Archive for March, 2013

Ethic 145

March 3, 2013

Ethic 145

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

4
Having brought out the artifices embodied in the construction of courtly love
and before proceeding to show you to what extent these artifices have proved
to be so durable, thus complicating still the relations between men and the
service of women, I would like to say one other thing. The object in front of
us, our anamorphosis, will also enable us to be precise about something that
remains a little vague in the perspective adopted, namely, the narcissistic
function.

当我已经将骑士之爱的建设具体表现的技艺显露出来,然后继续跟你们显示,这些技艺曾经证明是持久到什么程度,因此让男人与女人的服务之间的关系复杂化。我想要说另外一件事情。在我们前面的这个客体,我们的变形,也将让我们能够确定某件始终是有点模糊的东西。从被採用的透视观点,也就是说,自恋的功用。

You are aware that the mirror function, which I thought it necessary to
present as exemplary of the imaginary structure, is defined in the narcissistic
relation. And the element of idealizing exaltation that is expressly sought out
in the ideology of courtly love has certainly been demonstrated; it is fundamentally
narcissistic in character. Well now, the little image represented for
us by this anamorphosis permits me to show you which mirror function is
involved.

你们知道,这个镜子的功用。我认为这是必要的,呈现这个镜子的功用,作为是想象的结构的典范。它被定义在自恋的关系。在骑士之爱的意识形态,生动地被寻求的理想化的崇高的因素,确实曾经被证明。它在特性方面,基本上是自恋的。呵呵,这个变形替我们代表的这个小小意象,让我能够跟你们显示,怎样的镜像功用被牵涉。

It is only by chance that beyond the mirror in question the subject’s ideal
is projected. The mirror may on occasion imply the mechanisms of narcissism,
and especially the diminution of destruction or aggression that we will
encounter subsequently. But it also fulfills another role, a role as limit. It is
that which cannot be crossed. And the only organization in which it participates
is that of the inaccessibilty of the object. But it’s not the only thing to
participate in that.

仅是偶然地,主体的理想被投射超越受到质疑的镜象之外。这个镜像有时暗示自恋的这些机械结构,特别是我们随后会遭遇到的毁灭或侵凌性的维度。但是它也实现另外一个角色,作为限制的角色。那个限制是无法被跨越过的东西。它参与的唯一的组织是客体的无法接近的组织。但是它并不是唯一参与那个的东西。

There is a whole series of motifs, which constitute the presuppositions or
organic givens of courtly love. There is, for example, the fact that the object
is not simply inaccessible, but is also separated from him who longs to reach
it by all kind of evil powers, one of the names for which, in the charming
Ρrovencal language, is lauzengiers. The latter are the jealous rivals, but also
the slanderers.

有一整个系列的主题,组成骑士之爱的预先假设或是有机符号。譬如,存在着这个事实:客体不仅无法接近,它而且跟他渴望它的人分开,凭借各种的邪恶的力量。其中一个邪恶力量的名字,用法国南部方言来说,就是lauzengiers. 后者是妒忌的情敌,而且是毁谤者。

Another essential theme is that of the secret. It embodies a certain number
of misapprehensions, among which is the idea that the object is never given
except through an intermediary called the Senhal. It is something also found
in Arab poetry in connection with similar themes, where the same curious
rite always strikes commentators, since the forms are sometimes highly significant.
In particular, at a certain point in his poems, the extraordinary Guillaume
de Poitiers calls the object of his aspirations Bon vezi, which means
“Good neighbor.” As a result of which, historians have abandoned themselves
to all kinds of conjectures and have been unable to come up with anything better than the name of a Lady who, it is known, played an important role in his personal history, a forward woman apparently, whose estates were close to Guillaume’s.

另外一个重要的主题是秘密的主题。它具体表现某些的误解。其中一个误解就是这个观念: 客体从来没有被给予,除了凭借所谓的Senhal.的中介。这个东西在阿拉伯诗中也被找到,关于类似的主题。在那里,相同的耐人寻味的仪式,总是让评论者印象深刻。因为这些形式有时非常的重要。特别是,在他的诗里的某个点,这位特别的盖拉梅、德、博提尔称他的渴望的这个客体为Bon vezi 。意思是「好邻居」。由于这个的结果,历史学家曾经尽情耽溺于各种的推测,并且始终无法想出任何跟贴切的东西,除了一位女士的名字。众所周知,这位女士扮演一个重要的角色,在他的个人的历史。这显而易见是一位大胆的女人,她的房产靠近盖拉梅的房产。

What is for us much more important than the reference to the neighbor,
who is supposedly the Lady whom Guillaume de Poitiers occasionally played
naughty games with, is the relationship between the expression just referred
to and the one Freud uses in connection with the first establishment of the
Thing, with its psychological genesis, namely, the Nebenmensch. And he designated
thereby the very place that from the point of view of the development
of Christianity, was to be occupied by the apotheosis of the neighbor.

对于我们而言,比提到盖拉梅、德、博提尔偶然跟她玩恶作剧的女生的这位邻居,更重要的事情是,刚刚被提到的这个表达,与弗洛依德使用的这个表达之间的关系。弗洛依德提到这个表达,关于「物象」的首次建立,带着它的心理的创世纪,换句话说,这个Nebenmensch.。他因此指明这个位置,从基督教的发展的观点,这个位置应该由邻居的优先佔有。

In brief, I wanted to make you realize today, first, that it is an artificial and
cunning organization of the signifier that lays down at a given moment the
lines of a certain asceticism, and, second, the meaning we must attribute to
the negotiation of the detour in the psychic economy.

