精神病 159

精神病 159

On the signifier in the real and the bellowing-miracle 141


The other miracles, for which he constructs an entire theory of divine creation,

consist in the call of a number of living beings which in general are

singing birds – as distinct from the speaking birds that form part of the

divine entourage – that he sees in the garden. There are also known species

of insects – the subject had an entomologist great grandfather – created quite

intentionally for him by the omnipotence of divine speech. Thus between

these two poles, the bellowing-miracle and the call for help, a transition occurs

in which can be seen traces of the passage of the subject absorbed in an

undeniably erotized link. The connotations are there – this is a male-female





The fundamental phenomenon of Schreber’s delusion stabilized into an

Unsinnig, nonsensical, field of erotized meanings. With time the subject managed

to neutralize to its utmost the task he set himself, which consisted in

completing the interrupted sentences. Any other way of responding, by questioning

them or by insulting them, would not have been playing the game. It

is necessary, he says, for me to be linked to the activity of God himself who

speaks to me in his fundamental language, however absurd or humiliating

the character of his questioning. Well then, whenever the subject leaves this

enigmatic field, whenever a state occurs whose arrival one would think he

must be wishing for as a respite, an illumination occurs on the fringe of the

external world and goes through him with all the component elements of

language in a dissociated form. On the one hand there is vocal activity in its

most elementary form, even accompanied by a sort of feeling of disarray

linked in the subject to a certain sense of shame. On the other hand there is

a meaning that has the connotation of being a call for help, correlated at that

moment with his abandonment and, subsequently, with this something which

on our analysis ultimately appears much more hallucinatory than these language

phenomena that on the whole remain entirely mysterious. Furthermore,

he never calls them anything but internal speech.





Schreber describes the peculiar trajectory of the rays that precede the

induction of the divine words – transformed into threads of which he has a

certain visual, or at least spatial, apprehension, they come towards him from

the horizon, spin around inside his head, and finally stab into him from behind.

All this leads us to think that this phenomenon, which is a prelude to the

coming into play of the divine discourse as such, unfolds in what could be

called a trans-space linked to the structure of the signifier and of meaning, a

spatialization prior to any possible dualization of the phenomenon of language.




What happens when this phenomenon ceases is different. Reality becomes

the support of other phenomena, those that are classically reduced to belief.

If the term hallucination must be attributed to a transformation of reality, this

is the only level at which we have the right to maintain it, if we are to preserve

any coherence for our language. What indicates a hallucination is this unusual

sense the subject has at the border between the sense of reality and the sense

of unreality, a sense of proximate birth, of novelty – and not just of any

novelty but of novelty over its use breaking through into the external world.

This is not of the same order as what appears with respect to meaning or

meaningfulness. It is a created reality, one that manifests itself well and truly

within reality as something new. Hallucination, as the invention of reality,

here constitutes the support for what the subject is experiencing.




I think today I’ve got you to grasp the schema I have tried to present, with

all the problems it comprises.




142 The psychoses


We are inquiring into the sense to give the term hallucination. In order to

be able to classify hallucinations in the appropriate way, it’s best to observe

them in the reciprocal contrasts, the complementary oppositions, that the

subject himself points out. As a matter of fact, these oppositions form part

of the one same subjective organization and, having been given by the subject,

they have greater value than if they were provided by the observer.




Moreover, one has to fllow their progress over time.

I have tried to give you an idea of how in Schreber there is something that

is always liable to surprise him, that never unveils itself, but is located in the

order of his relations with language, of these language phenomena that the

subject remains attached to by a very special compulsion and that constitute

the center in which the resolution of his delusion finally results.





There is a subjective topology here based entirely upon the fact, given to

us by analysis, that there may be an unconscious signifier. We need to know

how this unconscious signifier is situated in psychosis. It appears to be external

to the subject, but it’s another exteriority than the one that is evoked

when hallucination and delusion are presented to us as a disturbance of reality,

since the subject remains attached to it through an erotic fixation. Here

we have to conceive of space speaking as such, so that the subject can’t do

without it without a dramatic transition in which hallucinatory phenomena

appear, that is, in which reality itself is presented as affected and also as






This topographical notion tends in the same direction as the question already

raised about the difference between Verwerfung and Verdrangung as to their

subjective localization. What I’ve tried to get you to understand today constitutes

a first approach to this opposition.

8 February 1956









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