Ethic 145

Ethic 145

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

4
Having brought out the artifices embodied in the construction of courtly love
and before proceeding to show you to what extent these artifices have proved
to be so durable, thus complicating still the relations between men and the
service of women, I would like to say one other thing. The object in front of
us, our anamorphosis, will also enable us to be precise about something that
remains a little vague in the perspective adopted, namely, the narcissistic
function.

当我已经将骑士之爱的建设具体表现的技艺显露出来,然后继续跟你们显示,这些技艺曾经证明是持久到什么程度,因此让男人与女人的服务之间的关系复杂化。我想要说另外一件事情。在我们前面的这个客体,我们的变形,也将让我们能够确定某件始终是有点模糊的东西。从被採用的透视观点,也就是说,自恋的功用。

You are aware that the mirror function, which I thought it necessary to
present as exemplary of the imaginary structure, is defined in the narcissistic
relation. And the element of idealizing exaltation that is expressly sought out
in the ideology of courtly love has certainly been demonstrated; it is fundamentally
narcissistic in character. Well now, the little image represented for
us by this anamorphosis permits me to show you which mirror function is
involved.

你们知道,这个镜子的功用。我认为这是必要的,呈现这个镜子的功用,作为是想象的结构的典范。它被定义在自恋的关系。在骑士之爱的意识形态,生动地被寻求的理想化的崇高的因素,确实曾经被证明。它在特性方面,基本上是自恋的。呵呵,这个变形替我们代表的这个小小意象,让我能够跟你们显示,怎样的镜像功用被牵涉。

It is only by chance that beyond the mirror in question the subject’s ideal
is projected. The mirror may on occasion imply the mechanisms of narcissism,
and especially the diminution of destruction or aggression that we will
encounter subsequently. But it also fulfills another role, a role as limit. It is
that which cannot be crossed. And the only organization in which it participates
is that of the inaccessibilty of the object. But it’s not the only thing to
participate in that.

仅是偶然地,主体的理想被投射超越受到质疑的镜象之外。这个镜像有时暗示自恋的这些机械结构,特别是我们随后会遭遇到的毁灭或侵凌性的维度。但是它也实现另外一个角色,作为限制的角色。那个限制是无法被跨越过的东西。它参与的唯一的组织是客体的无法接近的组织。但是它并不是唯一参与那个的东西。

There is a whole series of motifs, which constitute the presuppositions or
organic givens of courtly love. There is, for example, the fact that the object
is not simply inaccessible, but is also separated from him who longs to reach
it by all kind of evil powers, one of the names for which, in the charming
Ρrovencal language, is lauzengiers. The latter are the jealous rivals, but also
the slanderers.

有一整个系列的主题,组成骑士之爱的预先假设或是有机符号。譬如,存在着这个事实:客体不仅无法接近,它而且跟他渴望它的人分开,凭借各种的邪恶的力量。其中一个邪恶力量的名字,用法国南部方言来说,就是lauzengiers. 后者是妒忌的情敌,而且是毁谤者。

Another essential theme is that of the secret. It embodies a certain number
of misapprehensions, among which is the idea that the object is never given
except through an intermediary called the Senhal. It is something also found
in Arab poetry in connection with similar themes, where the same curious
rite always strikes commentators, since the forms are sometimes highly significant.
In particular, at a certain point in his poems, the extraordinary Guillaume
de Poitiers calls the object of his aspirations Bon vezi, which means
“Good neighbor.” As a result of which, historians have abandoned themselves
to all kinds of conjectures and have been unable to come up with anything better than the name of a Lady who, it is known, played an important role in his personal history, a forward woman apparently, whose estates were close to Guillaume’s.