总之,我想要让你们今天体会到。首先,这是能指的人为而狡猾的组织,在特定的时刻安置某种禁欲主义的脉络。其次,我们必须将这个意义归属于心灵的活动的迂迴的协商。

The detour in the psyche isn’t always designed to regulate the commerce
between whatever is organized in the domain of the pleasure principle and
whatever presents itself as the structure of reality. There are also detours and
obstacles which are organized so as to make the domain of the vacuole stand
out as such. What gets to be projected as such is a certain transgression of
desire.

心灵的这个迂迴未必是被设计,为了规范快乐原则的领域被组织的东西,与任何呈现它自己作为现实的结构的东西之间的交易。也有些的迂迴与阻碍被组织,是为了让这个罅隙的领域本身突显出来。本身变的被投射到东西,是欲望的某种逾越。

And it is here that the ethical function of eroticism enters into play. Freudianism
is in brief nothing but a perpetual allusion to the fecundity of eroticism
in ethics, but it doesn’t formulate it as such. The techniques involved
in courtly love – and they are precise enough to allow us to perceive what
might on occasion become fact, what is properly speaking of the sexual order
in the inspiration of this eroticism – are techniques of holding back, of suspension,
of amor interruptus. The stages courtly love lays down previous to
what is mysteriously referred to as le don de merci, “the gift of mercy” –
although we don’t know exactly what it meant – are expressed more or less
in terms that Freud uses in his Three Essays as belonging to the sphere of
foreplay.

就是在此,性爱的伦理的功用开始运作。总之,弗洛依德学派仅是一个永远的寓言,提到伦理学的性爱的丰饒。但是它并没有阐述它的本身。在骑士之爱牵涉到的技术,它们足够确实让我们能够感受到有所成为事实的东西。适当地说,属于性的秩序的东西,在性爱的灵感。那些抑制的技术,悬置的技术,amor interruptus 的技术,分离情深的技术。骑士之爱奠定的这些阶段,在神秘地提到作为是「仁慈的礼物」之前,虽然我们并不确实知道那是什么意思。这些阶段被表达,以弗洛依德使用的这些术语,在他的「性学三论文」,作为是属于前戏的领域。

Now from the point of view of the pleasure principle, the paradox of what
might be called the effect of Vorlust, of foreplay, is precisely that it persists
in opposition to the purposes of the pleasure principle. It is only insofar as
the pleasure of desiring, or, more precisely, the pleasure of experiencing
unpleasure, is sustained that we can speak of the sexual valorization of the
preliminary stages of the act of love.

现在从快乐原则的观点,所谓的前戏的效果的矛盾,确实就是,它持续存在,跟快乐原则的目的背道而驰。仅是因为欲望的快乐,或更贴切地说,经验不快乐的快乐被维持,我们能够谈到爱的行动的初步阶段,对性的推崇。

Yet we can never tell if this act or fusion is a matter of mystical union, of
distant acknowledgment of the Other or of anything else. In many cases, it
seems that a function like that of a blessing or salutation is for the courtly
lover the supreme gift, the sign of the Other as such, and nothing more. This
phenomenon has been the object of speculation that has even gone as far as identifying this blessing with that which in the consolamentum orders the relations
between the highest ranks of initiates among the Cathars. In any case,
before reaching that point, the stages of the erotic technique are carefully
distinguished and articulated; they go from drinking, speaking, touching,
which is in part identified with what are known as services, to kissing, and
the osculum, which is the final stage before that of the union in merci.

可是,我们永远无法说,这个行动或融合是否是神秘结合的事情,是否是远距承认大他者或任何其他事情。在许多状况,似乎,像祝福或致敬的功用,对于骑士之爱的恋人,是崇高的礼物,大他者本身的象征,没有别的。这种现象曾经是推想的客体。这种推想曾经过分到将这种祝福认同于在精神洗礼consolamentum时,规范这些关系,在净化教派的入会的最高阶层之间的关系。无论如何,在到达那个点之前,性爱技巧的各种阶段小心地被区别,被表达,它们从谈话,碰触,那部分是被认同为所众所周知的服务,到接吻,与射精,那是最后的阶段,然后才是结合的阶段。

All that has come down to us in such an enigmatic form that, in order to
explain it, the attempt has been made to relate it to Hindu or even Tibetan
erotic practices, since it seems that the latter have been codified in the most
precise way and constitute a disciplined asceticism of pleasure from which a
kind of lived substance may emerge for the subject. It is only on the basis of
extrapolation that it is supposed something analogous was effectively practiced
by the troubadours. Personally, I don’t believe a word of it. Moreover,
without assuming an identity between the practices taken from different cultural
spheres, I do believe the influence of this poetry has been decisive for
us.

所有这一切以谜团的形式传递给我们。为了解释它,曾经有人企图将它跟印度或甚至西藏的性爱做法联想一块。因为似乎西藏的性爱曾经被符码化,以最精确的方式,形成一种有戒律的欢乐的禁欲主义。从那里,一直被生活过的物质可能从主体身上出现。仅是根据这种推测,它假设有某件类似的东西有效地被实践,被遊唱诗人实践。就我个人而言,我根本就不相信它。而且,假如没有假定一种认同,在从不同文化的领域获得的实践之间。我确实相信这种诗的影响对我们而言是决定性的。

Following the notable failure of the different attempts to explain in terms
of influence the emergence of this particular kind of idealizing cult of the
feminine object in our culture, I am struck most by the fact that a number of
the most ascetic and most paradoxical of the texts utilized in the discourse of
courtly love are taken over from Ovid’s Art of Love.

