阳具的意义

阳具的意义

读书会的蒋带来一本唐荷著作的女性主义文学理论,其中有部分关于拉康的精神分析。她将觉得费解的部分,用红线划出。

「这是我比较看得懂的一本女性主义理论书,」她赞赏地说。

我将划红线部分逐字阅读,一直却不知如何诠释。「这种说法似乎有误,容我查证原文,再跟你解释。」我直觉地暂缓一下。

翻出拉康在论文集Ecrit的「阳具的意义」The Significance of the Phallus,(p 281)

But one may, simply by reference to the function of the phallus, indicate the structures that will govern the relations between the sexes.
Let us say that these relations will turn around a “to be” and “ to have”, which by referring to a signifier, the phallus, have the opposed effect, on the one hand, of giving reality to the subject in this signifier, and , on the other , of derealizing the relations to be signified.

唐荷的诠释是这样:

伊底帕斯情结的作用,也是性别获取所由的途径,小孩发现「母亲的欲望是阳具」之后,小孩将依据「作阳具」(being the phallus)和「有阳具」(having the phallus)的区别,来发展他或她的性别的关系位置。拉冈说两性之间的关系,「将环绕在「作」与「有」这个概念上,它们都指指涉一个能指,阳具,却又相反的效果。一个是在这个能指上给予主体一个实在(reality),另一个是使这个关系「虚化」(derealizing)以被意指。

雄伯的诠释是:

但是仅有凭借提及阳具的功能,我们才能够指出统辖性别的关系的结构。
让我们说,这些关系将环绕「成为」与「拥有」打转。由于提及一个能指,阳具,「成为」与「拥有」具有矛盾的效果。一方面,它们让在这个能指的主体,有一个现实界;另一方面,却让这个能指成为所指的关系,丧失现实界。

最大的差异是,唐荷将on the one hand、、、on the other hand(在一方面、、、在另一方面)误解成为「一个」、、、「另外一个」,过度解读成为下文的「一个」是男孩,「另一个」是女孩。

拉康所要的说的是人作为一个阳具的能指the signifier,虽然具有现实界,却仅是客体,所指(to be signified)才是主体所在,却因此而丧失现实界derealizing,成为是缺席absence 或欠缺lack。

接下去的一段就更为清楚:

This is brought about by the intervention of a “to seem” that replaces the “ to have” in order protect it on the one side, and to mask its lack in the other, and which has the effect of projecting in their entirety the ideal or typical manifestations of the behavior of each sex, including the art of copulation itself , into comedy.

导致这种矛盾的情况,是因为「似乎」的介入,取代了「拥有」。一方面,这是为了保护它,另一方面,是为了伪装它的欠缺。「似乎是」的这个介入产生这种影响:在它们的完整性,它投射两性的行为的理想或典型的证明成为滑稽喜剧,包括性爱交媾本身的行为。

These ideals take on new vigour from the demand that they are capable of satisfying, which is always a demand for love, with its complement of the reduction of desire to demand.

这些理想由于能够满足要求,而具有新的生命力量。那个要求总是对爱的要求,将欲望减化成为要求,作为它的补充。

Paradoxical as this formulation may seem, I am saying that it is in order to be the phallus, that is to say, the signifier of the desire of the Other, that a woman will reject an essential part of femininity, namely, all her attributes in the masquerade. It is for that which she is not that she wishes to be desired as well as loved. But she finds the signifier of her own desire the body of him to whom she addresses her demand for love.

这样的阐述似乎矛盾,我正在说的是,这是为了成为阳具,换句话说,为了成为大他者的欲望的能指,女人将会拒绝女性的一个基本部分,也就是,在这种伪装当中,所有她的属性。女人希望被欲望以及被爱,是因为她并没有实存的本质。但是她在男人的身体找到找到她自己欲望的能指,她对这个男人表达她对爱的要求。

Perhaps it should not be forgotten that the organ that assumes this signifying function takes on the value of a fetish. But the result for the woman remains that an experience of love, which, as such (cf, above), deprives her ideally of that which the object gives, and a desire which finds its signifier in this object, converge on the same object. That is way one can observe that a lack in the satisfaction proper to sexual need, in other words, frigidity, Is relatively well tolerated in woman, whereas the Verdrangung (repression ) inherent in desire is less present in women than in men.

