Archive for February, 2013

Ethic 91

February 3, 2013

Ethic 91

The Ethics of Psychoanlysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII
第七章

Drives and lures
冲动与诱惑

THE PARADOX OF THE MORAL CONSCIENCE
道德良心的悖论

WORLD AND BODY
世界与宗教

LUTHER
路德

THE PROBLEM OF THE OBJECT RELATION
客体关系的问题

2
Since the problem of sublimation is situated for us in the field of the Triebe,
I would like first to look for a moment at a passage taken from the Introductory
Lectures, that is to say a work that has been translated as Introductory Lectures
on Psychoanalysis. It is on page 358, Volume XI, of the Gesammelte Werke2:

因为对于我们而言,升华的问题被定位在冲动的领域,我首先想要观看一下「从导引演讲」的这一个段落。换句话说,这个演讲曾经被翻译为「精神分析导引演讲」。在 第六册,358页。

Therefore, we have to take into consideration the fact that the drives [Triebe], the pulsating sexual excitements, are extraordinarily plastic. They may appear in each others’ places. One of them may accumulate the intensity of the others. When the satisfaction of one is denied by reality, the satisfaction of another may offer total compensation. They behave in relation to each other like a network, like communicating channels that are filled with water.

因此,我们必须考虑到这个事实:冲动,这些悸动的性的興奋,特别具有弹性。它们可能出现在互相代替的位置。其中一个可能累积其余的冲动的强度。当其中一个冲动的满足被现实否定,另外一个冲动的满足可能提供完整的补偿。它们行为的相互关系,就像一个网络,就像充满水的沟通的容器。

We can see there the metaphor that is no doubt at the origin of that surrealist
work which is called Communicating Vases.

我们在那里能够看见这个隐喻。无可置疑,这个隐喻是超现实主义的作品的起源,它被称为是「沟通的容器」。

Freud goes on, and I paraphrase, “They behave, therefore, in that way;
and this is true in spite of the fact that they may have fallen under the domination
or the supremacy of the Genitalprimat. Thus the latter must not be
thought to be so easy to gather into a single Vorstellung, representation.”
Freud warns us in this passage – and there are plenty of others – that even
when the whole Netz der Triebe has fallen beneath the Genitalprimat, it is not
so easy to conceive of the latter structurally as a unitary Vorststellung, a resolution
of contradictions.

弗洛依德继续下去,让我诠释一下,「因此,这些冲动以那种方式行为。这确实是真实的,尽管这个事实:它们可能已经受到这个性器官组织Genitalprimat 的支配或优越性。因此,后者一定不要被认为是如此容易地被聚集进入一个单纯的表象。」弗洛依德用这个段落警告我们—还有许多其他段落—即使当全部的的冲动网络已经掉落在「性器官组织」之下,我们并没有那么容易就将后者的结构构想为一致性的表象,各种矛盾的解决。

We know only too well that that in no way eliminates the communicating
or fleeting, plastic character, as Freud himself puts it, of the economy of the
Triebregungen. In short, as I have been teaching you for years, that structure
commits the human libido to the subject, commits it to slipping into the play
of words, to being subjugated by the structure of the world of signs, which
is the single universal and dominant Primat. And the sign, as Peirce put it,
is that which is in the place of something else for someone.

我们清楚地知道,那丝毫没有减少「冲动」的经济活力的沟通,瞬间,弹性的特性,如同弗洛依德所表达。总之,如同几年来一直教导你们的,那个结构将人类的力比多委托给主体,让它掉入文字的遊戏,让它受到符号世界的结构的镇压。这是普遍性与支配性的组织。而这个符号,如皮尔斯所表达,它是替某个人代替的某件其他的东西。

The articulation as such of the possibilities of Verschiebbarkeit, or the displacement
of the natural attitude, is elaborated at length and ends up in this
passage with the elucidation of the Partiallust in the genital libido itself. In
short, an approach to the problem of Sublimierung must begin with a recognition
of the plasticity of the instincts, even if one acknowledges subsequendy,
for reasons to be explained, that complete sublimation is not possible
for the individual. With the individual – and as long as it is a question of the
individual with all that that implies concerning internal dispositions and external
actions – we find ourselves faced with limits. There is something that cannot
be sublimated; libidinal demand exists, the demand for a certain dose, of a
certain level of direct satisfaction, without which harm results, serious disturbances
occur.

自然的态度的替代的各种可能性的本身的表达,详细地被建构,在这个段落,结果就是阐述在性器官的力比多本身的「部分欲望」。总之,探讨「升华」的这个问题,必须先开始体认这些本能的弹性。即使为了解释理由,我们随后承认,对于个人,完整的升华是不可能的。就个人而言,只要这是个人跟其所有的暗示的问题,关于内在的性情与外在的行动。我们发现我们自己面对各种限制。有某件东西无法被升华,力比多的要求存在着,某些份量的要求,某种层次的直接的满足的要求。假如没有这些,伤害随之产生,严重的扰乱会发生。

But our point of departure is the relationship of the libido to that Netz, that Fliissigkeit, that Versckiebbarkeit of the signs as such. It is to this in any case that we are always brought back whenever we read Freud with an attentive eye.

但是我们的出发点是力比多跟那个冲动网络的关系,那个符号本身的那种滑动。无论如何,我们总是被带回到这个网络,每当我们用专注的眼光阅读弗洛依德。

Let me posit another essential point of articulation, necessary if we are to
move forward once more.