另外一个重要的主题是秘密的主题。它具体表现某些的误解。其中一个误解就是这个观念: 客体从来没有被给予,除了凭借所谓的Senhal.的中介。这个东西在阿拉伯诗中也被找到,关于类似的主题。在那里,相同的耐人寻味的仪式,总是让评论者印象深刻。因为这些形式有时非常的重要。特别是,在他的诗里的某个点,这位特别的盖拉梅、德、博提尔称他的渴望的这个客体为Bon vezi 。意思是「好邻居」。由于这个的结果,历史学家曾经尽情耽溺于各种的推测,并且始终无法想出任何跟贴切的东西,除了一位女士的名字。众所周知,这位女士扮演一个重要的角色,在他的个人的历史。这显而易见是一位大胆的女人,她的房产靠近盖拉梅的房产。

What is for us much more important than the reference to the neighbor,
who is supposedly the Lady whom Guillaume de Poitiers occasionally played
naughty games with, is the relationship between the expression just referred
to and the one Freud uses in connection with the first establishment of the
Thing, with its psychological genesis, namely, the Nebenmensch. And he designated
thereby the very place that from the point of view of the development
of Christianity, was to be occupied by the apotheosis of the neighbor.

对于我们而言,比提到盖拉梅、德、博提尔偶然跟她玩恶作剧的女生的这位邻居,更重要的事情是,刚刚被提到的这个表达,与弗洛依德使用的这个表达之间的关系。弗洛依德提到这个表达,关于「物象」的首次建立,带着它的心理的创世纪,换句话说,这个Nebenmensch.。他因此指明这个位置,从基督教的发展的观点,这个位置应该由邻居的优先佔有。

In brief, I wanted to make you realize today, first, that it is an artificial and
cunning organization of the signifier that lays down at a given moment the
lines of a certain asceticism, and, second, the meaning we must attribute to
the negotiation of the detour in the psychic economy.

总之,我想要让你们今天体会到。首先,这是能指的人为而狡猾的组织,在特定的时刻安置某种禁欲主义的脉络。其次,我们必须将这个意义归属于心灵的活动的迂迴的协商。

The detour in the psyche isn’t always designed to regulate the commerce
between whatever is organized in the domain of the pleasure principle and
whatever presents itself as the structure of reality. There are also detours and
obstacles which are organized so as to make the domain of the vacuole stand
out as such. What gets to be projected as such is a certain transgression of
desire.

心灵的这个迂迴未必是被设计,为了规范快乐原则的领域被组织的东西,与任何呈现它自己作为现实的结构的东西之间的交易。也有些的迂迴与阻碍被组织,是为了让这个罅隙的领域本身突显出来。本身变的被投射到东西,是欲望的某种逾越。

And it is here that the ethical function of eroticism enters into play. Freudianism
is in brief nothing but a perpetual allusion to the fecundity of eroticism
in ethics, but it doesn’t formulate it as such. The techniques involved
in courtly love – and they are precise enough to allow us to perceive what
might on occasion become fact, what is properly speaking of the sexual order
in the inspiration of this eroticism – are techniques of holding back, of suspension,
of amor interruptus. The stages courtly love lays down previous to
what is mysteriously referred to as le don de merci, “the gift of mercy” –
although we don’t know exactly what it meant – are expressed more or less
in terms that Freud uses in his Three Essays as belonging to the sphere of
foreplay.

就是在此,性爱的伦理的功用开始运作。总之,弗洛依德学派仅是一个永远的寓言,提到伦理学的性爱的丰饒。但是它并没有阐述它的本身。在骑士之爱牵涉到的技术,它们足够确实让我们能够感受到有所成为事实的东西。适当地说,属于性的秩序的东西,在性爱的灵感。那些抑制的技术,悬置的技术,amor interruptus 的技术,分离情深的技术。骑士之爱奠定的这些阶段,在神秘地提到作为是「仁慈的礼物」之前,虽然我们并不确实知道那是什么意思。这些阶段被表达,以弗洛依德使用的这些术语,在他的「性学三论文」,作为是属于前戏的领域。

Now from the point of view of the pleasure principle, the paradox of what
might be called the effect of Vorlust, of foreplay, is precisely that it persists
in opposition to the purposes of the pleasure principle. It is only insofar as
the pleasure of desiring, or, more precisely, the pleasure of experiencing
unpleasure, is sustained that we can speak of the sexual valorization of the
preliminary stages of the act of love.