或许我们不应该忘记,担负起这个能指化的功能的器官,具有一种物神的价值。但是对于女人而言,这个结果始终是:爱的经验跟欲望都汇集在这个相同的客体。因为在理想上,爱让女人丧失这个客体给予的东西,而欲望却在这个客体找到它的能指。那就是为什么我们能够观察到,在性的需要本身的满足会有一个欠缺,换句话说,性冷感,在女人身上比较能够被容忍。而欲望的本质的压抑,在女人身上不像在男人身上那么强烈。

In the case of men, on the other hand, the dialectic of demand and desire engenders the effects –and one must once more admire the sureness with which Freud situated them at the precise articulations on which they depended—a specific depreciation of love.

另一方面,在男人这边,要求与欲望的辩证法产生明确地贬低爱的这些影响—我们必须再次赞赏弗洛依德,因为他确实地定位它们,在它们所依靠的这些明确的表达。

If, in effect, the man finds satisfaction for his demand for love in the relation with the woman, in as much as the signifier of the phallus constitutes her as giving in love what she does not have—conversely, his own desire for the phallus will make its signifier emerge in its persistent divergence towards ‘another woman; who may signify this phallus in various ways, either as a virgin or as a prostitute. These results from this a centrifugal tendency of the genital drive in love life, which makes impotence much more difficult to bear for him, which the Verdrangung inherent in desire is more important.

事实上,即使在跟女人的关系,男人找到对于爱的要求的满足,因为阳具的这个能指构成这个女人,作为在爱当中给出她所没有的东西。反过来说,他自己对阳具的欲望将会让它的能指出现,在它持续地分离,朝向另外一个可能以各种方式意指这个阳具的女人,无论是处女或是妓女。这是因为在爱情生活,性器官的冲动具有离心力的倾向所形成,对于男人,性无能会更加难以承受,而欲望本质具有压抑更加重要。

Yet it should not be thought that the sort of infidelity that would appear to be constitutive of the male function is proper to it. For if one looks more closely, the same redoubling is to be found in the woman, except that the Other of Love as such, that is to say, in so far as he is deprived of what he gives, finds it difficult to see himself in the retreat in which he is substituted for the being of the man whose attributes she cherishes.

可是我们不应该认为,形成男性功能的这种的不忠实是它的本质。因为假如我们更加仔细观看,在女人身上这种不忠实被发现是更加变本加厉。例外的是,爱作为大他者发现很难在隐退当中看见自己,也就是他被剥夺掉他给予的东西。在隐退当中,爱作为大他者被替换,成为女人珍爱的属性的那个男人的生命实存。

One might add here that male homosexuality, in accordance with phallic mark that constitutes desire is constituted on the side of desire, while female homosexuality, on the other hand, as observation shows, is orientated on a disappointment that reinforces the side of the demand for love. These remarks should really be examined in greater detail, from the point of view of a return to the function of the mask in so far as it dominates the identification in which refusals of demand are resolved.

我们在此可以补充说,男性的同性恋,跟构成欲望的阳具的标记相一致,它是在欲望的这边被形成。而在另一方面,依照观察显示,女性同性恋则是被定向于一种失望,强化对爱的要求的这一边的失望。这些论述确实应该更加详细地检视,从回转到伪装面具的这个功能。因为它支配要求的拒绝被解决的这个认同。

The fact that femininity finds its refuge in this mask, by virtue of the fact of the Verdrangung inherent in the phallic mark of desire, has the curious consequence of making virile display in the human being itself seem feminine.

女性在这个伪装面具找到它的避难所,凭借这个事实:欲望以阳具作为标记本质上具有压抑。它拥有耐人寻味的结果:人类本身的生命力量的展示,显得女性化。

Correlatively, one can glimpse the reason for a characteristic that had never before been elucidated, and which shows once again the depth of Freud’s intuition: namely, why he advances the view that there is only one libido, his text showing that he conceives it as masculine in nature. The function of the phallic signifier touches here on its most profound relations: that in which the Ancients embodied the Nov, and the Aoyos。

相关地说,我们能够瞥见这个以前从来没有被阐释的特性的理由,它再次显示弗洛依德的直觉具有深度。换句话说,为什么他提出仅有一种生命力比多的这个观点。他的文本显示这个生命力比多在本质上是男性的力比多。阳具的能指的功能,在此探讨它最深刻的这些关系:古代人将它们具体表现为精神与逻各斯之间的关系。

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