无意识的结构

[235] 456 The universal similarity of human brains leads to the uni-
versal possibility of a uniform mental functioning. This func¬tioning is the collective psyche. This can be subdivided into the collective mind and the collective soul.7 Inasmuch as there are differentiations corresponding to race, tribe, and even family, there is also a collective psyche limited to race, tribe, and family over and above the “universal” collective psyche. To borrow an expression from Pierre J anet, the collective psyche comprises the parties injerieures of the mental functions, that is to say those deep-rooted, well-nigh automatic portions of the individ¬ual psyche which are inherited and are to be found everywhere, and are thus impersonal or suprapersonal. Consciousness plus the personal unconscious constitutes the parties superieures of the mental functions, those portions, therefore, that are devel¬oped ontogenetically and acquired as a result of personal differ¬entiation.

人类头脑的普遍性类似导致这个普遍性的可能:一致性的精神的功能。这个功能是集体的心灵。这能够次级区分为集体的心灵与集体的灵魂。因为有些对应于种族,部落,甚至家庭的差异,也有一个局限于种族,部落与家庭的集体的心灵,高高跨越于这个普遍性的集体的心灵。CongPierre Janet借用一个表达:集体的心灵由精神功能的parties injerierues 组成,也就是个人心灵的那些根深蒂固,近乎自动化的部分。它们是遗传所得,能够在每个地方找到。因此,它们是非个人,或是超乎个人的意识,外加个人的无意识,组成精神功能的这个parties superieures。因此,这些部分本体地被发展,并且由于个人的差异性而获得。

[235] 457 Consequently, the individual who annexes the unconscious
heritage of the collective psyche to what has accrued to him in the course of his ontogenetic development enlarges the scope of his personality in an illegitimate way and suffers the conse¬quences. In so far as the collective psyche comprises the parties inferieures of the mental functions and thus forms the basis of every personality, it has the effect of crushing and devaluing the latter. This shows itself in the aforementioned stifling of self-confidence and in an unconscious heightening of the ego’s im¬portance to the point of a pathological will to power. On the other hand, in so far as the collective psyche is supraordinate to the personality, being the matrix of all personal differentiations and the mental function common to all individuals, it will have the effect, if annexed to the personality, of producing a hyper¬trophy of self-confidence, which in turn is compensated by an extraordinary sense of inferiority in the unconscious.

结果,将集体心灵的无意识遗产合并到被增加到他身上的东西,在他的发展的本体的过程,以不合法定方式,扩大了人格的范围,并且遭受这个结果的痛苦。因为集体的心灵组成精神功能的这个parties inferiures,因此形成每个人格的基础。它具有粉碎与低估后者的结果。这显示它自己,在前述的自信的窒闷,不知不觉地强调自我的重要性,甚至到达病态的权力意志的程度。在另一方面,因为集体的心灵隶属于人格,成为所有的人格的差异与所有个人共有的精神的功能的基座,假如它被合并到人格,它将会具有产生过度的自信。反过来,这种过度自信,会在无意识受到特别的自卑感所补偿。

[237] 458 If, through assimilation of the unconscious, we make the
mistake of including the collective psyche in the inventory of personal mental functions, a dissolution of the personality into its paired opposites inevitably follows. Besides the pair of oppo¬sites already discussed, megalomania and the sense of inferiority, which are so painfully evident in neurosis, there are many others, from which I will single out only the specifically moral pair of opposites, namely good and evil (scientes bonum et malum!). The formation of this pair goes hand in hand with the increase and diminution of self-confidence. The specific virtues and vices of humanity are contained in the collective psyche like everything else. One man arrogates collective virtue to himself as his personal merit, another takes collective vice as his personal guilt. Both are as illusory as the megalomania and the inferior¬ity, because the imaginary virtues and the imaginary wickedness are simply the moral pair of opposites contained in the collec¬tive psyche, which have become perceptible or have been ren-dered conscious artificially. How much these paired opposites are contained in the collective psyche is exemplified by primitives: one observer will extol the greatest virtues in them, while an¬other will record the very worst impressions of the selfsame tribe. For the primitive, whose personal differentiation is, as we know, only just beginning, both judgments are true, because his mentality is essentially collective. He is still more or less identi¬cal with the collective psyche, and for that reason shares equally in the collective virtues and vices without any personal attribu¬tion and without inner contradiction. The contradiction arises only when the personal development of the mind begins, and when reason discovers the irreconcilable nature of the opposites¬The consequence of this discovery is the conflict of repre.
We want to be good, and therefore must repress evil; and
that the paradise of the collective psyche comes to an end.