让我提出表达的另外一个基本要点。这是需要的,假如我们想要再次向前进展。

It is obvious that the libido, with its paradoxical, archaic, so-called pregenital
characteristics, with its eternal polymorphism, with its world of images
that are linked to the different sets of drives associated with the different
stages from the oral to the anal and the genital – all of which no doubt constitutes
the originality of Freud’s contribution – that whole microcosm has
absolutely nothing to do with the macrocosm; only in fantasy does it engender
world. That’s Freud’s doctrine, contrary to the direction in which one of
his disciples, namely Jung, wanted to take it – this schism within Freud’s
entourage occurring around 1910.

显而易见,这个力比多,具有它的矛盾的过时的所谓前性器官的特性,具有它的永恒的多样形态,具有它的意象的世界。这些意象,跟从口腔到肛门与性器官的不同阶段联想一块的冲动的不同集合息息相关。无可置疑地,所有这些阶段组成弗洛依德的贡献的原创性。整个的微小宇宙跟这个巨大宇宙,绝对没有丝毫关系。仅有在幻想当中,它才产生世界。那就是弗洛依德的信条,跟他的一位名叫荣格的门徒,想要採取的方向相反。在大约1910年左右,在弗洛依德的追随者当中发生这个分裂。

This is important particularly at a moment when it is obvious that, even if
one once located them there, there is no point now in seeking the phallus or
the anal ring in the starry sky; they have been definitely expelled. For a long
time even in scientific thinking, men seemed to inhabit cosmological projections.
For a long time a world soul existed, and thought could comfort itself
with the idea that there was a deep connection between our images and the
world that surrounds us. This is a point whose importance does not seem to
have been noticed, namely, that the Freuthan project has caused the whole
world to reenter us, has definitely put it back in its place, that is to say, in
our body, and nowhere else. Let me remind you in this connection to what
extent, in the period which immethately preceded the liberation of modern
man, both scientific and theological thought were preoccupied by something
that Freud did not hesitate to mention and to call by its name, but about
which we never speak anymore, namely, the figure who was for a long time
known as the prince of this world, Diabolus himself. The symbolic here is
united with the diabolic, with all those forms that theological preaching has
so powerfully articulated.

这是重要的,特别是在这个时刻,当显而易见,即使我们有一度在那里找到它们的位置,现在这是没有意义的,在星光灿烂的天空寻找阳具或肛门环圈。它们确实已经被驱赶出去。长久以来,甚至在科学的思想,人类似乎驻居在宇宙的投射里,带着这个观念:在我们的意象与围绕我们的世界之间,有密切的关联。这个观点的重要性,似乎曾经没有受到我们的注意。换句话说,弗洛依德的投射曾经引起整个的世界重新以我们为中心,已经很明确地将它放回它的位置。换句话说,就放在我们的身体,而不是别的地方。关于这点,让我提醒你们,到什么程度,就在现代人的解放之前的这个时期,科学与神学的思想都专注于弗洛依德毫不犹豫就直呼其名的东西,但是关于这件东西,我们永远不再谈论了。换句话说,长久以来,众所周知是世界的王子的这个人物,戴奥博拉斯Diabolus 本人。在此的象征跟「凶恶」diabolic 这个字词互相一致。具有所有的形式,神学的教导曾经如此强烈地表达的形式。

Read a little Luther; not just the Table Talk, but the Sermons as well, if
you want to see to what extent the power of images may be affirmed, images
that are very familiar to us because they have been invested with the quality
of scientific authentication on a daily basis through our psychoanalytic experience.
It is to those images that the thought of a prophet refers whose influence
was such a powerful one, and who renewed the very basis of Christian
teaching when he sought to express our dereliction, our fall in a world where
we let ourselves go. His choice of words is in the end far more analytic than
all that modern phenomenology has been able to articulate in the relatively
gentle terms of the abandonment of the mother’s breast; what kind of negligence
is that which causes her milk to dry up? Luther says literally, “You are
that waste matter which falls into the world from the devil’s anus.”

请稍微阅读一下路德;不仅阅读「桌边谈话」,而且「传道书」。假如你想要看见,意象的力量被肯定到什么程度,我们耳熟能详的意象,因为它们曾经被投注日常基础的科学的真诚的品质,凭据我们精神分析的经验。有一位预言家的思想提到那些意象。这位预言家的影响是如此的强烈,他更新基督教的教导的这个基础。当他尝试表的我们的被遗弃,我们的沦落于世界。我们让自己前去那里。他对字词的选择最后比所有的现代现象学曾经能够表达,还更具有分析性,以比较温和的术语,被母亲的乳房遗弃。引起母亲的乳水乾涸的是怎样的疏忽,「你们是那个废弃的物质,从恶魔的肛门掉落到这个世界。」

That is the essentially digestive and excremental schema forged by a though!
that draws the ultimate consequences from the form of exile in which man
finds himself relative to any good in the world whatsoever.

那基本上是消化与排粪的基模,由一种从放逐的形式获得最终重要性的思想所铸造。在这种放逐的形式里,人发现他自己跟世界上任何的善相对立。

That’s where Luther leads us. Don’t imagine that these things didn’t have
an effect on the thought and the way of life of people of the time. One finds
articulated here precisely the essential turning point of a crisis from which
emerged our whole modem immersion in the world. It is to this that Freud
came to give his approval, his official stamp, when he made that image of the
world, those fallacious archetypes, return once and for all there where they
belong, that is in our body.

