Ethic 179

Ethic 179
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XIV
第14章

Love of one’s neighbor
邻居之爱

A SPECIAL GOD
特别的上帝

FOOL AND KNAVE
傻瓜与恶棍

THE TRUTH ABOUT TRUTH
关于真理的真理

WHY JOUISSANCE IS EVIL1
为什么欢爽是邪恶

SAINT MARTIN
圣马丁

KANTI A N TALES
康德的故事

You know that last time I picked up my discussion with you by connecting
it to my lecture to the Catholics.

你们知道,上次我从事跟你们的讨论,凭借将它联接的我对基督教的演说。

Don’t imagine that that was an easy way out. I didn’t merely serve up again
what I had to say in Brussels; I didn’t tell them half of what I told you.

请不要想象那是容易的解决方式。我并不仅仅再次提供我在布鲁塞尔所必需说的。我告诉他们的,还不及我告诉你们的一半多。

What I laid out last time concerning the death of God the Father will lead
us to another question today, one that will show you Freud situating himself
directly at the center of our true experience. For he doesn’t attempt to evade
the issue by making generalizations about the religious function in man. He
is concerned with the way in which it manifests itself to us, that is to say, in
the commandment which is expressed in our civilization in the form of the
love of one’s neighbor.

上次我舖陈的东西,关于上帝这位父亲之死,将会引导我们到另外一个问题。这个问题将会跟你们显示弗洛依的定位他自己直接处于我们的真实的经验的核心。因为他并没有企图要逃避这个问题,凭借概念化人的宗教的功用。他很关心这它跟我们证明它自己的个方式。换句话说,以邻居之爱的形式,在我们的文明所被表达的十戒。

1
Freud confronts this commandment directly. And if you take the time to
read Civilization and Its Discontents, you will see that that is where he begins,
where he remains throughout, and where he ends up. He talks of nothing
but that. What he has to say on the subject should under normal circumstances
make our ears ring and set our teeth on edge. But that doesn’t happen.
It’s a funny thing, but once a text has been in print for a certain period
of time, it allows the transitory vertigo that is the vital source of its meaning
to evaporate.

弗洛依德直接面对这个十戒。假如你们花费时间阅读「文明及其不满」,你们将会看出,那是他开始的地方。他从头到尾留在那里,结束在那里。他仅就是谈论那个。对于这个议题,他必须说的内容,在正常的情况下,引起我们的耳朵的共鸣,让我们咬牙切齿。但是那并没有发生。那是一件好笑的事情,但是一旦文本被出版有一段时期,它让瞬间的晕眩能够蒸发掉,虽然那晕眩是它的意义的重要的来源。

So I will try to reanimate the meaning of Freud’s lines today. And since
that will lead me toward some pretty potent notions, all I can do is ask language,
what Freud would call logos, to lend me a measured tone.

所以,我今天将尝试重心激发弗洛依德的文里行间的意义。因为这将会引导我朝向某个美丽的潜在的观念。我所能够做的是要求语言,弗洛依德所谓的神喻logos,帮助我维持持平的语调。

God, then, is dead. Since he is dead, he always has been. I explained to
you Freud’s theory on the topic, namely, the myth expressed in Totem and
Taboo. It is precisely because God is dead, has always been dead, that it was
possible to transmit a message via all those beliefs which made him appear to
be still alive, resurrected from the emptiness left by his death in those noncontradictory gods whom Freud indicates proliferated above all in Egypt.

上帝因此是死了。因为上帝已死,他总是一直存在。我跟你们解释弗洛依德对于这个议题的理论。换句话说,在「图腾与禁忌」被表达的神话。确实因为上帝已死,他才始终存在,才可能经由那些信仰传递一个讯息。这个讯息让他显得生龙活虎,他从他的死亡所遗留的空无当中复活。弗洛依德指出,在那些并非矛盾的众神,特别是在埃及,数目繁多。

The message in question is that of a single God who is both the Lord of
the universe and the dispenser of the light that warms life and spreads the
brightness of consciousness. His attributes are those of a thought which regulates
the order of the real. It is Akhenaton’s God, the God of the secret
message that the Jewish people bears by reason of the fact that, by assassinating
Moses, it reenacted the archaic murder of the father. That, according
to Freud, is the God to whom the sentiment, of which only a few are capable,
is addressed, namely, amor intellectualis Dei.

受到质疑的这个讯息是单一上帝的讯息。上帝既是宇宙的主人,也是温暖生命与扩散意识的明亮的光的分配者。上帝的属性是规范实在界的秩序的思想的属性。那是阿肯内顿的上帝,犹太人们怀具的秘密讯息的上帝。由于这个事实:凭借暗杀摩西,它重新扮演过古时的弑父。依照弗洛依德,对于上帝表达的情感,仅有少数的人们能够拥有,换句话说,对于上帝的知性的爱。

Freud also knows that, although that love is articulated now and then in
the thought of such exceptional men as the famous polisher of lenses who
lived in Holland, it is nevertheless not of such great importance; it didn’t
prevent the construction in the same period of Versailles, a building whose
style proves that the Colossus of Daniel with the feet of clay was still standing
upright, as is still the case, although it had collapsed a hundred times.

