荣格:无意识的结构

4. Attempts to Free the Individuality from the Collective Psyche
a. THE REGRESSIVE RESTORATION OF THE PERSONA
471 The unbearable state of identity with the collective psyche
drives the patient, as we have said, to some radical solution. Two ways are open to him for getting out of the condition of “god¬likeness:” The first possibility is to try to re-establish regressively the previous persona by attempting to control the unconscious through the application of a reductive theory-by declaring, for instance, that it is “nothing but” repressed and long overdue infantile sexuality which would really be best replaced by the normal sexual function. This explanation is based on the unde¬niably sexual symbolism of the language of the unconscious and on its concretistic interpretation. Alternatively the power theory may be invoked and, relying on the equally undeniable power tendencies of the unconscious, one may interpret the feeling of “godlikeness” as “masculine protest,” as the infantile desire for domination and security. Or one may explain the unconscious in terms of the archaic psychology of primitives, an explanation that would not only cover both the sexual symbolism and the “godlike” power strivings that come to light in the unconscious material but would also seem to do justice to its religious, philo¬sophical, and mythological aspects.

4 企图将个体性从集体心灵解放出来

A 人格面具的倒退恢复

我们曾经说过,认同于集体心灵的无法忍受的状态驱使病人获得激烈的解决。他有两个方式可以选择,为了摆脱「像神一般的感觉」。第一个可能性是倒退地尝试重新建立先前的人格面具,凭借企图控制无意识,通过还原理论的运用,譬如,凭借宣告无意识「仅仅」是被压抑,以及是过时已久的婴孩时期的性。这种性确实凭借正常的性的功能,就能完全取代。这种解释的基础,是无意识的语言具有无可否认的性的象征主义,以及它具体明确的诠释。替代地,权力理论可能被引用,并且依靠无意识具有同样无可否认的权力倾向。我们可以诠释这种「像神一般的感觉」,作为是「阳刚的抗议」,作为是婴孩想要获得支配与安全的欲望。或是,我们可以解释无意识,使用过时的原始人的心理学。这一种解释不仅可以涵盖性的象征主义,与在无意识的材料里显现的「像神一般的」奋斗,而且似乎充分发挥它的宗教,哲学,与神话的层面。

283

APPENDICES
472 In each case the conclusion will be the same, for what it
amounts to is a repudiation of the unconscious as something everybody knows to be useless, infantile, devoid of sense, and altogether impossible and obsolete. After this devaluation, there is nothing to be done but shrug one’s shoulders resignedly. To the patient there seems to be no alternative, if he is to go on living rationally, but to reconstitute, as best he can, that seg¬ment of the collective psyche which we have called the persona, and quietly give up analysis, trying to forget if possible that he possesses an unconscious. He will take Faust’s words to heart:

在每个个案,这个结论都是相同的,因为它获得的内容是将无意思排除,作为是某件每个人都知道是无用,婴孩般,欠缺意义,而且完全不可能与过时的东西。经过这样的贬抑之后,就没有什么可作为,除了顺服地耸耸肩膀。对于病人,假如他想要继续理性地生活,似乎没有别的选择,除了就是尽其可能地,重新形成我能曾经称为人格面具的集体心灵的那个部分,并且安静地放弃精神分析,假如可能的话,他尝试忘记他拥有一个无意识。他将将浮士德的话语铭记在心。

[257] This earthly circle I know well enough.
Towards the Beyond the view has been cut off; Fool-who directs that way his dazzled eye, Contrives himself a double in the sky!
Let him look round him here, not stray beyond; To a sound man this world must needs respond. To roam into eternity is vain!
What he perceives, he can attain.
Thus let him walk along his earthlong day; Though phantoms haunt him, let him go his way, And, moving on, to weal and woe assent-
He at each moment ever discontent.1o

这个大地的循环,我甚为知稔
朝向超越,这个视野已被阻隔,
以那种方式将他晕眩的眼睛朝向是个傻瓜
他企图在天空替自己建构一个双重人
请他环顾在此的四周,别迷途与超越
对于一位健全的人,世界必须回应
漫游进入永恒是徒劳无功!
他所感觉的东西,他必须获得。
因此,就让他沿着人世间的日子散步
虽然各种魅影萦绕著他,就让他走这条途径
一路前行,承受痛苦与灾难
他在每个时刻,都无法满足。

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