那是路德引导我们去的地方。请你们不要想象,这些东西并没有影响到当时的人们的思想与生活方式。我们发现危机的重要的转捩点,在不确实地被表达。我们整个现代的融入这个世界,就是从那个危机出现。对于这个,弗洛依德前来给予他的认同,他的官方的印戳。当他让世界的那个意象,那些错误的原型,一劳永逸地回到它们属于的地方。那就是在我们的身体里。

Henceforth we are to deal with the world where it is. Do these erogenous
zones, these fundamental points of fixation, open onto rosy possibilities and
pastoral optimism? Does one find here a path that leads to freedom? Or to
the strictest servitude? These erogenous zones that, until one has achieved a
fuller elucidation of Freud’s thought, one can consider to be generic, and
that are limited to a number of special points, to points that are openings, to
a limited number of mouths at the body’s surface, are the points where Eros
will have to find his source.

因此,我们应该处理这个世界,就在它的所在。这些性爱地带,这些基本的固著点,会展开成为灿烂的可能性与田园诗的乐观主义吗?我们在此发现一条通往自己的途径吗?或是通往最严格的奴役之路?这些性爱地带,直到我们已经获得充分的阐释弗洛依德的思想,我们能够认为它们是普遍性的。它们被限制于许多的特别的点,这些点是展开的地方,它们被限制于身体表面的许多的嘴巴,它们是性爱必须找到他的来源的点。

In order to realize what is essential and original in Freud’s thought here,
it is sufficient to refer to those openings that the exercise of poetic lyricism
gives. According to a given poet, to Walt Whitman for example, imagine
what as a man one might desire of one’s own body. One might dream of a
total, complete, epidermic contact between one’s body and a world that was
itself open and quivering; dream of a contact and, in the distance, of a way
of life that the poet points out to us; hope for a revelation of harmony following
the disappearance of the perpetual, insinuating presence of the oppressive
feeling of some original curse.

为了体会在弗洛依德在此的思想重要及原创的地方,我们只要提及那些展开,诗意的抒情文的运用给予的展开。依照一位特定的诗人,譬如,惠特曼。他想象作人,我们对自己的什体欲望什么。我们可能梦想我们的身体与开放与颤栗的世界之间,会有全部,完整,遍及各处的接触。我们可能梦想一个接触,在远处,会有诗人跟我们指出的某种的生活方式,我们可能希望会有和谐的启示,当某种原初的诅咒的压迫感觉的永久而嘲讽的存在消失之后。

Well now, Freud, on the contrary, emphasizes a point of insertion, a limit
point, an irreducible point, at the level of what we might call the source of
the Triebe. And it is precisely that that our experience then encounters in the
irreducible character – once again the ambiguity is clear – of these residues
of archaic forms of the libido.

呵呵,恰恰相反地,弗洛依德强调一个插入点,一个限制点,一个无法还原的点,在我们所谓的冲动的来源的层次。确实就是,我们精神分析经验在这个无法还原的特性遭遇的东西–这个模糊暧昧再次澄清—力比多的过时的形式的这些残渣。

These forms, we are told on the one hand, are not susceptible to Befriedigung.
The most archaic aspirations of the child are both a point of departure
and a nucleus that is never completely resolved under some primacy of genitality
or a pure and simple Vorstellung of man in human form by androgynous
fusion, however total one may imagine it. There always remain dreams of these primary, archaic forms of the libido. That is a first point that experience
insists on and Freudian discourse articulates.

在一方面,我们被告诉,力比多的这些形式不会轻易受到性的满足的影响。即使是小孩的最过时的渴望都是一个出发点与核心,它们从来没有完全解决,在性器官的优先,或是纯粹而单纯的融合男性与女性的人形态的性,无论我们把它想象得多么完整。总是会剩余著对于力比多的这些原初的过时的形式的梦想。那是精神分析经验坚持与弗洛依德辞说表达的一个最初的点。

On the other hand, Freud reveals the opening, which at first sight seems
limitless, of the substitutions that may occur at the other end, at the level of
the goal.

在另一方面,弗洛依德揭露这个展开,乍然一看,这个展开似乎是无限的,可能发生在另外一端的各种替代的展开,在目标的层次。

I have avoided the word Objekt, which never fails to appear at the point of
one’s pen as soon as one begins to differentiate what is involved in sublimation.
One cannot characterize the sublimated form of the instinct without
reference to the object, whatever one does. In a minute I will read you some
passages which will show you the scope of the difficulty.

我曾经避免「客体」的这个字词,它一定会出现在我们的笔端,当我们开始区别升华所被牵涉的东西。每当我们表现本能的升华的形式的特性,我们就会提到这个客体,无论我们怎么做。等一下,我将跟你们阅读某些的段落,它们会跟你们显示困难的程度。

It is a question of the object. But what does the object mean at that level?
When Freud at the beginning of his more emphatic formulations of his doctrine
begins his first topic by articulating that which concerns sublimation,
notably in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, sublimation is characterized
by a change of objects, or in the libido, a change that doesn’t occur
through the intermediary of a return of the repressed nor symptomatically,
indirectly, but directly, in a way that satisfies directly. The sexual libido finds
satisfaction in objects; how does it distinguish them? Quite simply and massively,
and in truth not without opening a field of infinite complexity, as
objects that are socially valorized, objects of which the group approves, insofar
as they are objects of public utility. That is how the possibility of sublimation
is defined.