当我追踪不同企图的这个著名的失败,它企图用影像的术语,解释在我们的文化,对于女性客体的这个特别的理想化崇拜的出现。我对这个事实最为印象深刻:许多最禁欲,最矛盾的文本,在骑士之爱的过程被利用,都是从奥维德的「爱的艺术」改编过来。

Ovid wrote in a sparkling verse form a little treatise for libertines in which
one learns for example, in which neighborhoods of Rome one can meet the
prettiest little whores. And he develops his theme in a poem in three parts
that ends with the direct evocation of what can only be called the game of the
two-backed beast. In the midst of all that one also comes across formulas
such as Arte regendus Amor, “Love must be ruled by Art.” And then, ten
centuries later, with the help of those magic words, a group of poets starts to
introduce all that word for word into a veritable operation of artistic incantation.

奥维德以灿烂的诗体形式,替风流人物描写一篇小论文。在那里,我们学习到,譬如,在罗马的附件,我们能够会见最美丽的小雛妓。他在诗里用三个部分发展他的主题,结束时,直接召唤仅能所谓的两个背的动物的遊戏。在这一切当中,我们也偶然遇到这些公式,像是「恋爱必须由艺术统辖」。然后,一百年后,靠着这些魔术般文字的帮忙,一群诗人开始逐字地介绍所以这一切,成为艺术的召唤的可验证的运作。

One also reads Militiae species amor est, “Love is a kind of military service”
– which means for Ovid that the ladies of Rome aren’t as easy as all that.
And then in the discourse of chivalry, in a form that is nicely outlined in Don
Quixote, such terms begin to resonate so as to evoke an armed militia devoted
to the defense of women and children.

我们也阅读到「恋爱是一种军事的服役」。那意味着,对奥维德,罗马的女士们并不像所有这一切那么容易。在行侠仗义的辞说,在「唐吉诃德」被描述得淋漓尽致,这些术语开始引起共鸣,为了召唤武装的民团,专门致力于捍卫女人与小孩。

You can certainly understand the importance I attribute to such well-attested
analogies, for it is clear that in the priesthood itself, Ovid’s Ars Amandi had
not been forgotten; Chr6tien de Troyes even translated it. It is through these
kinds of revivals that one is able to understand what the function of the
signifier means. And I would like to make my boldest assertion today at this
point in affirming that courtly love was created more or less as you see the
fantasm emerge from the syringe that was evoked just now.

你们确实能够理解这个重要性,我归属于这些清楚验证的类比。因为这是显而易见地,在僧侣的自身,奥维德的性爱技艺Ars Amandi 还没有被忘记。查洛汀、德、特罗伊甚至翻译它。通过这些种类的复兴,我们能够理解能指的功用是什么。今天在这个时刻,我想要发表我最大胆的主张,肯定那个骑士之爱被创造,依照你们看见的幻想出现,从刚才被召唤的那个注入。

That doesn’t mean that something fundamental isn’t involved, however;
otherwise it would be inconceivable that Andre Breton could celebrate in this
day and age VAmour fou, “the madness of love,” as he puts it in terms dictated
by his concerns, or by his interest in the relationship to what he calls “objective
chance.” That is a strange signifying configuration, since who, a century
or so from now, on reading these things in their context, will understand that
objective chance means things that occur and are all the richer in meaning
because they take place somewhere where we are unable to perceive either
rational, or causal, or any other kind of order, that can justify their emergence
in the real?

可是,那并不意味着,某件基本的东西没有被牵涉。否则它将是无法构想的,安德鲁、布莱特在这个日子与时代,庆祝「爱的疯狂」,如同他表达它,受到他的关心所指使,或是受到他对于他所谓的「客观的机会」的关系。那是一种奇特的能指化的融合,因为,从今起一百年后,有谁在阅读他们文本的这些东西,会理解到,客观的机会意味着发生的事情,它们在意义方面更加丰富。因为它们发生在某个地方,我们无法认为是理性或有因果关系,或任何其他的秩序,能够证明它们的出现在实在界?

In other words, it is once again in the place of the Thing that Breton has
the madness of love emerge.

换句话说,再一次这个「物象」的存在,布莱特让爱的疯狂出现。

As I take leave of you today and remind you that we will meet again three
weeks from now, I would like to conclude with four lines from a poem,
which, thanks to my memory, came to mind this morning. They are from
another surrealist poet, Paul Eluard. They are in their poetic context exactly
at that frontier or limit which in my own words I am attempting to enable us
to localize and feel:

当我今天跟你们告辞,并且提醒你们,我们三个星期后,将会再见面。我想要引用一首诗的四行来做结论。今天早上,我心血来潮,想起来。它们是另外一位超现实主义的诗人,保罗、阿鲁德。它们是在它们诗的内容里,确实就是在边界或是限制。用我自己的话来说,我正在企图让我们能够找出位置,并且感觉到:

Against this dilapidated sky, these panes of fresh water,
Which face will appear and, like a sonorous shell,
Announce that the night of love has turned to day,
Open mouth joined to a mouth that is closed?2

以摇摇欲坠的天空为背景,新鲜的水的长廊,
脸孔将会出现,像一粒响亮的贝壳,
宣告爱的夜晚已经转变成为白天,
张开的嘴联上紧闭的嘴?

