精神分析词汇

A
Abreaction
= D.: Abreagieren.–Es.: abreacción.–Fr.: abréaction.–I.: abreazione.–P.: ab-reação.
Emotional discharge whereby the subject liberates himself from the affect*
attached to the memory of a traumatic event in such a way that this affect is not able to
become (or to remain) pathogenic. Abreaction may be provoked in the course of
psychotherapy, especially under hypnosis, and produce a cathartic* effect. It may also
come about spontaneously, either a short or a long interval after the original trauma*.

清涤
情感的发泄,凭借它,主体解放他自己,摆脱附着于创伤的记忆的情感。这样,这种情感才不会成为或始终是病因。在心理知疗的过程,清涤可能被使用,特别是在催眠之下,并且产生清涤的效果。它也可能自动自发地发生,不管是原先的创伤经过短期或长期之后。

The notion of abreaction can only be understood by reference to Freud’s theory of the
genesis of the hysterical symptom, as set out in his paper ‘On the Psychical Mechanism of
Hysterical Phenomena’ (1893a) (1a, α). The persistence of the affect attached to a memory
depends on several factors, of which the most important is related to the way in which the
subject has reacted to a particular event. Such a reaction may be composed of voluntary or
involuntary responses, and may range in nature from tears to acts of revenge. Where this
reaction is of sufficient intensity a large part of the affect associated with the event
disappears; it is when the reaction is quota of affect*. For the reaction to be cathartic,
however, it has to be ‘adequate’.

清涤的观念,仅能凭借提到弗洛依的歇斯底里病征的起因的理论,才能够被了解。弗洛依德在他的论文「论歇斯底里现象的心理机制」,发表。情感持续地附着于记忆,依靠好几个因素。其中最重要的因素,跟主体对于特殊事件的反应息息相关。这样一种反应可能由自愿或非自愿的反应组成。在性质上,范围包括从眼泪到报复的行动。当这种反应属于充分强度,跟事件有关系的情感就会消失。那时的反应就是情感的配额。可是,为了让反应获得清涤,它必须是「充分」。

Abreaction may be spontaneous; in other words, it may come about fairly shortly after
the event and prevent the memory from being so burdened with a great quota of affect that it
becomes pathogenic. Alternatively, it may be secondary, precipitated by a cathartic
psychotherapy which enables the patient to recall the traumatic event, to put it into words and
so deliver himself from the weight of affect which has been the cause of his pathological
condition. As early as 1895, in fact, Freud noted that ‘language serves as a substitute for
action; by its help, an affect can be “abreacted” almost as effectively’ (1b).

清涤可能是自动自发。换句话说,它可能发生,就在事件后不久,并且阻止记忆无法承担强烈的情感配额,以致于它变成病因。替代地,它可能是次要病因,由清涤的心理治疗所急速促成。这种清涤的心理治疗,让病人能够回想起创伤的事件,用文词表达它,然后让他自己免除情感的重量。这个情感的重量就是他的疾病的原因。事实上,早在1895年,弗洛依德注意到,语言发挥功能作为行动的替代品。凭借语言的帮助,情感能够被「清涤」,几乎是有效地。

A massive abreaction is not the only way for a subject to get rid of the memory of a
traumatic event; the memory may be integrated into a series of associations which allows the
event to be corrected–to be put in its proper place. From the Studies on Hysteria (1895d)
onwards, we find Freud speaking on occasion of the actual effort of recollection and mental
working out* as a process of abreaction in which the same affect is revived at the memory of
each of the different events which have given rise to it (1c).

为了让主体摆脱创伤事件的记忆,大规模的清涤并非是唯一的方法。记忆可能会被合并成为一系列的让事件可能被纠正的联想—被摆放在它的适当的位置。我们发现,从「歇斯底里症的研究(1895)开始,弗洛依德有时谈论到回忆的努力与精神运作,作为清理的过程。在这个过程,相同的情感被恢复,当回忆到曾经产生它的每个不同的事件。

The effect of an absence of abreaction is the persistence of the groups of ideas* which lie
at the root of neurotic symptoms; they remain unconscious and isolated from the normal
course of thought: ‘… the ideas which have become pathological have persisted with such freshness and affective strength because they have been denied the normal wearing-away processes by means of abreaction and reproduction in
states of uninhibited association’ (1d).