这是客体的问题。但是这个客体在那个层次意味着什么?当弗洛依德在他的信条的更加强调的阐释的开始,他开始他的第一个议题,凭借表达跟升华有关的东西。特别是在「性学理论的三篇论文」,升华用客体的改变,或力比多的改变来表现特征。这一种改变的发生,并没有通过受压抑的回转,也没有从病症间接地,而是直接地,用直接满足的方式。性的力比多在客体找到满足。它如何区别它们呢?仅仅而是巨大地,事实上,并非没有展开一个无限复制的领域,因为客体在社会上受到推崇,团体认同的那些客体。因为它们是公共实用的客体。那就是升华的可能性被定义的方式。

Thus we find ourselves here in a position to hold firmly in our hands the
two ends of a chain.

因此,我们发现我们自己在此处于一个立场,要将一个锁链的两端紧握在手中。

On the one hand, there is the possibility of satisfaction, even if it is substitutive,
and through the intermediary of what the text calls a Surrogate. On the other hand, it is a question of objects that are going to acquire collective social value. We find ourselves here faced with a trap into which thought, with its penchant for facility, would love to leap, merely by constructing a simple opposition and a simple reconciliation between the individual and the collectivity.

在一方面,有满足的可能性,即使它是替代性。通过文本所谓的「代理者」的中介。在另一方面,这是客体的问题,它们将会获得集体的社会的价值。我们发现我们自己在此面临着一种陷阱,思想想要跳入的陷阱,由于它强烈喜欢实用性。仅仅凭借建构一个简单的对立与一个简单的和谐,在个人与集体之间。

It doesn’t seem to be a problem that the collectivity might find satisfaction
there where the individual happens to need to change his batteries or his rifle
from one shoulder to the other; where, moreover, it would be a matter of an
individual satisfaction that is taken for granted, all by itself. Yet we were told
at the beginning how problematic the satisfaction of the libido is. Everything
that has to do with the Triebe raises the question of plasticity and of limits.
Thus the formulation suggested above is far from being one that Freud could
adhere to.

这似乎并不是个问题,集体可能找到满足,在那里,个人恰巧有需要改变它的电池或他的来福枪,从一个肩膀转换到另一个肩膀。而且,个人满足的问题,本身被视为理所当然。可是,我们在开头就被告诉,力比多的满足是多么的问题重重。每件跟冲动有关的东西,都提出弹性与限制的问题。因此,以上被建议的这个阐释,根本就不是弗洛依德能够坚持的问题。

Far from adhering to it, he establishes a relation in the Three Essays between
sublimation in its most obvious social effects and what he calls Reaktionsbildung.
That means that right away, at a moment when things cannot yet be articulated powerfully, for want of that component of his topic he will produce
later, he introduces the notion of reaction formation. In other words,
he illustrates a given character trait, a trait acquired through social regulation,
as something which, far from occurring as a direct consequence or as in
line with a specific instinctual satisfaction, necessitates the construction of a
system of defenses that is, for example, antagonistic to the anal drive. He,
therefore, introduces the idea of an opposition, an antinomy, as fundamental
in the construction of the sublimation of an instinct. He thus introduces the
problem of a contradiction in his own formulation.

弗洛依德根本没有坚持它,他在「性学理论三篇论文」建立一种关系,处于最显见得社会影响的升华,与他所谓的「反应的形成」之间。那意味着,马上,在事情还没有被强烈地表达的时刻,因为欠缺他的议题的那个成分,他以后将会产生的,他介绍反应的形成的观念。换句话说,他举例说明一个特定的特征,这一个特征被获得,通过社会的规范。作为某件东西,它没有发生在直接的结果,或是跟明确的本能的满足相一致,它有必要建立一个防卫的系统。譬如,对于肛门冲动的敌意。他因此介绍对立的观念,镝的观念,作为是建设本能的升华的基本。他因此介绍在他自己的阐释的矛盾的问题。

Thus, that which is presented as a construction in opposition to an instinctual
tendency can in no way be reduced to a direct satisfaction in which the drive itself would be saturated in a way that would have no other characteristic than that it succeeds in receiving the seal of collective approval.

因此,被呈现作为是建设的东西,跟本能的倾向对立。它根本无法被还原成为直接的满足。在那里,冲动本身将会被满足,这种方式没有别的特性,除了就是它成功于接收集体认同的封印。

In truth, the problem Freud raises relative to sublimation only comes fully
to light at the time of his second topic. We will have to approach that from
Zur Einfuhrung des Narzissmus (“On Narcissism: An Introduction”), a work
that is not only the introduction to narcissism, but also the introduction to
the second topic.

事实上,弗洛依德提出的问题,相对应升华,仅是完全启明,在他的第二次的议题的时刻。我们将必须探讨那个问题,从「论自恋:作为导引」,这本著作不但是自恋的导引,而且是第二个议题的导引。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 87

February 3, 2013

Ethic 87

The Ethics of Psychoanlysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII
第七章

Drives and lures
冲动与诱惑

THE DOMAIN OF THE PASTORAL
田园诗的领域

THE PARADOX OF THE MORAL CONSCIENCE
道德良心的悖论

WORLD AND BODY
世界与宗教

LUTHER
路德

THE PROBLEM OF THE OBJECT RELATION
客体关系的问题

During the retreat of the vacation, I felt the need to make a little excursion
into a certain domain within the treasure house of English and French literature.
“Quaerens,” not “quem devorem,” but rather “quod doceam vobis” –
seeking what to teach you and how, on the subject that we are navigating
towards under the title of the ethics of psychoanalysis. You can certainly
sense that it must be leading us toward a problematic point, not only of
Freud’s doctrine, but also of what one might call our responsibility as analysts.

