actual neurosis

Actual Neurosis
= D.: Aktualneurose.–Es.: neurosis actual.–Fr.: névrose actuelle.–I.: nevrosi attuale.–P.:
neurose atual.
A type of neurosis which Freud distinguishes from the anxiety neurosis* and
neurasthenia* made up the actual neuroses, but he later proposed that hypochondria
should be counted among them.

真性神经症
弗洛依德区别的一种神经症,跟焦虑神经症与麻醉神经症不同。这种神经症组成各种真性神经症。但是他后来建议,忧郁症应该被认为是其中之一。

The term ‘actual neurosis’ appears for the first time in Freud’s work in 1898, when it is
used to denote anxiety neurosis and neurasthenia (1a). The idea that these conditions were to
be set apart from the other neuroses had been developed much earlier, however, during his
researches into the aetiology of the neuroses, as can be seen from both the correspondence
with Fliess (2) and the writings of 1894-96 (3).

「真性神经症」这个术语第一次出现在弗洛依德著作,在1898年,当它被使用来指明焦虑神经症与麻痹神经症。可是,这些病况应该本其他的神经症分开的这个观念,更早些曾经被发展。当弗洛依德研究神经症的病因学,我们从他跟弗利斯的通信与1894-96年的著作可以看出。

a. The opposition between the actual neuroses and the psychoneuroses is essentially
aetiological and pathogenic: the cause is definitely sexual in both these types of neurosis, but
in the former case it must be sought in ‘a disorder of [the subject’s] contemporary sexual life’
and not in ‘important events in his past life’ (4). The adjective ‘actual’ is therefore to be
understood first and foremost in the sense of temporal ‘actuality’ (1b) [a sense which has
largely been abandoned by modern English usage–tr.]. In addition, this aetiology is somatic
rather than psychical: ‘… the source of excitation, the precipitating cause of the disturbance,
lies in the somatic field instead of the psychical one, as is the case in hysteria and obsessional
neurosis’ (5). In anxiety neurosis, this precipitating cause is considered to be the nondischarge
of sexual excitation, while in neurasthenia it is the incomplete satisfaction of it, as
in masturbation, which is held to be responsible.

1、 真性神经症与心理神经症的对立,基本上是病因学与病原学。在这两种神经症,原因却是是性。但是在前者的原因必须被寻找,在「主体的当代性生活的疾病」,而不是在「他过去生活的重要事件」。「真性」这个形容词因此应该被了解,首先而且重要地,以「时间的真性」的意义。除外,这个病因学是身体的,而不是心理的:「興奋的来源,困扰的突然原因在于身体的领域,而不是心理的领域,如同歇斯底里症与妄想症的神经症。在焦虑神经症,突发的原因被认为是性的興奋没有被发泄,而在麻痹神经症,原因是性的興奋的满足不完整,如同在手淫,它被认为要负责任。
2、
Lastly, the mechanism of symptom-formation* is taken to be somatic in the actual
neuroses (as when there is a direct transformation of the excitation into anxiety); so that
‘actual’ connotes the absence of the mediations which are to be encountered in the symptom formation
of the psychoneuroses (displacement, condensation, etc.).

最后,在真性神经症,病症形成的机制被认为是身体的(如同性的興奋直接转移成为焦虑);所以,「真性」内涵中介的欠缺,这个中介应该被遭遇到,在心理神经症的病症形成(替换,浓缩,等等)。

From the therapeutic standpoint, the upshot of these views is that the actual neuroses
cannot be treated psycho-analytically because their symptoms do not have a meaning that can
be elucidated (6).

从治疗的观点,这些观点的结论是,真性神经症无法用精神分析的方式治疗,因为它们的病征并没有无法被阐释的意义。

Freud never abandons this position in respect of the actual neuroses. He puts it forward
on a number of occasions, remarking that the explanation of the mechanism of symptomformation
in these cases can be left to the chemical sciences (intoxication of the sexual
substances by products of the metabolism) (7).

弗洛依德从来没有放弃关于真性神经症的这个立场。他在许多场合提出它,评论说,在这些情况,病征的形成的机制的解释,可以留给化学的各门科学(新陈代谢的药物具有激发性興奋的物质)。

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– 10 –
b. There is, in Freud’s view, more than an overall antithesis opposing the psychoneuroses
to the actual neuroses: he attempts several times to establish a thoroughgoing isomorphism
between neurasthenia and anxiety neurosis on the one hand and the various paraphrenias* or

3、 从弗洛依德的观点,将心理神经症与真性神经症相提并论的的全面的对立,不仅只有一个。 他好几次企图建立一个彻底应用的辨明,在麻痹神经症与焦虑神经症之间。
4、
2 Cf. Freud, S. Fliess papers, Drafts B and E, Anf., 76-82 and 98-103; S.E., I, 179-84 and
189-95.
3 Cf. for example Freud, S.: ‘The Psychotherapy of Hysteria’, in Studies on Hysteria (1895d);
‘On the Grounds for Detaching a Particular Syndrome from Neurasthenia under the
Description “Anxiety Neurosis”’ (1895b); ‘Heredity and the Aetiology of the
Neuroses’ (1896a).
4 Freud, S. ‘Heredity and the Aetiology of the Neuroses’ (1896a), G.W., I, 414; S.E., III, 149.
– 11 –
5 Freud, S. ‘On the Grounds for Detaching a Particular Syndrome from Neurasthenia under
the Description “Anxiety Neurosis”’ (1895b), G.W., I, 341; S.E., III, 114.
6 Cf. Freud, S. ‘The Psychotherapy of Hysteria’, in Studies on Hysteria (1895d), G.W., I,
259; S.E., II, 261.
7 Cf. for example Freud, S. ‘Contributions to a Discussion on Masturbation’ (1912f), G.W.,
VIII, 337; S.E., XII, 248. And Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1916-17), G.W.,
XI, 400-4; S.E., XVI, 385-89.
8 Cf. Freud, S. ‘On Narcissism: An Introduction’ (1914c), G.W., X, 149-51; S.E., XIV, 82-
85.
9 Freud, S. Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1916-17), G.W., XI, 405; S.E., XVI,
390.
10 ‘Types of Onset of Neurosis’ (1912c), G.W., VIII, 322-30; S.E., XII, 231-38.

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