February 10, 1960
1960年,2月10日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 145

March 1, 2013

Ethic 145

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

ON THE SUBJECT OF BERNFELD
论泼费德的主体

THE VACUOLE AND THE INHUMAN PARTNER
身体罅隙与非人的伴侣

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

3
What interests us here very probably emerged in the middle or at the beginning
of the eleventh century, and continued into the twelfth or even, in Germany,
to the beginning of the thirteenth. The phenomenon in question is
courtly love, its poets and singers, who were known as “troubadours” in the
South, as “trouveres” in the North of France, and as “Minnesanger” in the
Germanic realm – England and parts of Spain were only involved at second
hand. These games were linked to a very precise poetic craft and emerged at
that moment, only to be eclipsed subsequently to the point where the following
centuries only retained a somewhat dim memory of them.

我们在此感到興趣的东西,可能出现在十一世纪的中业或开始,然后继续到十二世纪,或,甚至在德国,继续到十三世纪的开始。受到质疑的这个现象是骑士之爱,诗人及其咏唱歌手。他们被认识作为法国南部的「浪遊者troubadours」,在法国北部则是「旅行者”trouveres」,在德国领域则为Minnesanger”。英国与西班牙的部分地区仅是牵涉到次要部分。这些遊戏跟确实的诗的技艺有关系,它们在那个时刻出现。结果随后衰微到这个地步,以后的几个世纪仅有保留对它们相当模糊的观念。

At the high point, which stretches from the beginning of the eleventh century
to the first third of the thirteenth, the very special technique of these
courtly love poets played a highly important role. It is difficult for us today
to evaluate precisely the importance of that role, but certain circles – in the
courtly love sense, court circles, aristocratic circles – that occupied an elevated
position in society were certainly influenced markedly.

在最興盛时,它从十一世纪的开始,到十三世纪的前三分之一,这些骑士之爱的特别的技巧扮演非常重要的角色。我们今天很困难确实评估那个角色的重要性。但是某些的圈子,从骑士之爱的意义来说,宫廷圈,贵族圈,在社会中佔据一个崇高的地位,他们确实明显地受到影响。

The question as to whether there were, in fact, formal lessons in love has
been raised. The way in which Michel de Nostre-Dame, otherwise known as
Nostradamus, represents at the beginning of the fifteenth century the way in which juridical power was exercised by the Ladies – whose extravagant Languedocian
names he cites – cannot fail to excite a thrill in us at its strangeness.

事实上,关于爱的正式的教导这个问题,曾经被提出。米歇尔、德、诺斯达姆,别名诺斯特拉达姆斯,在十五世纪的开始,代表司法的权力被女士们运用,他引述她们的奢侈的无可伦比的名字。这种方式一定会引起我们产生奇特的興奋。

This is something that was faithfully reproduced by Stendhal in On
Love, an admirable work on the subject, and one that is very close to the
interest displayed by the romantics in the resurgence of the poetry of courtly
love, which was called Provengal at the time, but which was, properly speaking,
from the region of Toulouse or indeed from the Limousin.

有某件东西被史坦达尔在「论爱情」忠实地复制,这是一部令人崇拜的作品,探讨这个主题。它非常靠近在骑士之爱的诗的复兴,浪漫主义展示的興趣。在当时,骑士之爱被称为是地区之爱,适当地说,从Toulouse的地区,或确实从Limousin的地区。

The existence and operations of these tribunals devoted to the casuistry of
love and evoked by Michel de Nostre-Dame are open to debate and often
debated. Nevertheless, we do have certain texts, including especially the work
by Andreas Capellanus that Renouart discovered and published in 1917. The
shortened title is De Arte Amandi, which thus makes it a homonym of Ovid’s
treatise – a work that was passed down to posterity by the clergy.

这些聚会的存在与运作,专注于爱的伦理学,由米契尔、德、诺斯特拉达姆所召唤,公开接受争辩,而且时常被争辩。可是,我们确实有某些文本,包括特别是卡皮兰那斯的著作,雷诺特在1917年发现,而且予以出版。简缩的标题De Arte Amandi ,因此成为是奥维德的论文的同音异义字词—这一本著作由僧侣传下给后代。

This fourteenth-century manuscript that Renouart discovered in the Bibliotheque
Nationale gives us the text of judgments handed down by Ladies,
who are well-known historical figures and include Eleanor of Aquitaine. She
was successively – and this “successively” involved a great degree of personal
involvement in the unfolding drama – the wife of Louis VII the Younger and
Henry Plantagenet, whom she married when he was Duke of Normandy and
who subsequently became King of England, with all that that involved relative
to claims made on French territory. Then there was her daughter, who
married a certain Henry I, Count of Champagne, and still others who were
historical figures. In Capellanus’s work they are all said to have participated
in tribunals devoted to the casuistry of love, and such tribunals all presuppose
perfectly coded points of reference that are by no means vague, but imply ideals to be pursued, of which I will give you some examples.

雷诺特Bibliotheque Nationale 发现的这个十四世纪的原稿,给我们这个判断的文本,由「女士们」传递下来。她们是著名的历史人物,包括Eleanor of Aquitaine.。 她接二连三地,这种「接二连三」牵涉到不同程度的个人的牵涉到展开的戏剧。路易七世的妻子,这位年轻的亨利、普兰塔尼特,但他是诺曼地的公爵时,她嫁给他。他随后成为英国的国王。因此牵涉到对法国队领土的主张。因此,还有她的女儿,嫁给亨利一世,章培尼的伯爵。还有其他的历史的人物。在卡普兰那斯的著作,她们据说曾经参与各种专注于讨论爱的伦理学的聚会。这些聚会预先假设决非的模糊的完美符码的指称点,但是暗示着要被追求的理想。我将给予你们一些例子。

It doesn’t matter whether we take them from the Southern French domain
or the German domain except as far as the signifier is concerned, which in
the former case is the “langue d’oc” and in the latter the German language –
this is after all a poetry written in the vernacular. Except for the signifier,
then, the terms overlap, repeat each other; both involve the same system.
They are organized around diverse themes, the first of which is mourning,
and even mourning unto death.