在假期的休息期间,我感觉有需要稍微涉猎到某个领域,在英国与法国文学的财宝屋内。”Quaerens,” 而不是 “quem devorem,” 而是”quod doceam vobis” –寻求要教导你们什么,以及如何教导,针对我们正在航行朝向的这个主题,在精神分析伦理学的标题之下。你们能够确实感觉到,它一定会引导我们朝向一个棘手的问题,不但是弗洛依德的信条,而且是我们所谓的作为精神分析家的责任。

It is a point that you haven’t yet seen rise up on the horizon. And, my
goodness, there is no reason why you should, since up till now this year I
have avoided using the term. It is something that is so problematic for the
theorists of analysis, as you will see from the testimony of the quotations I
will cite; yet it is so essential. It is what Freud called Sublimierung, sublimation.

你们还没有看见这个问题出现在地平线。感谢上天,你们并没任何理由应该看见。因为直到今天的这个时候,我总是避免使用这个术语。对于精神分析的理论家,这是一个非常棘手的问题。如同你们将会看出,从我将会引述的引言的证词。可是,它是如此的重要。这就是弗洛依德所谓的「升华」。

1
Sublimation is, in effect, the other side of the research that Freud pioneered
into the roots of ethical feeling, insofar as it imposes itself in the form of
prohibitions, of the moral conscience. It is the side that is referred to in the
world in a manner that is so improper and so comical to a sensitive ear – I
mean in the world outside the field of psychoanalysis – as the philosophy of
values.

实际上,升华是弗洛依德开先锋的这个研究的另一面,进入伦理感觉的根源。因为它赋加它本身,用禁止的形式,用道德良心的形式。在世界上,这一面被提到,用如此不适当的方式,敏感的耳朵听起来很滑稽的方式。我是指精神分析的领域之外的世界,作为是价值的哲学。

We who find ourselves, along with Freud, in a position to give a radically
new critique of the sources and the incidence of ethical thought, are we in
the same fortunate situation concerning its positive side, that of moral and
spiritual elevation, that of the scale of values? The problem seems much more
uncertain and more delicate there, but one cannot for all that say we may
neglect it for the sake of the more immediate concerns of straightforward
therapeutic action.

我们发现我们自己跟随弗洛依德,处于一个立场,要给予一个新的批判,对于伦理思想的来源与意外事件。关于它的积极的一面,道德与精神的提升的那一面,价值的规模的那一面,我们处于相同的幸运的情境吗?这个问题似乎更加地不确定,更加地微妙。但是尽管这样,我们无法说我们曾经忽视它,为了坦率地治疗的行动的这个更加是迫切关注。

In Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Freud uses two correlative terms
concerning the effects of the individual libidinal adventure: Fixierarbeit is the
fixation that is for us the register of explanation of that which is, in fact,
inexplicable, and Haftbarkeit, which is perhaps best translated by “perseverance”
but has a curious resonance in German, since it means also “responsibility,”
“commitment.” And that is what is involved here; it concerns our collective history as analysts.

在「性学理论三论文」,弗洛依德使用两个相对的术语,关于个人的力比多的冒险的影响。Fixierarbeit 是这个固著,对于我们而言,它是解释的铭记,事实上,是无法解释的解释。而Haftbarkeit, 或许最好翻译成为「坚持」,但是在德文,它具有一种耐人寻味的迴响。因为它也意味着「责任」,「奉献」。那就是在此被牵涉的东西。它关系到我们的集体的历史,作为精神分析家。

We are caught up in an adventure that has taken a certain direction, a
certain contingency, certain stages. Freud didn’t finish at a stroke the trail
he blazed for us. And it may be that, on account of Freud’s detours, we are
attached to a certain moment in the development of his thought, without
fully realizing its contingent character, like that of every effect of our human
history.

我们被卡陷于一个冒险当中。这个冒险朝向某个方向,某个偶然性,某些的阶段。弗洛依德并没有一气呵成他为我们照亮的途径。可能是因为弗洛依德的迂迴,我们跟他的思想的发展的某些时刻息息相关,而没有充分地体会到它的偶然的特性。就像我们人类历史的每个影响的偶然的特性。

In accordance with a method you are familiar with – for if it isn’t mine, it
is at least known to me – let us try to take a few steps backwards, two, for
example, before taking three steps forward. That way we may hope to gain
one.

为了跟你们耳熟能详的方法一致—虽然那并不是我的方法,至少是我所知道的方法—让我们尝试望后倒退几步,譬如两步,我们才向前走三步。以那种方式,我们可能希望获得进展一步。

A step backward then: let us remember that psychoanalysis might seem at
first to be of an ethical order. It might seem to be the search for a natural
ethics – and, my goodness, a certain siren song might well promote a misunderstanding of that kind. And indeed, through a whole side of its action
and its doctrine, psychoanalysis effectively presents itself as such, as tending
to simplify some difficulty that is external in origin, that is of the order of a
misrecognition or indeed of a misunderstanding, as tending to restore a normative
balance with the world – something that the maturation of the instincts
would naturally lead to. One sometimes sees such a gospel preached in the
form of the genital relation that I have more than once referred to here with
a great deal of reservation and even with a pronounced skepticism.