弗洛依德也知道,虽然爱有时被表达,在特殊的人们的思想,譬如那位著名的居住在荷兰的镜片磨亮者。爱仍然没有居有如此重要的地位。它并没有阻止在梵尔赛宫的相同时期的建筑。这个建筑物的风格证明,丹尼尔的巨像,泥塑的脚依旧直立在那里,如同常有的情况,虽然它曾经崩塌上百次。

No doubt a science has been erected on the fragile belief I was discussing,
namely, the one that is expressed in the following terms, which always reappear
at the horizon of our aims: “The real is rational, the rational is real.”

无可置疑,对于我正在讨论的脆弱的信仰,曾经建立起一种智慧。换句话说,用以下的术语被表达的这个智慧。这些术语总是重新出现在我们的目标的展望领域:「实在界是理性的,理性就是实在。」

It’s a strange thing that if the science in question has made use of the belief,
it has nevertheless remained subservient, remained in the service of the colossus
I just referred to, the one that has collapsed a hundred times and is still
there. The fervent love that a solitary individual like Spinoza or Freud may
feel for the God of the message has nothing to do with the God of the believers.
Nobody doubts that, and especially the believers themselves, who, whether
Jews or Christians, have never failed to cause Spinoza trouble.
But it is odd to see that for some time now, since it became known that
God was dead, the believers involved practice ambiguity. By referring to the
dialectical God, they are seeking an alibi for the crisis of confidence in their
faith. It is a paradoxical fact, which hadn’t occurred before in history, that
the torch of Akhenaton functions nowadays as an alibi for the disciples of
Ammon.

奇怪的事情是,受到质疑的这个智慧曾经使用这个信仰,可是,它始终是顺服的,始终服务于我提到的那个巨像,曾经崩塌过上百次的巨像,它依旧在那里。这个狂热的爱,一位孤独的个人,像史宾诺莎或弗洛依德,他们可能感觉到对上帝的狂热的爱,因为这个讯息的上帝跟信仰者的上帝,根本扯不上任何关系。没有人怀疑,特别是信徒的本身,无论是犹太教或是基督教,他们始终都会引起史宾诺莎的麻烦。但是古怪的,当我们看见,现在有段时间,因为众所周知,上帝已经死了。牵涉到的信仰者实践模糊暧昧。凭借提到辩证法的上帝,他们正在寻求一种藉口,替他们的信仰的信任的危机。这是一个矛盾的事实,在历史上从未发生过,阿肯内顿的火炬今天充当一种藉口,替亚门教的门徒。

And I don’t say this to slander the historical role played by the God of the
believers, the God of the Judeo-Christian tradition. That the message of
Akhenaton’s God was preserved in the tradition of the latter made it worthwhile
for Moses the Egyptian to be confused with the Mithanite, with the
Moses whose Thing, speaking from the burning bush, affirmed himself to be
a special God – not the only God, note, but a special God, compared to whom all the others don’t count. I don’t want to emphasize more than necessary the
line I am pursuing today on this point; it’s not, strictly speaking, that it is
forbidden to honor other gods, but you musn’t do it in the presence of the
God of Israel – the distinction is no doubt important for historians.

我说这些,并不是要诋毁信徒的上帝扮演的历史的角色,犹太教与基督教传统的上帝。阿肯内顿的上帝被保留着后者的传统,让摩西,这位埃及人,跟米太拿提混淆一块,跟摩西的物象,从燃烧的树丛里言说,他肯定他自己是一位特别的神。请注意,并不是唯一的神,而是一位特别的上帝。跟这位上帝比较起来,所有其他的神变得微不足道。我并不想要并非必要地强调我今天追寻的这一行,针对这个点。严格来说,并不是因为它被禁止,为了尊崇其他的神。但是你们一定不要以色列的上帝的面前这样做—对于历史学家,这个区别是重要的。

We who are trying to articulate Freud’s thought and experience so as to
give them their due weight and importance, we will articulate it in the following
form: if this Symptom-God, this Totem-God or taboo, is worthy of our
pondering the claim to turn him into a myth, it is because he was the vehicle
of the God of truth. It is by means of the former that the truth about God
could come to light, namely, that God was really killed by men, and that
once the thing was reenacted, the primitive murder was redeemed. Truth
found its way via him who the Scriptures no doubt call the Word, but also
the Son of Man, thereby admitting the human nature of the Father.