是否我们获得它们是从法国南部的领域,或是从德国的领域,并不重要,除了就能指而言,在前者的情况,是法国方言,在后者是德国的语言。毕竟,这是用俚语写作的诗。除了这个能指,这些术语重叠,互相重复。两者都牵涉到相同的系统。它们环绕各种的主题组织,第一个主题是哀悼,甚至哀悼到死亡。

As one of those put it who at the beginning of the nineteenth century in
Germany formulated its characteristics, the point of departure of courtly love
is its quality as a scholastics of unhappy love. Certain terms define the register
according to which the Lady’s values are attained – a register indicated by
the norms which regulate the exchanges between the partners of the strange
rite, namely, reward, clemency, grace or Gnade, felicity. So as to imagine the
extremely ratified and complex organization concerned, think of the seventeenth-
century Map of Love (Carte du Tendre), although what one finds there
is a far more pallid version; the précieuses, too, at another historical moment placed the emphasis on a certain social art of conversation.

在德国,十九世纪的开始,其中有一位阐释它的特性,骑士之爱的出发,它的特质作为不快乐的爱的研究。某些的术语定义这个铭记,依照这个铭记,女士们的价值被获得。由这些命名指示的铭记,它们规范伴侣之间的交换奇特的仪式,换句话说,就是酬劳,宽容,恩典,或是幸福。为了想象这个极端被认可与复杂的相关的组织,请你们想象十七世纪的爱的地图,虽然我们在那里找到的是更加苍白的版本。在另外的历史的时刻,「宝剑之王」也强调某种的社会的交谈的艺术。

With courtly love things are all the more surprising because they emerge
at a time when the historical circumstances are such that nothing seems to
point to what might be called the advancement of women or indeed their
emancipation. To give you an idea of the situation, I would just refer to the
story of the Countess of Comminges, the daughter of a certain William of
Montpellier, that took place at the time of the full flowering of courtly love.

用骑士之爱,事情更加令人惊奇,因为他们出现在当历史的情况是如此糟糕,以致没有一样东西指向可能所谓的女人的进步,或是她们的解放。为了给予你们这个情况的观念,我仅是提到康敏思女伯爵的故事。她是蒙皮里尔的维廉的女儿。那个故事发生在骑士之爱的最为盛行的时代。

There was a certain Peter of Aragon, who was King of Aragon and was
ambitious to extend his power north of the Pyrenees in spite of the obstacle
raised at the time by the first historical campaign of the north against the
south, namely, in the form of the Albigensian crusade and Simon de Montfort’s
victories over the Counts of Toulouse. By reason of the fact that the
lady in question was the natural heir upon the death of her father of the
county of Montpellier, Peter of Aragon wanted her. She was, however, already
married, and seems to have been someone who was not cut out to involve
herself in sordid intrigues. She was of a highly reserved personality, not far
from sainthood in the religious sense of the word, since it was at Rome that
she ended her days with a reputation for saintliness. Political intrigue and the
pressure of the noble Lord Peter of Aragon forced her to leave her husband.
Papal intervention obliged the latter to take her back, but on her father’s
death, everything happened in accordance with the will of the powerful Lord.
She was repudiated by her husband, who was used to such things, and she
married Peter of Aragon, who proceeded to mistreat her to such a degree that
she fled. And that is why she finished her days in Rome under the protection
of the Pope, who turned out to be on occasion the only protector of persecuted
innocence.

有某位阿拉甘的彼得,他说阿拉甘的国王。他心怀野心,要在派瑞尼斯扩展他的权力,尽管当时遭遇的阻碍,由于历史上第一次北方反对南方的运动。换句话说,用阿比吉新人的十字军东征,及西门、德、蒙福特的战胜道劳斯公爵。由于这个事实:受到质疑的这位女士在蒙皮里尔郡的父亲死亡之后,是自然的继承人,阿拉甘的彼得想要她。可是,她已经结婚,而且似乎她的个性并不适合牵涉入卑鄙的阴谋。她的人格非常保守,从宗教意义而言,跟圣女相距不远。因为在罗马,她结束她的一生,拥有圣女的名声。政治的阴谋与阿拉甘的贵族公爵彼得的压力,迫使她离开她的丈夫。教皇的介入强迫后者将她带回。但是在她的父亲死亡之时,每件事情发生,都依照这位具有权力的公爵的遗嘱。她被她的丈夫摒弃,那是他的习惯之举。她嫁给阿拉甘的彼得。他继续虐待她,直到她逃离。那就是为什么她在罗马结束她的一生,在教皇的保护之下。教皇有时证明是受到迫害的纯真者的唯一保护者。

The style of this story simply shows the effective position of woman in
feudal society. She is, strictly speaking, what is indicated by the elementary
structures of kinship, i.e., nothing more than a correlative of the functions
of social exchange, the support of a certain number of goods and of symbols
of power. She is essentially identified with a social function that leaves no
room for her person or her own liberty, except with reference to her religious
rights.

这个故事的风格仅是显示:在封建的社会,女人的实际地位。严格来说,她的情境由亲属关系的基本结构来指示。也就是,她仅是社会交换的功用的相关,某些善行与权力象征的支持。她基本上认同于社会的功用,这个功用并没有留给她的人格或她自己的自由的空间,除了提到她的宗教的权利。

It is in this context that the very curious function of the poet of courtly
love starts to be exercised. It is important to recall his social situation, which
is of a kind to throw a little light on the fundamental idea or graphic style
that Freudian ideology can give to a fashion whose function the artist manages
in a way to delay.