那么就往后一步:让我们记住,精神分析起初似乎是属于伦理学的秩序。它似乎是寻求自然的伦理学—感谢上天,某种的警笛很有理由提升那一种误解。的确,凭借它的行动与它的信条的这一整面,精神分析有效地呈现它自己的本身,作为是倾向于简化某种在起源是外在的困难,也就是属于误认的秩序,或确实是误解的秩序,作为倾向于恢复跟世界正常化的平衡。各种本能的成熟自然会导致的某件东西。我们有时看见这样一种福音被宣导,採用性器官关系的形式,我曾经不仅一次在此提到,带有许多的保留,甚至带着宣称的怀疑主义。

A great many things immediately present themselves in opposition. It is in
any case in just such a simple way that analysis leads us in the direction of
what, for reasons that I do not believe are merely picturesque, one might call
the domain of the pastoral.

许多的事情立即呈现它们自己作为对立。无论如何,以这样一种简单的方式,精神分析引导我们朝着这个方向。因为我并不相信仅是风光旖旎,我们所谓的田园诗的领域。

The domain of the pastoral is never absent from civilization; it never fails
to offer itself as a solution to the latter’s discontents. If I use that name, it is
because over the centuries that is how it has happened to present itself openly.
Nowadays, it is often masked; it appears for example in the more severe and
more pedantic form of the infallibility of proletarian consciousness – something
that has preoccupied us for so long, although in recent years it has
receded a little. It appears also in the form of the somewhat mythical notion
I referred to just now concerning the hopes, however vague, that were raised by the Freudian revolution. But it’s the same old idea of the pastoral. And, as you will see, it concerns a very serious debate.

田园诗的领域在文明从不缺席。它一定会提供它自己,作为是对文明不满的解决。假如我使用那个名字,那是因为过去几世纪来,那是它曾经发生,为了公开地呈现它自己。今天,它经常被掩盖,譬如,它以更加严厉而更加狭隘的方式,对于普罗阶级的意识到无可谬误的形式。这个东西佔据我们的意识如此之久。虽然在最近几年,它稍微衰微。它也出现,用相当神秘的观念,我刚才提到,关于这些希望,无论是多么的模糊,这些希望被弗洛依德的革命所提出。但是这是田园诗的相同的老观念。如同你们将会看出,它关系到一场严肃的辩论。

Perhaps we need to rediscover it, to rediscover its meaning. There is perhaps
a good reason why we should reexamine the archaic form of the pastoral,
reexamine a certain return to nature or the hope invested in a nature that you
shouldn’t imagine our ancestors thought of in simpler terms than we do. We
will see whether the inventions that the ingenium of our ancestors attempted
in this direction teach us something that needs to be elucidated for us, too.

或许,我们需要重新发现它,重新发现它的意义。或许有很充分的理由,我们应该重新检视田园诗的过时形式,重新检视某种回归自然,或是投注于自然的希望,你们不应该想像我们的祖先思维的方式比我们单纯。我们将会看出,我们祖先的这个ingenium企图朝这个方向的发明,是否教导我们某件东西。我们也需要这个东西被解说。

Obviously, as soon as one takes a look at Freud’s thought as a whole, one
sees immediately that there is something that from the beginning resists being
absorbed into this domain. And it is that through which I began to attack the
problem of the ethics of psychoanalysis with you this year. Freud allows us,
in effect, to measure the paradoxical character or practical aporia of something
that is not at all of the order of difficulties that an improved nature or
a natural amelioration can present. It is rather something that introduces
itself immediately as possessed of a very special quality of malice, of bad
influence – that is the meaning of the French word mérchant. Freud isolates it
increasingly in the course of his work up to Civilization and Its Discontents,
where he gives it its fullest articulation, or in his studies of mechanisms such
as the phenomenon of melancholia.

显而易见,当我们观看一下弗洛依德作为整体的思想,我们立即看出,从一开始,有某件东西就抗拒被吸收到这个领域。凭借这个,我今年开始跟你们探讨精神分析伦理学的问题。事实上,弗洛依德让我们能够衡量某件东西的这个矛盾的特性或实用的谜团aporia。这个东西根本就不是属于改进的自然,或是自然的改善的困难的秩序。相反地,那是某件东西立即介绍它自己作为拥有恶意的特性,或坏影响的特性。那就是法文字词mérchant.(商人)的意义。弗洛依德逐渐将它孤立出来,在他研究的过程,一直到「文明及其不满」。在书里,他给予它最充分的表达,或是在他研究心理结构,譬如,忧郁症的现象。

What is this paradox? It is that the moral conscience, as he says, shows
itself to be the more demanding the more refined it becomes, crueller and
crueller even as we offend it less and less, more and more fastidious as we
force it, by abstaining from acts, to go and seek us out at the most intimate
levels of our impulses or desires. In short, the insatiable character of this
moral conscience, its paradoxical cruelty, transforms it within the individual
into a parasite that is fed by the satisfactions accorded it. Ethics punishes the
individual relatively much less for his faults than for his misfortunes.