假如经由无意识的吸收,我们犯下这个错误:将个人精神功能目录的集体心灵,包括进入它的配对的对立,人格的瓦解无可避免会跟随而来。除了已经被讨论过的配对对立,自大狂与自卑感,它们在神经症身上是如此显著,还有其它的配对对立。从那里,我仅是挑选这些明确的道德配对对立,也就是善与恶。这个配对对立的形成,跟自信的增加与减少齐头并进。人类的明确的品德与邪恶,就像每件其它东西一样,都被包含在集体的心灵里。 某个人将将集体的品德增加到他的个人的优点,另一个人将集体的邪恶视为他个人的罪恶。这两者都跟自大狂与自卑感一样都是幻觉,因为想像的品德与想像的邪恶,仅是道德的配对对立,被包含在集体的心灵。它们因为人为的方式而被感知,而成为意识。这些配对的对立有多少被包含在集体的心灵,可由原始人们作为典范。一位观察家曾经称赞他们他们身上的那些最伟大的品德,而另外一位观察家则是记录相同种族的那些最恶劣的印象。据我们所知,对于原始人们,他们的个人的差异性仅是开始,两种判断都是真实的。因为他的精神基本上是集体。他跟集体的心灵依旧相当的一致。因为那个理由,他同等地分享集体的品德与邪恶,而没有任何个人的属性,及没有内部的矛盾。仅有在个人的心灵发展开始时,及当理性发现这些配对对立无法和谐时,矛盾才会产生。这个发现的结果就是压抑的冲突。我们想要表现良善,因此我们必须压抑邪恶,集体心灵的天堂就此结束。
276

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

[237] 459 Repression of the collective psyche was absolutely n’eces-
sary for the development of the personality, since collective psy¬chology and personal psychology exclude one another up to a point. History teaches us that whenever a psychological attitude acquires a collective value, schisms begin to break out. Nowhere is this more evident than in the history of religion. A collective attitude is always a threat to the individual, even when it is a necessity. It is dangerous because it is very apt to check and smother all personal differentiation. It derives this characteristic from the collective psyche, which is itself a product of the psy¬chological differentiation of the powerful gregarious instinct in man. Collective thinking and feeling and collective effort are rel¬atively easy in comparison with individual functioning and per¬formance; and from this may arise, all too easily, a dangerous threat to the development of personality through enfeeblement of the personal function. The damage done to the personality is compensated-for everything is compensated in psychology-by a compulsive union and unconscious identity with the collective psyche.

集体心灵的压抑绝对是必须的,为了人格的发展,因为直到某个时刻,集体心灵与个人心理学互相排除。历史教导我们,每当一种心理的态度获得一种集体的价值,分裂就开始爆发。最为明显的就是宗教的历史。集体的态度总是一种威胁,对于个人。甚至当它是必要时。集体的态度是危险的,因为它容易检视而且闷住所有个人的差异性。它从集体的心灵获得这个特性。而集体心灵本身是人类的强烈的群居的本能的心理的差异的产物。集体思想与感觉跟集体的努力相对地容易,跟个人的功能与表现比较起来。从这里,对于人格发展的危险的威胁,很可能轻易地产生,由于个人功能的软弱。对于人格造成的损害获得补偿,因为在心理,每样东西都获得补偿,凭借一种冲动的统一,以及无意识认同集体的心灵。