清涤荡欠缺的影响就是成群的观念的持续,它们位于神经症病征的根源。它们始终是无意识,并且跟正常的思想过程孤立开来:「已经变成病因的这些观念曾经持续下来,以如此新鲜及情感的强度,因为它们始终被拒绝给予正常的损耗过程,在没有被压抑的联想的状态,凭借清涤与复制。」

Breuer and Freud were concerned to identify the different sets of conditions which
prevent the subject from abreacting. They felt that in certain cases these sets of conditions
were related not to the nature of the event, but rather to the mental state of the subject at the
moment of its occurrence: fright*, autohypnosis or hypnoid state*. Alternatively, their origin
was sometimes to be found in the circumstances–usually of a social nature–which oblige the
subject to restrain his reactions. A final possibility was that there were ‘things which the
patient wished to forget, and therefore intentionally repressed from his conscious thought and
inhibited and suppressed’ (1e). These three different sets of conditions defined the three types
of hysteria: hypnoid hysteria*, retention hysteria* and defence hysteria*. It was immediately
after the publication of the Studies on Hysteria that Freud abandoned the first two of these
three types.

布鲁尔与弗洛依德非常关切要辨明阻止主体无法清涤的不同情况的集合。他们感觉到,在某些的个案,这些情况的集合,跟事件的特性并没有关系,而是跟主体的精神状态有关系,但他处于事件发生的时刻。害怕,自动催眠或催眠状态。换句话说,它们的起源有时能够在环境里被找到—通常是属于社会的性质—这些环境强迫主体约束他的反应。一个最后的可能是,有些事情是病人希望忘记的的事情,因此它们刻意地被压抑,不进入他的意识的思想,并且被潜抑与压制。」这三个不同集合的情况定义三种的歇斯底里症:催眠歇斯底里症,保留歇斯底里症,与防卫歇斯底里症。就在「歇斯底里症的研究」刚从出版不久,弗洛依德放弃这三种的前两种。

The exclusive emphasis on abreaction as the key to psychotherapeutic effectiveness is
above all typical of the period in Freud’s work which is known as the period of the
cathartic method. Yet the notion is retained in the later theory of psycho-analytic treatment.
There are empirical reasons for its survival, for every cure involves manifest emotional
discharge, though to varying degrees according to the type of patient. There are theoretical
reasons too, in so far as every theory of the cure must take into account repetition* as well as
recollection. Concepts such as transference*, working-through* and acting out* all imply
some reference to the theory of abreaction, even though they also lead us to more complex
conceptions of treatment than the idea of a pure and simple elimination of the traumatising
affect.

专门强调清涤作为是心理治疗的效用的关键,特别是弗洛依德那个时期的研究的特色。众所周知,那是清涤方法的时期。可是,这个观念在精神分析治疗的晚期理论被保留。有些实证的理由,让它保留下来,因为每个治疗都会牵涉到情感发泄的展示,虽然程度不同,依照病人的种类。也有些理论的理由,因为治疗的每个理论必须考虑到重复以及回忆。诸如移情,运作的思想与演出等观念,都暗示会提到清涤的理论。即使它们也引导我们到更加复杂的治疗的观念,比起创伤的情感的单纯简化的减少。

(α) The neologism ‘abreagieren’ seems to have been coined by Freud and Breuer
from the verb reagieren in its transitive use and the prefix ab-, which has several
meanings, particularly distance in time, the fact of separation, diminishment,
suppression etc.

这个新词「清涤」abreagieren 似乎是弗洛依德与布鲁尔自创,根据这个动词reagieren,具有及物的用途与字首ab—它具有好几个意义,特别是时间上的距离,分开,减少,压抑等等的事实。
(1) Breuer, J. and Freud, S.: a) Cf. G.W., I, 81-9; S.E., II, 3-10. b) G.W., I, 87; S.E., II, 8. c) G.W., I, 223-4;
S.E., II, 158. d) G.W., I, 90; S.E., II, 11. e) G.W., I, 89; S.E., II, 10.

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