在这个文本内容,骑士之爱的诗人的耐人寻味的功用,开始被运用。重要的是要回想起他的社会的情况。这种社会的情况很适合来启明这个基本的观念,或弗洛依德的意识形态能够给予的生动的风格,艺术家成功地用某种方式拖延这个方式的功用。

Satisfactions of power are involved, Freud tells us. That is why it is all the
more remarkable to emphasize that in the whole collection of Minnesange,
there are numerous poets who occupy positions that are not inferior to those
of emperor, king, or prince. There are, in fact, 126 Minnesange in the Manes manuscript collection, which was in the Bibliothique Nationale in Paris at the
beginning of the nineteenth century, and which Heinrich Heine used to go
and pay homage to, as if to the very beginnings of German poetry. But after
1888, as the result of negotiations I know nothing about, but that were certainly
justified, it was given back to the Germans and is now in Heidelberg.

弗洛依德告诉我们,权力的满足被牵涉到。那就是为什么这是更加引人注意,要强调,米尼桑吉的整个的文集,有无数的诗人佔据这些位置,地位不亚于皇帝,国王,或王子的地位。事实上,在曼尼斯原稿的文集,有126位的米尼桑吉。那文集是在十九世纪的开始,巴黎的「国家索引」。海因瑞奇、海因过去对这套「国家索引」表示敬意。好像它是德国诗的开始。但是1888年之后,作为协商的结果,详情我并不知道,但是那些协商确实能自圆其说,这本「国家索引」归还给德国人,现在存放在海德堡。

The first of the troubadours was a certain Guillaume de Poitiers, the seventh
Count of Poitiers and ninth Duke of Aquitaine. Before he devoted himself
to his early poetic activities in the sphere of courtly love poetry, he appears
to have been a formidable brigand of the kind that, goodness knows, every
right-minded feudal nobleman of the period seems readily to have been. In a
number of historical situations that I won’t go into, he can be seen to have
behaved in conformity with the norms of the most barbarous practice of ransom.
That was the kind of service one could expect from him. Then, from a

第一位遊唱诗人是盖拉美、德、宝提尔,是宝提尔的第七代公爵,阿奎泰因的第九代伯爵。在他致力于骑士之爱的诗的领域,他的早期的诗的活动之前,他似乎曾经当国可怕的绿林强盗,天晓得,在那个时期的心地高尚的封建贵族似乎都曾经经历过。在许多的历史的情况,我就不探究了,人家看待他行为是符合当时勒索赎金的野蛮作法。那就是我们能够期望他所作的服务。因此,从某个特别的时刻开始,他变成独特的爱的形式的诗人。

I urge you right away to read those specialized works that contain a thematic
analysis of the veritable love ritual which was involved. The question
is, How should we situate it as analysts?

我建议你们立刻阅读那些专门的著作,包括对于牵涉到的可验证的爱的仪式的主题的分析。这个问题是,我们应该如何定位它,作为精神分析家?

I will just mention in passing a book that is somewhat depressing in the
way it solves problems by neatly avoiding them, although it is full of material
and quotations, namely, The Joy of Love by Pierre Perdu, which was published
by Plon. Another work of a very different type, since it deals less with
courtly love than its historical relations, is also worth reading, and that is the
nice little collection of Benjamin Perret, which, without explaining very well
what it’s about, he has called The Anthology of Sublime Love. Then there is
Rene Nelli’s book, published by Hachette, Love and the Myths of the Heart,
in which I find a certain philogenic moralism along with a lot of facts. And
finally you have Henry Corbin’s The Creative Imagination from Flammarion;
however, it goes much further than the limited domain that interests us today.

我将仅是顺便提到相当令人沮丧的一本书。因为它採用完全避免它们的方式来解决问题。虽然它充满材料与引言,皮尔、博度写的「爱的欢乐」由普隆出版。还有另外一本不同类型的著作,因为它比较不是在处理骑士之爱,而是在处理它的历史的关系。它也值得阅读。那就是班杰明、培瑞特的美好小文集。他并没有清楚地解释骑士之爱是什么,他称之为「崇高之爱的文集」。因此有一本哈查特出版的瑞尼、内利的书「爱与心的神话」。在这本书,我发现某种的崇慕女人的道德主义,以及许多的事实。最后,你们还有弗拉马瑞安出版的亨利、科斌的「创造性的想象」。可是,它探究的幅度,比我们今天感到興趣的狭窄领域还要更加深入。

I am not going to expatiate on the obvious themes of this poetry, both for
lack of time and because you will find them in the examples in which I will
show what might be called their conventional origin. On this subject all the
historians agree: courtly love was, in brief, a poetic exercise, a way of playing
with a number of conventional, idealizing themes, which couldn’t have any
real concrete equivalent. Nevertheless, these ideals, first among which is that
of the Lady, are to be found in subsequent periods, down to our own. The
influence of these ideals is a highly concrete one in the organization of contemporary
man’s sentimental attachments, and it continues its forward march.
Moreover, march is the right word because it finds its point of origin in a
certain systematic and deliberate use of the signifier as such.