现在从快乐原则的观点,所谓的前戏的效果的矛盾,确实就是,它持续存在,跟快乐原则的目的背道而驰。仅是因为欲望的快乐,或更贴切地说,经验不快乐的快乐被维持,我们能够谈到爱的行动的初步阶段,对性的推崇。

Yet we can never tell if this act or fusion is a matter of mystical union, of
distant acknowledgment of the Other or of anything else. In many cases, it
seems that a function like that of a blessing or salutation is for the courtly
lover the supreme gift, the sign of the Other as such, and nothing more. This
phenomenon has been the object of speculation that has even gone as far as identifying this blessing with that which in the consolamentum orders the relations
between the highest ranks of initiates among the Cathars. In any case,
before reaching that point, the stages of the erotic technique are carefully
distinguished and articulated; they go from drinking, speaking, touching,
which is in part identified with what are known as services, to kissing, and
the osculum, which is the final stage before that of the union in merci.

可是,我们永远无法说,这个行动或融合是否是神秘结合的事情,是否是远距承认大他者或任何其他事情。在许多状况,似乎,像祝福或致敬的功用,对于骑士之爱的恋人,是崇高的礼物,大他者本身的象征,没有别的。这种现象曾经是推想的客体。这种推想曾经过分到将这种祝福认同于在精神洗礼consolamentum时,规范这些关系,在净化教派的入会的最高阶层之间的关系。无论如何,在到达那个点之前,性爱技巧的各种阶段小心地被区别,被表达,它们从谈话,碰触,那部分是被认同为所众所周知的服务,到接吻,与射精,那是最后的阶段,然后才是结合的阶段。

All that has come down to us in such an enigmatic form that, in order to
explain it, the attempt has been made to relate it to Hindu or even Tibetan
erotic practices, since it seems that the latter have been codified in the most
precise way and constitute a disciplined asceticism of pleasure from which a
kind of lived substance may emerge for the subject. It is only on the basis of
extrapolation that it is supposed something analogous was effectively practiced
by the troubadours. Personally, I don’t believe a word of it. Moreover,
without assuming an identity between the practices taken from different cultural
spheres, I do believe the influence of this poetry has been decisive for
us.

所有这一切以谜团的形式传递给我们。为了解释它,曾经有人企图将它跟印度或甚至西藏的性爱做法联想一块。因为似乎西藏的性爱曾经被符码化,以最精确的方式,形成一种有戒律的欢乐的禁欲主义。从那里,一直被生活过的物质可能从主体身上出现。仅是根据这种推测,它假设有某件类似的东西有效地被实践,被遊唱诗人实践。就我个人而言,我根本就不相信它。而且,假如没有假定一种认同,在从不同文化的领域获得的实践之间。我确实相信这种诗的影响对我们而言是决定性的。

Following the notable failure of the different attempts to explain in terms
of influence the emergence of this particular kind of idealizing cult of the
feminine object in our culture, I am struck most by the fact that a number of
the most ascetic and most paradoxical of the texts utilized in the discourse of
courtly love are taken over from Ovid’s Art of Love.

当我追踪不同企图的这个著名的失败,它企图用影像的术语,解释在我们的文化,对于女性客体的这个特别的理想化崇拜的出现。我对这个事实最为印象深刻:许多最禁欲,最矛盾的文本,在骑士之爱的过程被利用,都是从奥维德的「爱的艺术」改编过来。

Ovid wrote in a sparkling verse form a little treatise for libertines in which
one learns for example, in which neighborhoods of Rome one can meet the
prettiest little whores. And he develops his theme in a poem in three parts
that ends with the direct evocation of what can only be called the game of the
two-backed beast. In the midst of all that one also comes across formulas
such as Arte regendus Amor, “Love must be ruled by Art.” And then, ten
centuries later, with the help of those magic words, a group of poets starts to
introduce all that word for word into a veritable operation of artistic incantation.

