荣格:无意识的结构

Whence has fantasy acquired its bad reputation? Above all
from the circumstance that it cannot be taken literally. Con¬cretely understood, it is worthless. If it is understood semioti¬callYJ as Freud understands it, it is interesting from the scientific point of view; but if it is understood hermeneuticallYJ as an au¬thentic symbol, it acts as a signpost, providing the clues we need in order to carry on our lives in harmony with ourselves.

幻想何时变得恶名昭彰?尤其重要的是,从它无法被实质看待的那个情况开始。当它具体被理解时,它并无价值。假如从语言学来理解它,如同弗洛依德理解它,从科学的观点而言,那是很有興趣。但是假如从解释学来理解,作为一个真诚的象征,它充当一个指标,提供我们需要的这个线索,为了从事我们的生活,跟我们自己相和谐。

492 The symbol is not a sign that disguises something generally
known.I6 Its meaning resides in the fact that it is an attempt to elucidate, by a more or less apt analogy, something that is still entirely unknown or still in the process of formationY If we reduce this by analysis to something that is generally known, we destroy the true value of the symbol; but to attribute hermeneu¬tic significance to it is consistent with its value and meaning.

这个象征并不是通俗知道的伪装某件东西的符号。它的意义在于这个事实:它是一种诠释的企图,根据一种相当合宜的类比,某件依旧完全未知的东西,或是依旧处于形成的过程。假如我们凭借精神分析还原它,成为某件通俗知道的东西,我们毁灭象征的真实价值,但是赋予它解释学的意义,是跟它的价值与意义相一致的。

493 The essence of hermeneutics, an art widely practised in for-
mer times, consists in adding further analogies to the one al¬ready supplied by the symbol: in the first place subjective analo¬gies produced at random by the patient, then objective analogies provided by the analyst out of his general knowledge. This procedure widens and enriches the initial symbol, and the final outcome is an infinitely complex and variegated picture the ele¬ments of which can be reduced to their respective tertia compar¬ationis. Certain lines of psychological development then stand out that are at once individual and collective. There is no sci¬ence on earth by which these lines could be proved “right”; on the contrary, rationalism could very easily prove that they are wrong. Their validity is proved by their intense value for life. And that is what matters in practical treatment: that human be¬ings should get a hold on their own lives, not that the principles by which they live should be proved rationally to be “right.”

在以前的时代,解释学是广泛被实践的一门艺术,它的本质在于增添更进一步的类比,给象征已经供应的类比。首先是主观性的类比,由父母亲任意地提出,然后是客观性的类比,由精神分析家根据他的一般知识所提供。这种程序拓宽并且丰富最初的象征,最后的结果则是无限复杂,变化万千的画面。它们的因素能够被还原成为他们个别的tertia comparoationis。心理发展的某些脉络因此凸显出来,它们既是个人,又是集体。世界上没有一门科学能够被用来证明这些脉络是正确的。相反地,理性主义能够很容易地证明,它们是错误的。它们是否正确,根据它们的对于生命的强烈的价值来证明。这就是在实际的治疗时的重点所在。人类应该掌控他们自己的生活,而不是根据他们生活的某些原则,在理性上应该被证明是正确的。

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