这个悖论是什么呢?正如他所说,道德良心显示它自己,它越是变成精致,它越是要求严格,甚至随着我们越来越是不去冒犯它,它越是越来越残酷。它变得越来越挑剔,随着我们凭借节制非礼勿行地强迫它来揭发我们,在我们最私己的冲动或欲望的层次。总之,这个道德良心无法让人满足的特性,它的矛盾的残酷,在个人里面,将它转变成为一种寄生物。这种寄生物要靠著给予它满足来餵饱。伦理学惩罚个人相对地,不是因为他的错误,而是因为他的不幸。

This is the paradox of the moral conscience in what I hesitate to call its
spontaneous form. Rather than speak of the investigation of the moral conscience
functioning in a natural state – we would never find our way through
that – let us choose the other dimension covered by the meaning of the term
“natural”; and let’s call it the critique, by means of psychoanalysis, of wild,
uncultivated ethics, such as we find it functioning all alone, especially in
those whom we deal with as we explore the level of affect or pathos, and of
pathology.

这就是道德良心的悖论,在我优豫称之为它的自动自发的形式。我们并没有谈论到道德良心的调查,充当处于自然的状态。经由那个,我们将永远没有发现我们的途径。让我们选择另外一个维度,受到「自然」的这个术语的意义涵盖的维度,并且让我们称它为批判,凭借精神分析,凭借荒野的,没有经过教化的伦理学,譬如,我们发现它独自发挥功能,特别是在我们处理的那些人们,当我们探索情感或悲悯的层次,与病理学的层次。

It is here that analysis sheds some light, and it does so, in the end, on that
which in the depths of man might be called self-hate. It is something that is
suggested by the classical comedy whose title is He Who Punishes Himself.’
It is a little comedy which belongs to the New Comedy taken over from
Greece by Latin literature. I don’t especially recommend that you read it, for
after that fine title you would only be disappointed by the text. You would
only find, like everything else, a concrete satire of character traits, precise
notations of forms of the ridiculous. But don’t forget that the function of
comedy is only apparently without profundity. Through the very fact of the
play of the signifier, through the simple force of signifying articulation, we
find ourselves going beyond something that is simply depiction or contingent
description, to the revelation of what lies below. Comedy makes us rediscover
what Freud showed was present in the practice of nonsense.

就在这里,精神分析有所启明。最后,它确实启明,在人的内心深处,所谓的自我厌恨。这是古典喜剧建议的某件东西,它的标题是「惩罚他自己的人」。这是一个属于新喜剧的小喜剧,从希腊的拉丁文学改编过来。我并没有特别推荐,你们应该阅读它,因为尽管标题美好,你们对于文本仅会失望。你们仅会发现,就像每样其他东西,具有性格特征的一种嘲讽剧,荒谬剧的形式的明确注释。但是不要忘记,喜剧的那个功用仅是显见地没有深度感。凭借能指的遊戏的这个事实,凭借能指化的表达的这个单纯度力量,我们发现我们自己,超越某件仅是描述或偶然描述的东西,作为是底下隐藏的东西的揭露。喜剧让我们重新发现弗洛依德所显示的东西,存在于无意义的实践里。

We see the depths emerge, we see something that detaches itself beyond
the exercise of the unconscious, there where Freudian research invites us to
recognize the point where the Trieb is unmasked – the Trieb and not the
Instinkt. For the Instinkt is not far from the field of das Ding in relation to
which I invite you to recenter this year the way in which the problems around
us are posed.

我们看见这些深处从现,我们看见某件东西脱离超越无意识的运作。在那里,弗洛依德的研究邀请我们来体认这个点,冲动被揭露面具的点。冲动,而不是本能。因为本能距离「物象」的领域不远,相关于这个物象,我要去你们今年重新将这个方式作为中心。以这种方式,环绕我们的问题被提出。

The Triebe were discovered and explored by Freud within an experience
founded on the confidence he had in the play of signifiers, in the play of
substitutions; the result is that we can in no way confuse the domain of the
Triebe with a reclassification of human beings’ associations with their natural
milieu, however new that reclassification may seem. The Trieb must be translated
insofar as possible with some ambiguity, and I like sometimes to say
derive in French, “drift.” It is in any case “drive” that is used in English to
translate the German word. That drift, where the whole action of the pleasure
principle is motivated, directs us toward the mythic point that has been articulated
in terms of an object relation. We have to be precise about the meaning
of this and to criticize the confusions introduced by ambiguities of signification
that are much more serious than the signifying kind.

冲动被弗洛依德发现及探索,在精神分析经验之内,以他对于能指的遊戏的信心作为基础,对于替代的遊戏的信心。结果是,我们绝对不要混淆冲动的领域,不要跟人类的自然环境的联系的重新分类混淆,无理那种重新分类是多么的新颖。冲动被翻译时,必须尽可能地模糊暧昧。我有时想要用法文说冲动,意思是「漂浮」。无论如何,在英文被使用的「冲动」,用德文的字词来翻译。那个「漂浮」,快乐原则的整体的行动被启动,引导我们朝向那个神秘的点。这个点曾经被表达,用客体关系的术语。我们必须确实,关于这个点的意义,并且批评这些混淆,由意义的模糊暧昧介绍的混淆。这些混淆比起能指化的这种混淆更加严重。

We are now getting close to the most profound things Freud had to say
about the nature of the Triebe, and especially insofar as they may give satisfaction
to the subject in more than one way, notably, in leaving open a door,
a way or a career, of sublimation. Within psychoanalytic thought, this domain
has remained until now almost undisturbed; only the boldest spirits have
dared to approach it, and even then not without expressing the dissatisfaction
or unassuaged thirst Freud’s formulations left them with. I will be referring
here to a few texts found at more than one point in his work, from the Three
Essays on the Theory of Sexuality to Moses and Monotheism, and including Five
Lectures on Psychoanalysis, the Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, and
Civilization and Its Discontents.

