精神病 195

The hysteric’s question (II): What is a woman?
歇斯底里症的问题(II):女人是什么?
DORA AND THE FEMININE ORGAN
朵拉与女性的器官
THE SIGNIFYING DISYMMETRY
能指化的不均称
THE SYMBOLIC AND PROCREATION
象征界与生殖
FREUD AND THE SIGNIFIER
弗洛伊德与能指

What was the meaning of my lecture last night on the training of analysts? It
was that it is essential to carefully distinguish between symbolism properly
so-called, that is, symbolism as structured in language, that in which we
understand one another here, and natural symbolism. I have summed this up
in the expression, To read coffee grounds is not to read hieroglyphics.

我昨天晚上探讨精神分析家的训练的演讲,有什么意义?重要的是要仔细区别恰如其名的象征主义。也就是说,象征主义作为语言里的结构,在里面,我们互相理解在此的彼此,以及自然的象征主义。我曾经用这个表达作为总结:阅读咖啡店场域,就是不要阅读象形文字。

For the audience that it was, it was necessary to bring the difference between
signifier and signified to life a bit. I gave examples, some of them humorous,
I gave the schema, and I went on to some applications. I reminded them that
analysts’ practice makes them fascinated by highly seductive imaginary forms,
by die imaginary meaning of the subjective world, whereas what one needs
to know – this is what interested Freud – is what organizes this world and
enables it to be displaced. I pointed out that the dynamics of phenomena in
the analytic field are linked to the duality that results from the distinction
between the signifier and the signified.

对于当时的听众,有必要将能指与所指之间的差异稍微鲜活起来。我举一些例子,有些事耐人寻味的例子。我给出这个基模,我继续将它们运用。我提醒他们,精神分析的实践让他们著迷于非常具有诱拐性的想象的形式。主体的世界的想象的意义。但是我们所需要知道的是—这是弗洛依德感到興趣的东西—是什么组织这个世界,以及是什么让这个世界被替换。我指出,在精神分析的领域,各种现象的动力学,跟这个双重性息息相关。因为区别能指与所指而造成的双重性。

It’s no accident that it was a Jungian who brought in the term symbol. At
the heart of the Jungian myth the symbol is effectively thought of as a flower
that rises up from the depths, a blossoming of what lies in the depths of man
qua typical. The question is whether this is what a symbol is, or whether on
the contrary it’s something that envelops and forms what my interlocutor
nicely called creation.

「象征」这个术语是荣格带进来的,这并非是偶然。在荣格的神话原型的核心,象征有效地被认为是从深处展现出来的花朵。潜藏在作为典型的人的深处的东西的花朵盛开。问题是,是否这就是象征的本质的东西,或是否相反地,它是某件涵盖而且形成我的对谈者微妙地所谓的创造。

The second part of my lecture concerned the consequences in analysis of
forgetting the signifier-signified structuration. And there I was only able to
give an indication of the way in which the theory of the ego currently being
promoted in New York circles completely changes the perspective from which
the analytic phenomena have to be approached, and that it is party to the
same effacement. This effectively ends up placing the ego-to-ego relation in
the foreground. And a simple inspection of Freud’s articles between 1922
and 1924 shows that the ego is nothing like what it’s currently made out to
be in analytic usage.

我演讲的第二部分关注于精神分析的各种结果,当它忘记能指与所指定结构组织。在那里,我仅能够给予指示这个方式,自我的理论目前在纽约的精神分析圈子被鼓吹的方式。自我分析的理论改变了精神分析的现象必须被探究的面向。它遭受到相同的抹除。这有效地结束,将自我与自我的关系放置在前景。对于弗洛依德在1922年与1924年之间的文章,作一简单的检视,我们就会发现到:为了让精神分析能够使用,自我根本就不是目前被理解的样子。

1
If what is called strengthening the ego exists, it can only be the accentuation
of the fantasy relation that is always correlative of the ego, especially in the
case of the neurotic with a typical structure. As far as the latter is concerned,
the strengthening of the ego moves in exactly the opposite direction from
that of the dissolution, not only of symptoms, which are strictly speaking
within their own meaningfulness but may when the occasion arises be mobilized,
but also of the structure itself.

假如所谓的强化的自我确实存在,那仅会上幻见关系的强调。那种幻见关系总是自我的相互关系,特别是在具有典型结构的神经症的个案。就后者而言,自我的强化恰恰是朝相反的方向,移动进来,跟解决的方向相反,不仅是病征的解决,严格来说,那是在病征自己的意义里面,但是但时机来临时,它们被动员起来,而且也是在结构本身的方向。

What is the sense of what Freud contributed with his new topography
when he stressed the imaginary nature of the ego’s function? It’s precisely
the structure of neurosis.

当弗洛依德用他的新的地形学,强调自我的功能具有想象的特性,他所贡献之物的意义是什么?那确实就是神经症的结构。

Freud relates the ego to the object’s fantasmatic character. When he writes
that the ego has the privilege of reality using, of reality testing, that it’s the
ego that indicates reality for the subject, the context leaves no doubt – the
ego is here as an illusion, what Freud called the ego ideal. Its function, which
is not that of objectivity but that of illusion, is fundamentally narcissistic,
and it’s on the basis of this function that the subject gives something its
connotation of reality.

弗洛依德将自我跟客体的幻见的特性连接一块。当他写到:自我具有使用现实界,测试现实界的特权。那个自我指示著现实界给予主体—这段内文请楚地显示—自我在此是一种幻觉,弗洛依德所谓的自我理想。自我理想的功能并不是客观性的功能,而是幻觉的功能。它基本上是自恋。根据这个功能的基础,主体给予某件东西,给它在现实界的外延意义。

From this topography there arises what in typical neuroses is the place of
the ego. The ego in its imaginary structuration is for the subject like one of
its elements. In the same way that Aristotle declared that one must not say,
Man thinks, nor, The soul thinks, but, Man thinks with his soul, we shall say
that the neurotic asks his neurotic question, his secret and muzzled question,
with his ego.

从这个地形学,也产生在典型的神经症的自我的位置。对于主体而言,自我在它的想象界的结构,就像是它自己的元素。同样地,亚里斯多德宣告说,我们一定不要说「人在思维」,也一定不要说「灵魂在思维」。而是要说「人用他的灵魂在思维」。我们将会说:「神经症询用他的自我,问他的神经症的问题,他的秘密,以及被闷住的问题。

The Freudian topography of the ego shows us how a hysteric, or an obsessional,
uses his or her ego in order to raise the question, that is, precisely in
order not to raise it. The structure of a neurosis is essentially a question, and
indeed this is why for a long time it was for us purely and simply a question.
The neurotic is in a position of symmetry, he is the question that we ask
ourselves, and it’s indeed because it affects us just as much as him that we
have the greatest repugnance to formulating it more precisely.

弗洛依德的自我地形学跟我们显示:一位歇斯底里症者,或一位妄想症者,使用他或她的自我,为了提出这个问题。换句话说,确实是为了不要提出这个问题。神经症的结构基本上是一个问题。这确实是为什么有长久的时间,对于我们而言,神经症的结构纯粹仅是一个问题。神经症者处于均称的位置,他是我们询问自己的问题。确实是因为这个问题影响我们,如同影响他,我们强烈地不愿更加明确地诠释它。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

One Response to “精神病 195”

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