭借对父亲的认同。因此,有一阵子,女人被迫遵循跟男孩一样的途径。女人接近伊狄浦斯情结,接近她想象的认同,如同男孩的情况,是经由父亲伴随而来。凭借阳具的想象的形式的盛行。但是因为这种形式本身被认为是伊狄浦斯情结的象征元素的中心。

If for the girl as much as for the boy the castration complex assumes a
pivotal value in bringing about the Oedipus complex; it does so precisely as
a function of the father, because the phallus is a symbol to which there is no
correspondent, no equivalent. It’s a matter of a dissymmetry in the signifier.
This signifying dissymmetry determines the paths down which the Oedipus
complex will pass. The two paths make them both pass down the same trail
– the trail of castration.

假如对于女孩,如同对于男孩一样,阉割情结假定具有轴心的价值,当伊狄浦斯情结被触发时。它这样做,确实是作为父亲的一种功能,因为阳具是没有对应物,没有相等物的象征。在能指,这是不均称的事情。这个能指化的不均称决定了伊狄浦斯情结将会通过的这些途径。这两个途径让男女两性通过相同的小径—阉割的小径。

The experience of the Oedipus complex is evidence of the predominance
of the signifier in the ways open to subjective realization, since the girl’s
assumption of her own situation is in no way unthinkable on the imaginary
plane. All the ingredients are there for the girl to have direct experience of
the feminine position, symmetrical to the realization of the masculine position.

伊狄浦斯情结的经验是能指的盛行的证据,以各种开放给予主体的实现的方式。因为女孩对她自己的情境的假定,在想象界的层次是不可思议的。所有存在那里的成分,都是要让女孩直接经验到女性的立场,跟男性的立场的实现相均称。

There would be no obstacle if this realization were to be brought about
in the order of lived experience, of ego sympathy, of sensations. And yet,
experience shows a striking difference – one of the sexes is required to take
the image of the other sex as the basis of its identification. That things are so
can’t be considered a pure quirk of nature. This fact can only be interpreted
from the perspective in which it’s the symbolic organization that regulates
everything.

假如这种实现是在生活经历的经验的秩序被导致,在自我同期,在各种感知的秩序被导致,那就不会有阻碍。可是,精神分析经验显示一种强烈的差异。两性的强烈的差异被要求将异性的形象看待作为认同的基础。事情是如此发展,并无法被认为是纯粹的天性的倾向。这个事实仅能够从这个观点来解释:象征界的组织规范一切。

199
Where there is no symbolic material, there is an obstacle, a defect, in the
way of bringing about the identification that is essential for the subject’s sexuality
to be realized. This defect comes from the fact that on one point the
symbolic lacks the material – for it does require material. The female sex is
characterized by an absence, a void, a hole, which means that it happens to
be less desirable than is the male sex for what he has that is provocative, and
that an essential dissymmetry appears. If all this could be grasped within the
order of a dialectic of drives, we would not see why such a detour, such an
anomaly, would be necessary.

在没有象征的材料的地方,,会有一种阻碍,一种缺陷,阻挡这个基本的认同,为了让主体的性别被实现。这个缺陷来自这个事实:在某个时刻,象征欠缺材料—因为它确实要求材料。女性的性的特色是缺席,空无,空洞。那意味着,比起男性的性,女性的性巧好并没有那么被渴望,因为男性拥有的东西具有挑衅性。这就出现一种基本的不均称。假如所有这一切能够被理解,在冲动的辩证法的秩序之内。我们不明白,为什么需要有这样的迂回,这样的异常。

This remark is nowhere near adequate for us concerning the matter at
hand, namely the function of the ego in male and female hysterics. The question
isn’t simply linked to the material, to the trappings of the signifier, but
to the subject’s relationship with the signifier as a whole, with what the signifier
is capable of answering to.

对于我们而言,这样的论述根本就不够充分,关于手边正在处理的事情,也就是,在男性与女性的歇斯狄里症,自我的功能是什么。这个问题并不仅是跟材料息息相关,跟能指的各种陷阱息息相关,而且跟主体与能指作为整体的关系息息相关,跟能指所能够回应的东西息息相关。

When I spoke about beings of language last night it was intended to have
an impact upon my audience. Beings of language aren’t organized beings,
but there is no doubt that they are beings, that they stamp their form upon
man. The comparison I made with fossils was therefore quite appropriate up
to a point. It nevertheless remains true that they don’t have any substantial
existence in themselves.

昨天晚上,当我谈论到作为语言的结构,我的用意是要影响我的听众。作为语言的结构,并不是组织有条理的结构。但是无可置疑地,他们是结构,它们它他们的形式铭印在人身上。我用化石作为比较,直到这点,因此相当恰当。可是,问题仍然存在:作为语言的结构本身并没有拥有任何的实质的存在。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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