荣格:无意识的结构

II
THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS i
1. The Distinction between
the Personal and the Impersonal Unconscious
Since we parted company with the Viennese school on the question of the interpretive principle in psychoanalysis, namely, whether it be sexuality or simply energy) our concepts have un¬dergone considerable development. Once the prejudice regard¬ing the explanatory cause had been removed by accepting a purely abstract one, the nature of which was not postulated in advance, our interest was directed to the concept of the unconSCIOUS.
个人与非个人的无意识
因为我们跟维也纳学派分道扬镳,对于精神分析的解释的原则的问题。换句话说,无论它是有关性,或仅是有关精力,我们的观念曾经经历相当的发展。一旦关于解释的原因的偏见已经被移除,凭借接受一个纯粹抽象的原因。这个抽象的原因事先并没有被提出,我们的興趣转向无意识的观念。

1 [First delivered as a lecture to the Zurich School for Analytical Psychology, 1916, and published the same year, in a French translation by M. Marsen, in the Archives de Psychologie (XVI, pp” 152-79) under the title “La Structure de l’inconscient.” The lecture appeared in English with the title “The Conception of the Unconscious” in Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (2nd edn., 1917), and had evidently been translated from a German MS, which subse¬quently disappeared. For the first edition of the present volume a translation was made by Philip Mairet from the French version. The German MS, titled “Dber das Unbewusste und seine Inhalte,” came to light again only after Jung’s death in 1961. It contained a stratum of revisions and additions, in a later hand of the author’s, most of which were incorporated in the revised and expanded version, titled Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbewussten (1928), a trans¬lation of which forms Part. II of the present volume. The MS did not, how¬ever, contain all the new material that was added in the 1928 version. In par¬ticular, section 5 (infra, pars. 480-521) was replaced by Part II of that essay.
[The text that now follows is a new translation from the newly discovered German MS. Additions that found their way into the 1928 version have not been included; additions that are not represented in that version are given in square brackets. To facilitate comparison between the 1916 and the final ver¬sions, the corresponding paragraph numbers of the latter are likewise given in squ:ue brackets. A similar but not identical presentation of the rediscovered MS is given in Vo!. 7 of the Swiss edition.-EolToRs.]
269

APPENDICES
[202) 443 In Freud’s view, as most people know, the contents of the
unconscious are reducible to infantile tendencies which are re¬pressed because of their incompatible character. Repression is a process that begins in early childhood under the moral influence of the environment and continues throughout life. By means of analysis the repressions are removed and the repressed wishes are made conscious again. Theoretically the unconscious would thus find itself emptied and, so to speak, done away with; but in real¬ity the production of infantile-sexual wish-fantasies continues right into old age.

大部分人都知道,从弗洛依德的观点,无意识的内容被还原成为婴儿时期被压抑的意外事件,因为无与伦比的特性。压抑是一种在早期童年就开始的过程,在环境的道德的影响下,并且继续一辈子。凭借精神分析,这些压抑被移除。被压抑者的愿意被再次成为意识。理论上而言,无意识因此发现它自己被掏空,也就是,被废除。但是事实上,婴儿-性的愿望-幻想一直继续到老年。

[203) 444 According to this theory, the unconscious would contain
only those elements of the personality which could just as well be conscious, and have in fact been suppressed only through the process of education. It follows that the essential content of the unconscious would be of a personal character. Although from one point of view the infantile tendencies of the unconscious are the most conspicuous, it would none the less be a mistake to de¬fine or evaluate the unconscious entirely in these terms. The unconscious has still another side to it: it includes not only re-pressed contents, but also all psychic material that lies below the threshold of consciousness. It is impossible to explain the sub¬liminal nature of all this material on the principle of repression, for in that case the removal of repression ought to endow a per¬son with a prodigious memory which would thenceforth forget nothing. No doubt repression plays a part, but it is not the only factor. If what we call a bad memory were always only the result of repression, those who enjoy an excellent memory ought never to suffer from repression, nor in consequence be neurotic. But experience shows that this is not the case at all. There are cer¬tainly cases of abnormally bad memory where it is obvious that the lion’s share must be attributed to repression, but these are relatively rare.