我并不想要详述这种诗的明显的主题,一方面时间不足,另一方面,因为你们将会在这些例子中发现它们。在里面,我们将显示所谓的它们的传统的起源。针对这个主题,所有的历史学家都同意,总之,骑士之爱是诗意的运作,一种遊戏的方式,玩弄许多传统的理想化的主题。这些主题不可能有任何真实的具体的相等语。可是,这些理想,其中最早出现的是这位女士的理想,它们能够被找到,在随后的时期,一直到我们自己的时代。这些理想的影响是非常具体的影响,在当代人的情感的依恋的组织。它继续它的前进。而且,这种前进是正确的字词,因为它找到它的起源点,用某种系统化与刻意的使用能指本身。

A great deal of effort has been expanded to demonstrate the relationship
between this apparatus or organization of the forms of courtly love and an
intuition that is religious in origin, mystical for example, and that is supposed to be located somewhere in the center that is sought, in the Thing, which
comes to be exalted in the style of courtly love. Experience has shown that
this whole effort is condemned to failure.

许多的努力被扩展来证明这个关系,骑士之爱的形式的这个工具或组织,与起源是宗教的,譬如是神秘的直觉之间的关系。它被认为被定位在被寻求1的中心,在「物象」的中心。这个「物象」逐渐被推崇,在骑士之爱的风格。经验曾经显示,整个的努力注定是失败。

On the level of the economy of the reference of the subject to the love
object, there are certain apparent relationships between courtly love and foreign
mystical experiences, Hindu or Tibetan, for example. As everyone knows,
Denis de Rougemont made a great deal of this, and that is why I told you to
read Henry Corbin’s book. There are nevertheless serious difficulties and
even critical impossibilities involved, if only because of dates. The themes in
question among certain Moslem poets from the Iberian peninsula, for example,
appear after Guillaume de Poitier’s poetry.

在主体提到爱的客体的活动的层次,有某些显而易见的关系,在骑士之爱与外来的神秘的经验之间的关系。譬若,印度教,或西藏的神秘经验。如同众所周知,丹尼斯、德、劳吉曼非常重视这点。那就是为什么我告诉你们要阅读亨利、科斌的书。可是,会有严重的困难,甚至牵涉到严重的不可能,假如仅是因为日期。受到质疑的这些主题,譬如,在出身于艾伯林半岛某些回教诗人当中,它们出现,跟随在盖劳梅、德、博提尔的诗之后。

Of interest to us from a structural point of view is the fact that an activity
of poetic creation was able to exercise a determining influence on manners at
a time – and subsequently in its historical consequences – when the origin
and the key concepts of the whole business had been forgotten. But we can
only judge the function of this sublimated creation in features of the structure.
The object involved, the feminine object, is introduced oddly enough through
the door of privation or of inaccessibility. Whatever the social position of him
who functions in the role, the inaccessibility of the object is posited as a point
of departure. Some of those involved were, in fact, servants, sirvens, at their place
of birth; Bernard de Ventadour was, for example, the son of a servant
at Ventadour castle, who was also a troubadour.

从结构的观点,我们感到興趣的是这个事实:一个诗意创造的活动能够产生一个决定性的影响,对于某个时代的行为方式—随后在它的历史的结果。当整个事情的起源与关键观念已经被忘记。但是我们仅能够判断这个升华的创造的功用,在这个结构的特征。被牵涉的客体,女性的客体,足够奇特地被介绍,通过被剥夺或是无法靠近的门槛。无论在这个角色扮演的社会立场是什么,这个客体的不可靠近被提出,作为一个出发点。事实上,有些牵涉到的人物,在他们出生的地位是仆人。譬如,博纳、德、范塔道是范塔道城堡的仆人的儿子,他也是遊唱诗人。

It is impossible to serenade one’s Lady in her poetic role in the absence of
the given that she is surrounded and isolated by a barrier.

要跟自己的心爱女士献唱求爱诗歌,在她的诗意的角色,那是不可能的,
若非是因为这个欠缺,她被一种阻碍环绕及孤立的情境。

Furthermore, that object or Domnei, as she is called – she is also frequently
referred to with the masculine term, Mi Dom, or my Lord – this Lady is
presented with depersonalized characteristics. As a result, writers have noted
that all the poets seem to be addressing the same person.

而且,如她所被称为的那个客体Domnei—她也时常被提到,用男性的术语Mi Dom,或我的主人。这位女士被呈现,带着除掉人格化的特性。结果,作家曾经注意到,所有的诗人似乎都在针对这位相同的人演说。

The fact that on occasion her body is described as g”ra delgai e gen – that
means that plumpness was part of the sex appeal of the period, e gen signifying
graceful – should not deceive you, since she is always described in that
way. In this poetic field the feminine object is emptied of all real substance.
That is what made it easy subsequently for a metaphysical poet such as Dante,
for example, to choose a person whom we definitely know existed – namely,
little Beatrice whom he fell for when she was nine years old, and who stayed
at the center of his poetry from the Vita Nuova to The Divine Comedy – and
to make her the equivalent of philosophy or indeed, in the end, of the science
of the sacred. That also enabled him to appeal to her in terms that are all the
more sensual because the person in question is close to allegory. It is only
when the person involved is transformed into a symbolic function that one is
able to speak of her in the crudest terms.

有时,她的身体被描述作为是g”ra delgai e gen ,意思是,肥胖是当时的性的吸引魅力,e gen 意味着高雅,不应该欺骗你。因为她总是以那个方式被描述。在这个诗意的领域,女性的客体被掏空掉所有的实在界的物质。那就是为什么随后会很容易让像但丁这样的形上学诗人,选择一个人,我们明确知道存在的人,换句话说,他爱慕的这位小壁特瑞思,当她九岁时。她一直是他诗的中心,从
Vita Nuova 到神曲The Divine Comedy,让她成为是哲学的相等语,或是在最后,成为是神圣者的智慧的相等语。那也让他用更加性感的术语像她求爱,因为受到质疑的这个人迹近于是寓言。仅有当牵涉的这个人被转变成为是一个象征的功用,我们才能够用大略的术语提到她。

Here we see functioning in the pure state the authority of that place the
instinct aims for in sublimation. That is to say, that what man demands, what
he cannot help but demand, is to be deprived of something real. And one of
you, in explaining to me what I am trying to show in das Ding, referred to it
neatly as the vacuole.