[240] 460 There is now a danger that in the analysis of the uncon¬scious the collective and the personal psyche may be fused to¬gether, with, as I have intimated, highly unfortunate results. These results are injurious both to the patient’s life-feeling and
277

APPENDICES
to his fellow men, if he has any power at all over his environ¬ment. Through his identification with the collective psyche he will infallibly try to force the demands of his unconscious upon others, for identity with the collective psyche always brings with it a feeling of universal validity-“godlikeness”-which com¬pletely ignores all differences in the psychology of his fellows.

现在,有一个新的危险。在无意识的分析,集体与个人的心灵可能被融化一块,结果非常不幸,如同我曾经暗示。这些结果对于病人的生命感觉及对他的同伴都会造成伤害。假如他对于他的环境,拥有任何力量。通过他对于集体心灵的认同,他将正确地尝试以他的无意识对别人的要求。因为对无意识心灵的认同总是随之带来一种普遍性的正确性的感觉—像神一般—它完全地忽略了各种的差异,在他的同伴的心理,。

461 The worst abuses of this kind can be avoided by a clear un-
derstanding and appreciation of the fact that there are differ¬ently oriented psychological types whose psychology cannot be forced into the mould of one’s own type. It is hard enough for one type completely to understand another type, but perfect un¬derstanding of another individuality is totally impossible. Due regard for the individuality of another is not only advisable but absolutely essential in analysis if the development of the pa¬tient’s personality is not to be stifled. Here it is to be observed that, for one type of individual, to show respect for another’s freedom is to grant him freedom of action, while for another it is to grant him freedom of thought. In analysis both must be safe¬guarded so far as the analyst’s own self-preservation permits him to do so. An excessive desire to understand and enlighten is just as useless and injurious as a lack of understanding.

对于这种,即使是最糟糕的烂用,也能够凭借清楚地了解并评估这个事实来避免。有各种不同取向的心理类型,它们的心理学无法被强迫进入我们自己种类的模式。要让一种模式彻底了解另外一种模式,已经是困难重重。但是对于另外一种完美地了解,那是完全不可能。在精神分析时,对于另外一个个人给予适当尊重不但比较好,而且绝对是必要的,假如病人人格的发展不想要被窒闷的话。在此,我们应该观察到,对于一种个人,尊重另外一个人的自由,就是给予他行动的自由。而对于另外一个人,那就是给予思想的自由。在精神分析时,两者都必须安全防护,因为精神分析家自己的自我保存让他能够这样做。过分地欲望了解与启蒙同样是无用的,而且跟欠缺了解,同样有害。

[241] 462 The collective instincts and fundamental forms of think-
ing and feeling brought to light by analysis of the unconscious constitute, for the conscious personality, an acquisition which it cannot assimilate completely without injury to itself.s It is

8 Here I would pause to remark that I intentionally abstain from discussing the question of how this problem presents itself from the point of view of the psychology of types. A special and somewhat complicated study would be re¬quired to formulate this in the language of type psychology. I must content myself here with indicating the difficulties that such a task would involve. The word “person,” for instance, signifies one thing to the introvert and another to the extravert. During childhood the conscious function of adaptation to reality is archaic and collective, but it soon acquires a personal character which it may maintain henceforth if the individual feels no particular need to develop his type towards the ideal. If such an eventuality arises, the function of adaptation to reality may attain a perfection which pretends to universal validity, and therefore bears a collectivistic character as contrasted with its primitive collec¬tive character. To pursue this terminology, the collective psyche would be iden¬tical with the “herd soul” in the individual, whereas a collectivistic psychology would represent a highly differentiated attitude to society.
Now in the introvert the conscious function of adaptation to reality is thinking, which in the early stages of development is personal, but which tends to acquire a
278

