荣格:无意识的结构

[250J 467 This condition frequently announces itself by very pecul-
iar symptoms, as for example dreams in which the dreamer is flying through space like a comet, or feels that he is the earth, the sun, or a star, or that he is of immense size, or dwarfishly small, or that he is dead, is in a strange place, is a stranger to himself, confused, mad, ete. He may also experience body¬sensations, such as being too large for his skin, or too fat; or hyp¬nagogic sensations of falling or rising endlessly, of the body grow¬ing larger, or of vertigo. Psychologically this state is marked by a peculiar disorientation in regard to one’s own personality; one no longer knows who one is, or one is absolutely certain that one actually is what one seems to have become. Intolerance, dogma¬tism, self-conceit, self-depreciation, and contempt for “people who have not been analysed,” and for their views and activities, are common symptoms. Often enough I have observed an in¬crease in the liability to physical illness, but only when the pa¬tients relish their condition and dwell on it too long.

这种情况经常凭借特殊的病征来宣告自己,譬如,在作梦时,作梦者像彗星般飞越大空。或是感觉到,他就是地球,太阳,或星星,或他具有巨大体形,或侏儒般矮小,或是他死亡,在一个陌生的地方,是自己的陌生人,困惑,疯狂,等等。他可能也经验到身体的各种感觉,诸如,身体太大,皮肤太紧,或太胖,或不停地掉落或上升的昏沉感觉,身体逐渐长得太高,或昏眩。从心理方面而言,这种状况的特征是特殊的丧失定向,关于自己的人格。我们不再知道我们是何许人也。或是我们绝对确定,我们实际上是我们似乎已经变成的样子。没有耐心,武断,自负,自我贬抑,与对于没有被精神分析的人们,对于他们的观点与活动,表示藐视。这些都是共同的病征。经常地,我曾经观察到它会逐渐容易形成生理疾病,但是仅是当病人对自己的情况沾沾自喜,而且详述它太久。

[251J 468 The forces that burst out of the collective psyche are con-
fusing and blinding. One result of the dissolution of the persona is the release of fantasy, which is apparently nothing less than the specific activity of the collective psyche. This outburst of fantasy throws up into consciousness materials and impulses whose existence one had never before suspected. All the treas¬ures of mythological thinking and feeling are unlocked. It is not always easy to hold one’s own against such an overwhelming impression. This phase must be reckoned one of the real dangers of analysis, a danger that ought not tobe minimized.

从集体心灵突然爆发出来的这些力量,令人混淆及令人目眩。人格面具的解离的其中一个结果是产生幻想。这种幻想显而易见实实在在就是集体心灵的特殊活动。幻想的突然爆发将为们从来没有怀疑过的材料与冲动的存在,抛到意识层面。神话思想与感觉的所有的财宝都被解放开来。要把持自己,对抗如此压倒性的印象,未必是容易的事。这个部分必须被认为是精神分析的确实的危险之一。这种危险不应该被漠视。

469 It will readily be understood that this condition is so insup-
portable that one would like to put an end to it as speedily as possible, since the analogy with mental derangement is too close. As we know, the commonest form of insanity, dementia praecox or schizophrenia, consists essentially in the fact that the uncon¬scious in large measure ousts and supplants the function of the conscious mind. The unconscious usurps the reality function and substitutes its own reality. Unconscious thoughts become audible as voices, or are perceived as visions or body-hallucina-
282

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

469 It will readily be understood that this condition is so insup-
portable that one would like to put an end to it as speedily as possible, since the analogy with mental derangement is too close. As we know, the commonest form of insanity, dementia praecox or schizophrenia, consists essentially in the fact that the uncon¬scious in large measure ousts and supplants the function of the conscious mind. The unconscious usurps the reality function and substitutes its own reality. Unconscious thoughts become audible as voices, or are perceived as visions or body-hallucinations, or they manifest themselves in senseless, unshakable judg¬ments upheld in the face of reality.

我们将很快就了解到,这种情况并没有根据,我们想要尽可能迅速地结束它,因此跟精神的狂乱的类似太过于相近。据我们所知,疯狂,精神异常,或精神分裂,基本上在于这个事实:无意识大量地移除并且取代意识心灵的功能。无意识窜夺现实界的功能,并且换上它自己的现实界。无意识的思想作为声音是可听得见的,或是被感觉作为幻景或身体的幻觉。或是它们显示自己,用面对现实界时受到支撑的没有意义的,不可动摇的判断。

47° In a similar but not quite identical manner the unconscious
is pushed into consciousness when the persona is dissolved in the collective psyche. The one difference between this state and that of mental alienation is that here the unconscious is brought to the surface with the help of conscious analysis-at least, this is how things go at the beginning of an analysis, when powerful cultural resistances to the unconscious have still to be overcome. Later, when the barriers built up by the years have been broken down, the unconscious intrudes spontaneously, and sometimes irrupts into the conscious mind like a torrent. In this phase the analogy with mental derangement is very close. [In the same way, the moments of inspiration in a genius often bear a decided resemblance to pathological states.] But it would be real insan¬ity only if the contents of the unconscious became a reality that took the place of conscious reality; in other words, if they were believed in without reserve. [Actually, one can believe in the contents of the unconscious without this amounting to insanity in the proper sense, even though actions of an unadapted nature may be performed on the basis of such convictions. Paranoid delusions, for instance, do not depend on belief-they appear to be true a priori and have no need of belief in order to lead an effective and valid existence. In the cases we are discussing the question is still open whether belief or criticism will triumph. This alternative is not found in genuine insanity.]
以相同但是并不完全一致的方式,无意识被逼迫进入意识,当人格面具在集体心灵被解离时。这种状况跟精神异化的状况之间的一个差异是,在此,无意识被带到表明,至少凭借意识到精神分析的帮助。这就是在精神分析开始时事情进行的方式。而对于无意识的强烈的文化的抗拒,则是还有待克服。后来,当经年累月累积起来的障碍已经被瓦解,无意识自动自发地闯入。有时像急流一般地爆发进人意识的心灵。在这时,跟精神狂乱的类同相当近似。(以同样的方式,天才的灵光显现的时刻,跟病理的状态经常非常酷似。)但是仅有在无意识的内容变成现实,这个现实取代了意识到现实界,它才会是真实的疯狂。换句话说,假如它们被毫无保留地相信。(实际上,我们能够相信无意识的这个内容,即使这并不相等于疯狂,用适当的意义来说,虽然一个未经调适的性质的行动可能被执行,根据这个信心作为基础。譬如,偏执狂的幻觉并不依靠信仰:它们似乎是从推理来说是真实的。他们并不需要信仰,才能过一个有效而确实的存在。在我们正在讨论的那些个案,信仰或是批评,将会胜利,这个问题依旧悬而未决。在真实的疯狂,这种二者选一并未被发现。

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