庄周梦蝶 2

庄周梦蝶 2

 

The relation of the function of fantasy to the symbolic field, that the

fantasy is that which covers over the lack in the symbolic and thus functions

as a support for the symbolic insofar as the subject relates to it, indicates that

fantasy not only offers a certain (illusory) coherence for the subject in terms

of his own self-identity but it also confers an equally illusory coherence on

“reality” (as it is mediated in terms of the Other). Properly, these should not

be understood as two distinct moments.

 

幻见的功能跟象征领域的关注,幻见是,涵盖在象征界的欠缺的东西,因此,幻见充当对象征界的一种支撑,因为主体跟它息息相关。这种关系指示著,幻见不仅提供主体,某种的幻觉的一致性,使用他自己的认同,而且幻见也给予「现实界」同等的幻觉的一致性,(如同用大他者的术语所中介的)。适当来说,这些一致性不应该被理解为两个不同的时刻。

 

The subject’s identity is always

symbolically effected and the symbolic reality to which the fantasy lends

some coherence is always a subjective representation. The identity thus secured

in the mode of fantasy is indicative of the desire both to identify oneself,

to “find” or construct one’s identity, and to do so in relation to something

mediated and structured by the symbolic network.

 

主体的认同总是由象征的现实界形成的结果,幻见借助某种一致性给象征的现实界,总是一种主观的再现表象。在幻见到模式里因此被获得的认同指示著,一方面既认同自身,「找到」或建构自己身份的欲望,另一方面,又以跟某件被中介的东西这样做,某件由象征的网络所架构的东西这样做。

 

The fantasy in this sense encapsulates what it is that the subject wants,

albeit in a surrogate form. That is, the object standing in for objet petit a is

never it and thus fantasy can and will necessarily move on to another object

which will also not be it. It also provides some answer to what it is that the

Other wants, in the sense that it offers the possibility of an explanation of

what it is that the Other is lacking and why it is that the Other is lacking. Again,

this is not to suggest that the answer is found, that we can actually

solve the lack in the Other, but that this lack is obfuscated by an (impossible

and) illusory answer (Stavrakakis 47, 150-52). It is in this sense, again,

that Lacan can assert that it is fantasy which is the support of the desire, not

the object (Four Fundamental Concepts 185).

从这个意义而言,幻见涵盖主体想要的东西,虽然是以代理的形式。换句话是,代表小客体的这个客体从来就不是它。因此,幻见能够而且必然要前进到另外一个客体,而这个客体也将不会是它。幻见也提供某种的解答,对于大他者想要什么。因为幻见提供这个可能性:解释大他者欠缺什么,以及为什么大他者总是处于欠缺。而且,这并不是要建议:这个解答被找到,我们实际上能够解答大他者的欠缺。而是建议:这个欠缺被不可能而幻觉的回答所模糊。而且,从这个意义而言,拉康能够主张,欲望的支撑物是幻见,而不是客体。(精神分析的四个基本原则 185页)

 

Fantasy is thus that within the subject which attempts to shore up both

its own constitutive lack and the lack in the Other. This operation is made

possible by the objet petit a, that remainder of the Real which insists on the

subject, both indicating and serving to mask and protect against the trauma

of the Real.

 

幻见因此在主体之内,企图支撑它自己的构成的欠缺,以及在大他者的欠缺。而小客体让支撑的运作成为可能。小客体作为是实在界的残余物,坚持主体指示并且充当遮蔽与保护,对抗实在界的创伤。

 

Crucial to the logic of fantasy and desire, however, is the impossibility

inherent in its operation. Were the objet petit a, the object of fantasy,

to be attained, the subject would be faced with the very trauma which

the fantasy serves to protect it from. It is thus that desire must be understood

as a perpetual movement, not in the sense of the drive whose aim is its ultimate

goal but in the sense that the object which causes it would, if attained,

negate its very own function.

 

可是,幻见逻辑与欲望的核心,是它的运作本质上的不可能。假如小客体就是应该被获得的幻见的客体,主体将会面临这个创伤,幻见充当保护它免于的创伤。因此,欲望必须被理解,作为是永久的运动,倒不是因为冲动的目标是最后的目标,而是因为引起冲动的客体,一旦被获得,它会否定它自己的功能。

 

Perhaps the quintessential example of the fantasy would be that of

love as original unity as presented in Plato’s The Symposium. Plato has

Aristophanes tell us of how humanity once consisted of three genders,

male, female and hermaphrodite, and how each individual of whichever

gender was complete in itself through combining what we would now understand

as the attributes of two people: four hands, four legs, two faces

etc.

 

或许,幻见的认同差异的例子,将就是爱的认同差异,作为是原初的一致性。如同在柏拉图的「会饮篇」所呈现的。柏拉图要求亚里斯多芬告诉他,人类曾经有一段时间是由三种性别组成,男性,女性,于阴阳同体。以及每一种性别的每个个体,如何通过跟我们现在所理解的两个人的属性结合,而获得完成:四隻手,四隻脚,两个脸孔,等等。

 

 Due to these creatures’ ambition and power, they were considered a

threat to the Gods who decided to split each one into two halves. Because,

however, each creature had previously formed a whole with its other half,

they clung to them and, if separated, searched for them relentlessly (25-

28). The myth, as it has come to pass into popular culture, has us each in

restless pursuit of our true other half, that other person who would really

complete us.

