无意识的结构02

[228] 447 By way of example I would like to recall the case of a
schizophrenic patient of Maeder’s, who used to declare that the world was his picture-book.2 He was a wretched locksmith’s ap¬prentice who fell ill at an early age and had never been blessed with much intelligence. This notion of his, that the world was his picture-book, the leaves of which he was turning over as he looked around him, is exactly the same as Schopenhauer’s “world as will and idea,” but expressed in primitive picture lan¬guage. His vision is just as sublime as Schopenhauer’s, the only difference being that with the patient it remained at an embry¬onic stage, whereas in Schopenhauer the same idea is trans¬formed from a vision into an abstraction and expressed in a lan¬guage that is universally valid.

作为例子,我想要提醒一位精神分裂症的病人梅德尔的个案。他过去常常宣称,这个世界是他的图画书。他是一位情况不佳的锁匠的学徒。早年生病,而且从来没有享有聪明的幸福。他的这个观念,世界是他的图画书,随着他环顾他的四周,他翻阅这本图画书的书页。他的这个观念,确实跟哲学家叔本华的「作为意志与理念的世界」的观念一样。但是用原始的图画的语言表达。他的想像跟叔本华的想像一样的崇高。唯一的差异是,对于这位病人,这世界始终处于胚胎的阶段,而在叔本华,相同的理念从想像被转变成为抽象概念,并且被表达,用普遍性有效的语言。

[229] 448 It would be quite wrong to suppose that the patient’s

vision had a personal character and value, for that would be to endow the patient with the dignity of a philosopher. But, as I have indicated, he alone is a philosopher who can transmute a vision born of nature into an abstract idea, thereby translating it into a universally valid language. Schopenhauer’s philosophical conception represents a personal value, but the vision of the pa¬tient is an impersonal value, a merely natural growth, the pro¬prietary right to which can be acquired only by him who ab¬stracts it into an idea and expresses it in universal terms. It would, however, be wrong to attribute to the philosopher, by exaggerating the value of his achievement, the additional merit of having actually created or invented the vision itself. It is a primordial idea that grows up quite as naturally in the philoso¬pher and is simply a part of the common property of mankind, in which, in principle, everyone has a share. The golden apples drop from the same tree, whether they be gathered by a lock¬smith’s apprentice or by a Schopenhauer.

这将是错误的,假如我们认为这位病人的想像拥有私人的特性及价值,因为那将是赋予那位病人具用哲学家的尊严。但是,依照我曾经指示的,只有将诞生于自然的想像,转换成为抽象理念的人才是哲学家,因此可以将它翻译成为普遍有效的语言。叔本华的哲学的观念代表一个个人的价值,但是病人的这个想像是非个人的价值,一种仅是自然的成长。佔有的权力能够被将它抽象化成为理念的人获得。可是,这将是错误的,假如我们将它归属于哲学家,凭借夸张他的陈述的价值,曾经实际创造或发明这个想像本身的这个额外的利益。这是一个原初的观念,如同在哲学家,是同样自然地成长。那仅是人类的共同财产的一部分。原则上,每个人都可以分析这个共同的财产。黄金般的蘋果同时掉落下来,无论它们是由锁匠的学徒,或由叔本华收集。

[218] 449 These primordial ideas, of which I have given a great
many examples in my work on libido,S oblige one to make, in regard to unconscious material, a distinction of quite a different character from that between “preconscious” and “unconscious” or “subconscious” and “unconscious.” The justification for these distinctions need not be discussed here. They have their specific value and are well worth elaborating further as points of view. The fundamental distinction which experience has forced upon me claims to be no more than that. It should be evident from the foregoing that we have to distinguish in the uncon-scious a layer which we may call the personal unconscious. The contents of this layer are of a personal nature in so far as they have the character partly of acquisitions derived from the individual’s life and partly of psychological factors4 which could just as well be conscious.

这些原初的理念,在我对于生命力比多的研究,我曾经给予许多的例子。它们让我们对于无意识的材料,从事完全不同性质的区别,跟「前意识」与「无意识」,或「潜意识」与「无意识」之间的区别性质不同。从事这些区别的理由,并不需要在此讨论。他们拥有他们的明确的价值,并且非常值得更进一步建构,作为观点。我从精神分析经验获得的这个基本的区别,宣称仅是那样。根据前述,那应该是显而易见,我们必须在无意识区别出一层我们所谓的个人的无意识。这一层的内容属于私人的性质,因为它们具有部分是从个人的生活,部分是从很可能是意识到心理的因素获得。
个人的生活,

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