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

[241] 462 The collective instincts and fundamental forms of think-
ing and feeling brought to light by analysis of the unconscious constitute, for the conscious personality, an acquisition which it cannot assimilate completely without injury to itself.s It is therefore of the utmost importance in practical treatment to keep the goal of the individual’s development constantly in view. For, if the collective psyche is taken to be the personal possession of the individual or as a personal burden, it will re-sult in a distortion or an overloading of the personality which is very difficult to deal with. Hence it is imperative to make a clear distinction between the personal unconscious and the contents of the collective psyche. This distinction is far from easy, be¬cause the personal grows out of the collective psyche and is inti¬mately bound up with it. So it is difficult to say exactly what contents are to be called personal and what collective. There is no doubt, for instance, that archaic symbolisms such as we fre-quently find in fantasies and dreams are collective factors. All basic instincts and basic forms of thinking and feeling are collec¬tive. Everything that all men agree in regarding as universal is collective, likewise everything that is universally understood, universally found, universally said and done. On closer exami¬nation one is always astonished to see how much of our so-called individual psychology is really collective. So much, indeed, that the individual traits are completely overshadowed by it. Since, however, individuation is an ineluctable psychological necessity, we can see from the ascendency of the collective what very spe¬cial attention must be paid to this delicate plant “individuality” if it is not to be completely smothered.

集体的本能与思想与感觉到基本形式,受到无意识的精神分析启蒙。对于意识的人格而言,它们构成一种获得。它无法完全吸收这种获得,而不对自己造成损害。因此,这是非常重要,在实践的治疗时,要保持个人发展的目标,不断地能够被看见。因为,假如集体的心灵被认为是个人的私人的所有物,或是作为私人的负担,它将会造成人格的扭曲或过分负担。那是非常难于处理。因此,这是必要的,清楚地区别私人的无意识,与集体无意识的内容。这种区别相当不容易,因为私人的心灵是从集体的心灵成长而来,跟它有亲密地息息相关。所以,我们很困难确实说出什么内容应该被称为是私人心灵,什么内容是集体心灵。譬如,无可置疑地,过去的象征,诸如我们经常在幻想与梦中找到的象征是集体的因素。所有的基本本能与思想与感觉到基本形式都是集体的象征。所有人们都同意的一切,认为是普遍性东西,都是集体象征。同样地,每一样普遍被理解,普遍性被找到,普遍性被说,被做的东西,都是集体的象征。假如我们更加仔细地观察,我们总是大为吃惊,当我们看见,我们所谓的个人的心灵,有那么多是集体的心灵。它们数量如此之多,以致个人的特征完全被它们笼罩成阴影。可是,因为个体化是必然是一种心理的必要性,我们从集体心灵的提升当中看出,我们必须要给予怎样的注意,对于「个人性」这个脆弱的植物,假如它不想要完全被窒闷的话。

[242] 463 Human beings have one faculty which, though it is ot the
greatest utility for collective purposes, is most pernicious for in¬dividuation, and that is the faculty of imitation. Collective psy-
general character of a collectivistic nature, while his feeling remains markedly personal in so far as it is conscious, and collective-archaic in so far as it is un¬conscious or is repressed. In the extravert, precisely the reverse happens. Be¬sides this important difference there is another, and one which is much more profound, between the role and meaning of the “person” for the extravert and for the introvert. The whole endeavour of the introvert is directed towards preserving the integrity of his ego, which makes him assume an attitude to¬wards his own person entirely different from that of the extravert, whose adapta¬tion is made through feeling, even at the cost of his own person. These obser¬vations show what extraordinary difficulties we should have to surmount if we wished to consider our problem from the angle of type psychology, and justify us in abstaining from the attempt.
[This theme was greatly developed in Psychological Types, where the identi¬fication of thinking with introversion and feeling with extraversion was given Up.-EDITORS.]
279

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