在此,我们看见在升华当中,本能的目标的那个位置的权威,在纯粹的状况发挥功用。换句话说,人们所要求的东西,他情不自禁要求的东西,是要被剥夺掉某件真实的东西。你们其中一位,在跟我们解释我正在尝试显示物象的东西,他提到它,纯粹是当著罅隙。

I don’t reject the word, although its charm derives from the virtual reference
to histology. Something of that order is, in effect, involved, if we indulge
in that most risque of reveries associated with contemporary speculation that
speaks of communication in connection with transmission inside organic
structures – transmission that functions pseudopodically. Of course, there is
no communication as such. But if in a monocellular organism such communication
were organized schematically around the vacuole, and concerned the
function of the vacuole as such, we could, in fact, have a schematic form of
what concerns us in the representation.

我并不排斥这个字词,虽然它的吸引力是从虚拟地提到历史学的获得。事实上,那个秩序的某件东西被牵涉到,假如我们耽溺于那跟当代的推想的幻想的性的淫乱,关于有机体的结构内部传递的讯息,一时过度滋长发挥的传递。当然,并没有像这样的沟通传递。但是假如在一个单一细胞的有机体,这样的沟通的基模的组织,环绕这个罅隙,并且跟这个罅隙的本身的功用相关。事实上,在符号再现,我们能够拥有一个跟我们息息相关的基模的形式。

Where, in effect, is the vacuole created for us? It is at the center of the
sigmfiers – insofar as that final demand to be deprived of something real is
essentially linked to the primary symbolization which is wholly contained in
the signification of the gift of love.

事实上,我们被给予创造的这个罅隙在哪里?就在能指的中心。因为那个最后的要求被剥夺掉某件实在的东西,基本上跟最初的符号象征息息相关。这个最初的符号象征完全被包括在爱的礼物的意义里。

In this connection I was struck by the fact that, in the terminology of
courtly love, the word domnei is used. The corresponding verb is domnoyer,
which means something like “to caress,” “to play around.” Domnei, in spite
of the fact that its first syllable in French is an echo of the word “don,” gift,
is, in fact, unrelated to it. It is related instead to the Domna, the Lady, or in
other words, to her who on occasion dominates.

关于这点,我对这个事实感到印象深刻。在骑士之爱的术语,domnei 这个字词被使用。对应的这个动词是domnoyer,那意味着某件像是「爱抚」「玩弄」。尽管这个事实,Domnei,在它的法文的第一个音节,是礼物”don,”的迴响。事实上,那跟它并没有关系。代替的,它是跟这个女士Domna有关系,或者换句话说,跟有时支配的她有关系。

That has its amusing side. And one should perhaps explore historically the
quantity of metaphors that exist around the term “dormer,” to give, in courtly
love. Can “donner” be situated in the relationship between the partners as
something that is predominantly on one side or the other? It has perhaps no
other cause than the semantic confusion produced in connection with the
term domnei and the use of the word domnoyer.

那有它的有趣的一面。我们或许从历史探索隐喻的数量,环绕在骑士之爱,「给予”dormer,」这个术语存在的隐喻。”donner”能够被定位在这个关系吗?处于伴侣作为某件在某边,或另外一边佔优势的东西之间的关系?它或许并没有其他原因,除了就是语意的混淆被产生,关于domnei 的这个术语,与 domnoyer这个字词的使用。

The poetry of courtly love, in effect, tends to locate in the place of the
Thing certain discontents of the culture. And it does so at a time when the
historical circumstances bear witness to a disparity between the especially
harsh conditions of reality and certain fundamental demands. By means of a
form of sublimation specific to art, poetic creation consists in positing an
object I can only describe as terrifying, an inhuman partner.

骑士之爱的诗倾向于在这个「物象」的位置找到文化的某些不满。它表现在历史的情境见证到一个差异,处于现实的特别严苛的情况,于某些基本的要求之间。凭借艺术特有的升华的形式,诗的创造在于提出一种客体,我仅能够描述,作为是令人恐惧,一种非人性的伴侣。

The Lady is never characterized for any of her real, concrete virtues, for
her wisdom, her prudence, or even her competence. If she is described as
wise, it is not because she embodies an immaterial wisdom or because she
represents its functions more than she exercises them. On the contrary, she
is as arbitrary as possible in the tests she imposes on her servant.

这位女士被表现的特性,从来就不是因为她的任何真实,具体的品德,因为她的智慧,她的谨慎,或甚至她的能幹。即使它被描述为智慧,那并不是因为她具体表现一个抽象的智慧,或是因为她代表它的功用,超过于她运用它们。相反地,她尽可能地随性而为,在她赋加给她的仆人的考验。

The Lady is basically what was later to be called, with a childish echo of the original ideology, “cruel as the tigers of Ircania.” But you will not find
the extreme arbitrariness of the attitude expressed any better than among the
authors of the period themselves, Chrltien de Troyes, for example.

这位女士基本上是后来所被称为的「像艾槛尼亚的老虎那么残酷」,带着原初的意识形态的幼稚迴响。但是你们将会发现这个极端的态度的随意性被表达,在那个时期的作者本身最为淋漓尽致,譬如,奇瑞丁、德、特洛伊。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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