荣格:无意识的结构

b. IDENTIFICATION WITH THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
[260] 476 The second way leads to identification with the collective
psyche. This amounts to an acceptance of “godlikeness,” but now exalted into a system. That is to say, one is the fortunate possessor of the great truth which was only waiting to be discov¬ered, of the eschatological knowledge which spells the healing of the nations. This attitude is not necessarily megalomania in di¬rect form, but in the milder and more familiar form of pro¬phetic inspiration and desire for martyrdom. For weak-minded persons, who as often as not possess more than their fair share of ambition, vanity, and misplaced nai’vete, the danger of yielding to this temptation is very great. Access to the collective psyche means a renewal of life for the individual, no matter whether this renewal is felt as pleasant or unpleasant. Everybody would like to hold fast to this renewal: one man because it enhances his life-feeling, another because it promises a rich harvest of knowl¬edge. Therefore both of them, not wishing to deprive them¬selves of the great treasures that lie buried in the collective psyche, will strive by every means possible to maintain their newly won connection with the primal source of life.13 Identification would seem to be the shortest road to this, for the dissolu¬tion of the persona in the collective psyche positively invites one to plunge into that “ocean of divinity” and blot out all memory in its embrace. This piece of mysticism is innate in all better men as the “longing for the mother,” the nostalgia for the source from which we came.

二、认同集体心灵

第二种方式导致认同集体心灵。这相当等于是接受像神一样的感觉,但是现在它被提升进入一个系统。换句话说,我们是这个仅是等待被发现的伟大真理的幸运拥有者,具有普救众生的知识,意味着救国救民。这种态度未必是直接形式的自大狂,而是更加温和,更加熟悉的先知启发与烈士情操的形式。对于心灵软弱的人们,他们经常拥有超乎自己份外的企图心,及错置的天真,屈服于这种诱惑的危险是非常巨大的。接近集体心灵意味着对于个人的生命的更新,无论这种更新是否被感觉是愉快,或是不愉快。每个人都想要紧紧把握这种更新。有的人是因为它强化他的生命的感觉,还有的人则是因为它承诺给予丰富的知识的收获。因此,他们两种人并不希望替他们自己剥夺埋藏于集体心灵的钜大财宝。他们将会凭借任何方法努力来维持他们新近获得的关于原初的生命来源。认同似乎是到达这里的捷径。人格面具在集体心灵里瓦解邀请我们投掷进入那是神性的汪洋,并且在它的接纳里,抹除所有的记忆。这种神秘主义在所有优秀的人们身上是与生具有的,作为对于母亲的渴望,对于我们来自的地方的怀旧。
12 Ibid., Part I, p. 67 (modified).
13 I would like to call attention here to an in teresting remark of Kant’s. In his lectures on psychology (Vorlesungen ilber Psychologie) he speaks of the “treasure lying within the field of dim representations, that deep abyss of human knowl¬edge forever beyond our reach.” This treasure, as I have demonstrated in my
286

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
[261] 477 As I have shown in my book on libido, there lie at the
root of the regressive longing, which Freud conceives as “infan¬tile fixation” or the “incest wish,” a specific value and a specific need which are made explicit in myths. It is precisely the strong¬est and best among men, the heroes, who give way to their re¬gressive longing and purposely expose themselves to the danger of being devoured by the monster of the maternal abyss. But if a man is a hero, he is a hero because, in the final reckoning, he did not let the monster devour him, but subdued it, not once but many times. Victory over the collective psyche alone yields the true value-the capture of the hoard, the invincible weapon, the magic talisman, or whatever it be that the myth deems most de¬sirable. Anyone who identifies with the collective psyche-or, in mythological terms, lets himself be devoured by the monster¬and vanishes in it, attains the treasure that the dragon guards, but he does so in spite of himself and to his own greatest harm.

如同我在我探讨力比多的书里曾经显示,在倒退的渴望的根源,弗洛依德构想作为婴孩的固著,或是乱伦的愿望,一种明确的价值与一种明确的需要,它们在神话里被明确表达。确实就是这个最强烈,最佳的人中之人。这些英雄人物屈服于他们倒退的渴望,并刻意地将自身暴露于被母亲的深渊的怪物吞没的危险。但是,假如一个人是一位英雄,他是英雄,是因为在最后的考虑时,他并没有让怪物吞没他,而是他征服怪物,不仅一次,而且好几次。光是对于集体心灵的胜利,就产生真实的价值,对于贮存物的虏获,这个坚强的武器,魔法的符咒,或是任何神话认为是最被渴望的东西。任何认同于集体心灵或,用神话的术语来说,让他自己被怪物吞面,并且消失在它里面的人,他会获得巨龙捍卫的这个财宝,但是他奋不顾身地这样做,冒着自己受到伤害。

478 [The danger, therefore, of falling victim to the collective
psyche by identification is not to be minimized. Identification is a retrograde step, one more stupidity has been committed, and on top of that the principle of individuation is denied and re¬pressed under the cloak of the individual deed and in the nebu¬lous conceit that one has discovered what is truly one’s own. In reality one has not discovered one’s own at all, but rather the eternal truths and errors of the collective psyche. In the collec¬tive psyche one’s true individuality is lost.]

(因此,凭借认同成为集体心灵的受害者的这个危险,不应该被小觑。认同的一种倒退的步骤,曾经被犯过的另一个愚蠢。除此而外,个体化的原则被否认及被压抑,在个人行为的掩饰下。及在暧昧的自负里,我们曾经发现确实属于自己的东西。实际上,我们根本就没有发现我们自己的东西,而是集体心灵的永恒真理与错误。在集体心灵里,我们的真正的个体性丧失了。

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