依照这个理论,无意识将会仅是包含人格的很可能是意识的那些元素,但是事实上,它们仅是通过教育的过程而受到压抑。随后的发展,无意识的这个基本的内容将是属于个人的特性。虽然从某个观点,无意识的婴儿的倾向是最为彰显,这仍然将是一个错误,假如我们完全用这些术语定义或评估无意识。无意识还有它的另外一面;它包括不但是被压抑的内容,而且包括所有位于意识门槛的所有的心灵的材料。我们不可能根据压抑的原则,来解释所有这个材料的升华的特性。因为假如在那个情况,压抑的移除将会赋予一个人记住每样东西的巨大的记忆力。无可置疑地,压抑扮演一个角色,但是它并不是唯一的因素。假如我们所谓的记忆力不佳,总是由于压抑的结果,那些享受拥有优秀记忆力的人们,就永远不会遭受压抑的痛苦,结果也就不会成为神经症者。但是经验显示出来,情况根本就不是这样。确实是有一些记忆异常糟糕的情况,在那里,显而易见,最大的部分必须归咎于压抑,但是这些情况比较罕见。

[204] 445 We therefore affirm that in addition to the repressed ma-
terial the unconscious contains all those psychic components that have fallen below the threshold, as well as subliminal sense¬perceptions. Moreover, we know, from abundant experience as well as for theoretical reasons, that besides this the unconscious contains all the material that has not yet reached the threshold of consciousness. These are the seeds of future conscious con-
270

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
tents. Equally we have every reason to suppose that the uncon¬scious is never quiescent in the sense of being inactive, but pre¬sumably is ceaselessly engaged in the grouping and regrouping of so-called unconscious fantasies. This activity should be thought of as relatively autonomous only in pathological cases; normally it is co-ordinated with consciousness in a compensatory relationship.
我们因此肯定,除了被压抑的材料外,无意识包含所有那些曾经掉落到这个门槛底下的心灵的成分,以及升华的理解-感觉。而且,我们知道,根据丰富的经验以及因为理论的理由,除了这个之外,无意识包含所有还没有到达意识的门槛的材料。这些都是未来的意识内容的种种。同样地,我们有充分的理由假设,无意识从来没有停滞不动,从静止不动的意义而言。而是被假定为不停地从事所谓的无意识的幻想的集合与重新集合。这个活动应该被认为仅是在病理的情况,比较具有自主性。正常而言,它跟意识互相协调,处于一种补偿的关系。

[205] 446 It is to be assumed that all these contents are of a personal
nature in so far as they are acquired during the individual’s life. Since this life is limited, the number of acquired contents in the unconscious must also be limited. This being so, it might be thought possible to empty the unconscious either by analysis or by making a complete inventory of the unconscious contents, on the ground that the unconscious cannot produce anything more than what is already known and assimilated into conscious-ness. We should also have to suppose, as we have said, that if one could arrest the descent of conscious contents into the uncon¬scious by doing away with repression, unconscious productivity would be paralysed. This is possible only to a very limited ex¬tent, as we know from experience. We urge our patients to hold fast to repressed contents that have been re-associated with con¬sciousness, and to assimilate them into their plan of life. But this procedure, as we may daily convince ourselves, makes, no im¬pression on the unconscious, since it calmly goes on producing apparently the same infantile-sexual fantasies which, according to the earlier theory, should be the effects of personal repres¬sions. If in such cases the analysis be continued systematically, one uncovers little by little a medley of incompatible wish¬fantasies of a most surprising composition. Besides all the sexual perversions one finds every conceivable kind of criminality, as well as the noblest deeds and the loftiest ideas imaginable, the existence of which one would never have suspected in the sub¬ject under analysis.

我们应该假定,所有的这些内容都是属于私人的性质,因为它们在私人的生活里被获得。因为这种生命是有限的,在无意识被获得的内容的数码也一定是有限的。既然如此,要将无意识掏空掉,就会被认为是可能,不论是凭借精神分析,或是凭借将无意识的内容做一完整的索引。理由是,无意识无法产生任何东西,除了将已经被知道及已经被吸收的东西,转换成为意识。我们也必须要假定,如同我们曾经说过,假如我们能够阻止意识的内容降落到无意识,凭借废除压抑,无意识的创造力将会被麻痹。这仅有在某个非常有限的程度是可能,因为我们根据精神分析经验知道。我们建议我们的病人要紧紧把握曾经跟意识重新联想一块的被压抑的内容,并且将它们吸收进入他们的生活的计划里,但是这个程序,如同我们每天说服自己,并没有让无意识有任何印象,因为它平静地继续产生显而易见是相同的婴儿的性-幻想。依照早期的理论,这些婴儿-性幻想应该是个人压抑的结果。假如在如此的情况,精神分析竟然系统地被继续下去,我们会逐渐地揭露出一个令人叹为观止,无与伦比的的愿望-幻想的混声合唱。除了所有这些性的变态外,我们发现到各色各样的可构想的犯罪种类,以及可想像的最高贵与最崇高的行为。它们的存在,我们在精神分析下的主体,本来不会料想得到。

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