我们正在尝试表达弗洛依德的思想与经验,为了给予它们应有的份量与重要性。我们将会用以下的形式来表达它:假如这个病症-上帝,这个图腾-上帝,或禁忌-上帝,值得我们沉思这个宣称,将他转变成为神话。那是因为他是真理的上帝的工具。凭借前者,关于上帝的真理能够启蒙智慧。换句话说,上帝确实是被人们杀死。一旦这件事情重新被扮演,原始的谋杀被救赎。真理经由上帝找到它的途径,无可置疑,圣经称上帝为道,而且是人的儿子。因此承认天父具有人性。

Freud does not overlook the No/Name-of-the-Father. On the contrary, he
speaks about it very well in Moses and Monotheism – in a contradictory way
clearly, if you fail to take Totem and Taboo for what it is, namely, a myth;
and he says that in human history the recognition of the function of the
Father is a sublimation that is essential to the opening up of a spirituality
that represents something new, a step forward in the apprehension of reality
as such.

弗洛依德并没有忽视父亲的否定或父亲之名。相反地,他清楚地谈论它,在「摩西与一神教」。显而易见是以悖论的方式。假如你不将「图腾与禁忌」就其实质来看待:换句话说,一种神话。他说,在人类的历史,对于父亲的功用的体认是一种升华。它是重要的,用来开始代表某件新的东西的精神,一个向前的步骤,在理解现实界的本身。

Freud also doesn’t overlook – far from it – the real father. It is desirable
according to Freud that in the course of the adventure of the subject, there
is, if not the Father as God, then at least the Father as good father. I will
read you some time the passage in which Freud speaks almost tenderly of the
exquisiteness of that virile identification which flows from the love for the
father and from his role in the normalization of desire. But that result only
occurs in a favorable form as long as everything is in order with the No/
Name-of-the-Father, that is to say, with the God who doesn’t exist. The
resulting situation for this good father is a remarkably difficult one; to a
certain extent he is an insecure figure.

弗洛依德也没有忽视这个真实的父亲—根本没有忽视。依照弗洛依德,这是被渴望的,在主体的冒险的过程,即使没有像上帝这样的父亲,至少会有一位好父亲。改天,我将跟你们阅读这个段落,弗洛依德几乎是温柔地谈论到精力充沛的认同的精致。它从对父亲的爱与从他对欲望的正常化流露出。但是那个结果仅会发生,以有利的形式,只要每件事情都跟父亲的否定或父亲之名井然一致。换句话说,跟并不存在的上帝井然一致。对于这个好的父亲的结果的情况,是一个非常困难的情况。到某个程度,他是一个不安全的人物。

We know this only too well in practice. And it is also articulated in the
Oedipus myth – although the latter also shows as well that it is preferable for
the subject himself to be unaware of these reasons. But he now knows them,
and the fact of knowing them is precisely that which has certain consequences
in our time.

在精神分析实践,我们对这个一清二楚。在伊狄浦斯神话,它也被表达,虽然后者也清楚地知道,最好让主体自己对于这些理由一无所知。但是他现在知道他们,知道他们这个事实,确实是在我们的时代拥有某些的结果。

These consequences are self-evident. They can be seen in common speech
and, indeed, in the speech of the analyst. If we want to complete the task we
have given ourselves this year, it is only fitting that we articulate them.

这些结果是自明的。它们在普通的谈话当中能够被看出,的确,在精神分析家的言谈当中。假如我们想要完成我们今年给予我们自己的这个工作,这仅是合适的,我们表达它们。

Let me note in passing that as the first person to demystify the function of
the Father, Freud himself couldn’t be a thoroughly good father. I don’t want
to dwell on it today; it is something we can sense through his biography,
it could be the topic of a special chapter. Suffice it to characterize him as
what he was, a bourgeois whose biographer and admirer, Jones, calls “uxorious.”
As we all know, he wasn’t a model father.

让我们顺便注意,弗洛依德作为祛除父亲的功用的神秘的第一个人,他自己不可能是一个十全十美的父亲。今天,我并不想要详述它;这是某件我们能够通过他的传记及来理解。那可能的一个特别章节的题目。让我将他表现特性作为他以前的样子,这样就够了。他是一位布尔乔亚,他的传记家与崇拜者,琼斯,称他为「宠妻大丈夫」。如众周知,他并不是模范父亲。

There, too, where he was truly the father, the father of us all, the father of
psychoanalysis, what did he do but hand it over to the women, and also
perhaps to the master-fools? As far as the women are concerned, we should
reserve judgment; they are beings who remain rich in promise, at least to the
extent that they haven’t yet lived up to them. As for the master-fools, that’s
another story altogether.

在他确实表现作为父亲的地方,作为我们大家的父亲,精神分析的父亲。他所做的就是将它递交给这些女人。或许,也递交给傻瓜主子?就那些女人而言,我们不应该保留判断。她们是始终充满承诺的人类,至少,她们还没有实践这些承诺。至于傻瓜主子,那完全是另一个故事。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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