奥维德以灿烂的诗体形式,替风流人物描写一篇小论文。在那里,我们学习到,譬如,在罗马的附件,我们能够会见最美丽的小雛妓。他在诗里用三个部分发展他的主题,结束时,直接召唤仅能所谓的两个背的动物的遊戏。在这一切当中,我们也偶然遇到这些公式,像是「恋爱必须由艺术统辖」。然后,一百年后,靠着这些魔术般文字的帮忙,一群诗人开始逐字地介绍所以这一切,成为艺术的召唤的可验证的运作。

One also reads Militiae species amor est, “Love is a kind of military service”
– which means for Ovid that the ladies of Rome aren’t as easy as all that.
And then in the discourse of chivalry, in a form that is nicely outlined in Don
Quixote, such terms begin to resonate so as to evoke an armed militia devoted
to the defense of women and children.

我们也阅读到「恋爱是一种军事的服役」。那意味着,对奥维德,罗马的女士们并不像所有这一切那么容易。在行侠仗义的辞说,在「唐吉诃德」被描述得淋漓尽致,这些术语开始引起共鸣,为了召唤武装的民团,专门致力于捍卫女人与小孩。

You can certainly understand the importance I attribute to such well-attested
analogies, for it is clear that in the priesthood itself, Ovid’s Ars Amandi had
not been forgotten; Chr6tien de Troyes even translated it. It is through these
kinds of revivals that one is able to understand what the function of the
signifier means. And I would like to make my boldest assertion today at this
point in affirming that courtly love was created more or less as you see the
fantasm emerge from the syringe that was evoked just now.

你们确实能够理解这个重要性,我归属于这些清楚验证的类比。因为这是显而易见地,在僧侣的自身,奥维德的性爱技艺Ars Amandi 还没有被忘记。查洛汀、德、特罗伊甚至翻译它。通过这些种类的复兴,我们能够理解能指的功用是什么。今天在这个时刻,我想要发表我最大胆的主张,肯定那个骑士之爱被创造,依照你们看见的幻想出现,从刚才被召唤的那个注入。

That doesn’t mean that something fundamental isn’t involved, however;
otherwise it would be inconceivable that Andre Breton could celebrate in this
day and age VAmour fou, “the madness of love,” as he puts it in terms dictated
by his concerns, or by his interest in the relationship to what he calls “objective
chance.” That is a strange signifying configuration, since who, a century
or so from now, on reading these things in their context, will understand that
objective chance means things that occur and are all the richer in meaning
because they take place somewhere where we are unable to perceive either
rational, or causal, or any other kind of order, that can justify their emergence
in the real?

可是,那并不意味着,某件基本的东西没有被牵涉。否则它将是无法构想的,安德鲁、布莱特在这个日子与时代,庆祝「爱的疯狂」,如同他表达它,受到他的关心所指使,或是受到他对于他所谓的「客观的机会」的关系。那是一种奇特的能指化的融合,因为,从今起一百年后,有谁在阅读他们文本的这些东西,会理解到,客观的机会意味着发生的事情,它们在意义方面更加丰富。因为它们发生在某个地方,我们无法认为是理性或有因果关系,或任何其他的秩序,能够证明它们的出现在实在界?

In other words, it is once again in the place of the Thing that Breton has
the madness of love emerge.

换句话说,再一次这个「物象」的存在,布莱特让爱的疯狂出现。

As I take leave of you today and remind you that we will meet again three
weeks from now, I would like to conclude with four lines from a poem,
which, thanks to my memory, came to mind this morning. They are from
another surrealist poet, Paul Eluard. They are in their poetic context exactly
at that frontier or limit which in my own words I am attempting to enable us
to localize and feel:

当我今天跟你们告辞,并且提醒你们,我们三个星期后,将会再见面。我想要引用一首诗的四行来做结论。今天早上,我心血来潮,想起来。它们是另外一位超现实主义的诗人,保罗、阿鲁德。它们是在它们诗的内容里,确实就是在边界或是限制。用我自己的话来说,我正在企图让我们能够找出位置,并且感觉到:

Against this dilapidated sky, these panes of fresh water,
Which face will appear and, like a sonorous shell,
Announce that the night of love has turned to day,
Open mouth joined to a mouth that is closed?2

以摇摇欲坠的天空为背景,新鲜的水的长廊,
脸孔将会出现,像一粒响亮的贝壳,
宣告爱的夜晚已经转变成为白天,
张开的嘴联上紧闭的嘴?

February 10, 1960
1960年,2月10日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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