 

由于这些动物的企图心与权力,他们被认为是众神的威胁,众神诀的将每一个个体分裂成为两半。可是,因为每个动物原先已经形成整体,拥有它的另外一半。他们紧捉著另外一半。假如被分开的话,他们会不断地寻找他们。如同发生在通俗文化里,这个神话让我们每一个人从事不断地追寻我们真实的另外一半,另外一位真正会跟我们成为整体的人。

 

This example illustrates the different functions performed in fantasy.

Firstly, it proffers an identity, the answer to the question of who I really am;

I am really the other half of my lost other half. Secondly, it does so with reference

to the promise of a wholeness to come; when I find my lost other

half, I will again be complete and everything will be perfect. Lastly, it offers

an excuse as to why things are not (yet) perfect, why it is that both I and the

world are lacking.

 

这个例子说明在幻见表现的不同功能。首先,它提供一种认同,对于我确实是什么的问题的解答。我确实就是我丧失的另外一半的另外一半。其次,我虽然成为这样,却是带有未来获得完整的这个许诺。当我找到我丧失的另外一半时,我将再次成为完整,每样事情将成为完美。最后一点,它提供一种藉口,关于为什么事情尚未是完美,为什么我与这个世界总是欠缺。

 

Through each of these complementary functions, the fantasy

serves to forestall any final resolution. When we do find or think we

have found our lost other half, the girl or boy of our dreams, it inevitably

turns out that they are not quite the magical thing we had hoped for, the

world is not suddenly put to rights, nothing is really perfect and thus they

cannot be it and the hope can continue that the real Platonic other half is still

“out there.”

 

通过每个这些辅助的功能,幻见充当阻挡任何最后的解决。当我们确实发现或认为,我们已经找到我们丧失的另外一半,我们梦中的女孩或男孩,它无可避免地结果会是:他们并不完全是我们曾经希望的魔术般的东西。这个世界并没有突然地被矫正过来。没有一样东西确实是完美的,因此,他们无法就是「它」,我们会继续怀着希望:真实的柏拉图的另外一半依据「还在外面那里」。

 

Crucial in understanding this function of the fantasy is the appreciation

that the fantasy works to situate the subject. The fantasy is not experienced

as a passive scene, the straightforward construct of the subject. As evident

in the example of Choang-tsu’s butterfly, the fantasy always looks back or,

properly speaking, the fantasy embodies the gaze. This can be seen equally

in the example from The Symposium where the gaze returned from the fantasized

conjoining of lost pairs can be understood to situate the subject as notone.

 

理解幻见到这个功能的核心就是要认识到,幻见运作是为了定位主体。幻见并没有被经验,作为是被动的场景,主体的立即建构。如同在庄子梦蝶的例子显见的,幻见总是往后回顾,恰当地说,幻见具体代表凝视。从「会饮篇」的例子,同样能够看出这一点。在那里,凝视从丧失的配对的幻见到结合回转,能够被理解为:将主体定位为「并非一个」。

 

That is to say, the element of self-perception evident in fantasy demonstrates

something of the distance between the subject and the objet petit a.

This points to one of the fundamental operations of, and thus lessons to

be learnt from, psychoanalysis, that of “traversing the fantasy.” If, as we have

seen, the formula of fantasy (∃&a) describes the subject in relation to objet

petit a, this indicates that the fantasy presents the subject in relation to what

it would take to be the object cause of its desire.

 

换句话说,在幻见里显而易见的自我感觉的元素证明某件距离的东西,处于主体与小客体之间的距离。这指向精神分析的一个基本运作,从它获得一个教导:穿越幻见。如同我们曾经看见的,假如幻见的这个公式($‹›a)描述主体,作为是跟小客体的关系,这指示著,幻见呈现主体,作为是跟它的关系,为了成为它的欲望的客体的原因所需要的东西。

 

Traversing, crossing over the

fantasy, would thus involve the assumption of responsibility for the cause of

one’s own desire and thus of one’s own cause as subject, as without desire

the subject cannot come to be.

 

穿越幻见,横超幻见,因此将会牵涉到要担负这个责任,成为自己的欲望的原因,以及因此而成为自己的原因,作为主体的责任,因此,作为假如没有欲望,主体无法获得生命实存。

 

Traversing the fantasy would thus involve assuming

a position of responsibility towards (the function of) one’s fantasy –

that is to say, assuming the role of the cause of desire and thus accepting the

perpetual sliding of the objet petit a. Put simply, traversing the fantasy entails

accepting one’s desire for what it is, accepting one’s desire as interminably

bound to the desire of the Other, and not attaching oneself to the

illusory dream of attaining impossible lost jouissance “elsewhere.” It entails

confronting that which the gaze would show, “the essence of the gaze,” that

we paint ourselves in our own colours (Lacan, Four Fundamental Concepts

76).

穿越幻见因此将会牵涉到担任起一个责任的立场,朝向自己的幻见的这个功能。换句话说,担任起欲望的原因的角色,因此接受这个小客体的永久的滑动。简言之,穿越幻见涵盖接纳自己的欲望,依照它本来的样子。接纳自己的欲望,作为是跟大他者的欲望永无终了地息息相关。并且并不将自己连繫于那个幻觉的梦:在别的地方,获得不可能的丧失的欢爽。它涵盖面对凝视所显现的东西,「凝视的本质」,我们用我们自己的颜色,描绘我们自己的东西。(拉康:精神分析四个基本原则,第 76页)

 

雄伯译

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

https://springhero.wordpress.com

 

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