我们现在逐渐靠近最深处的东西,弗洛依德必须说的关于冲动的特性的深处的东西。特别是当它们可能给予主体这种满足,以不仅是一种的方式。特别是当展开升华的一道门,一种方式或生涯。在精神分析的思想之内,这个领域一直在那里,迄今都没有受到扰乱。仅有大无畏精神的人们才胆敢探索它。即使是在探索时,他们还是不无表达,弗洛依德的诠释让他们处于这种无法满足的状态,以及无法缓和的欲望。我在此将会提到一些新的文本,在他研究里,不仅有一处被发现。从「性学的理论的三篇论文」到「摩西与一神教」,还包括「精神分析的五场演讲」「精神分析的导引演讲」「文明及其不满」。

Freud invites us to reflect on sublimation or, more exactly, he proposes –
in a way that enables him to define the field – all kinds of difficulties that
merit our attention today.

弗洛依德邀请我们省思升华,或者更贴切地说,他建议,用让他能够定义这个领域的方式—他建议今天引起我们注意的各种的困难。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 284

February 2, 2013

Ethic 284
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XXI
第21章

Antigone between two deaths
安提贡尼处于两次死亡之间

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE
补充笔记

I would like now to focus on the meaning I give to such an exploration of the tragedy of Antigone.

我现在想要专注于我给予的这个意义,来探索安提贡尼的悲剧。

It may have seemed demanding to some of you. For some time now I have
used the metaphor of the rabbit and the hat in connection with a certain way of making something appear from analytical discourse that isn’t there. I might almost say that on this occasion I have put you to the test of eating raw rabbits. You can relax now. Take a lesson from the boa constrictor. Have a little nap and the whole thing will pass through. You will even notice on waking that you have digested something after all.

对于你们一些人而言,这可能似乎是要求严酷。现在有段时间,为曾经使用兔子与帽子的隐喻,关于某些的方式,让某件东西从并不在那里的精神分析的辞说出现。我几乎可能说,在这个场合,我已经让你们接受生吃兔子的考验。你们现在能够轻松。从大蟒蛇获得教训。假如你们小睡个午觉,然后全部的事情就会烟消云散。你们清醒时甚至知道,你们毕竟已经消化了某件东西。

It is on account of the procedure I have adopted – and it’s no doubt quite a demanding one obviously, quite a tough one – of requiring you to accompany me in breaking the stones along the road of the text that it will enter your body. You will see in retrospect that even if you are not aware of it, the latent, fundamental image of Antigone forms part of your morality, whether you like it or not. That’s why it is important to analyze its meaning, and it’s not the watered-down meaning in the light of which its lesson is usually transmitted.

因为我採用的程序—无可置疑地,这个程序显而易见是严酷,相当困难—它要求你们陪伴我,沿着它将进入你们身体的途中,打破那些石头。你们回顾时将会看出,即使你们并不知道它,安提贡尼这个潜在的基本的意象,形成你们道德的一部分,无论你们喜欢与否。那就是为什么这是重要的,要分析它的意义。它并不是被稀释过的意义,从这个意义的观点,它的教训通常被传递出去。

Involved here is nothing more nor less than the reinterpretation of the
Sophoclean message. You can certainly resist this resharpening of the text’s high points, but if you decide to reread Sophocles, you will perceive the distance we have traveled. Even if I am challenged on a given point – for I don’t exclude the possibility that I, too, on occasion may misinterpret something- I believe I have dissipated the all-encompassing nonsense in which Sophocles is carefully preserved by a certain tradition.

在此被牵涉的实实在在就是重新诠释索福克利斯的讯息。你们确实能够抗拒这种重新塑造文本的高潮。但是假如你们决定重新阅读索福克利斯,你们将会感觉我们曾经旅行过的差异。即使在某个观点我被挑战—因为我没有排除这个可能性: 我有时也会错误地解释事情—我相信我已经排除这种涵盖一切的胡说,在那里,索福克利斯仔细的被某个传统保留。

While I was discussing that with some of you who were countering my
views with memories they had of reading Oedipus at Colonus – memories that
were obviously influenced by the scholarly interpretation – I remembered a little footnote. There are people here who like footnotes. So I will read one that is to be found in a work that psychoanalysts ought to have read at least once, namely, Erwin Rohde’s Psyche, of which there exists an excellent French translation.

虽然我正在跟你们反驳我的观点的那些人讨论那个观点,因为他们阅读「伊狄浦斯王」,还存有的记忆。这些记忆显而易见地受到学术性的诠释—我记得有一个脚注。在此的人们喜欢那个脚注。所以我将阅读能够找到的一个脚注,精神分析家本来应该阅读那个脚注至少一次。换句话说,欧文、罗德的「心灵」。有一本很优秀的法文版。

On the whole, you will find more there, and more that is certain, concerning that which Greek civilization has handed down to us than in any work originally written in French. The most brilliant people on earth don’t have all the arrows in their quiver. As it is, we are unfortunate enough to have a romantic movement that didn’t rise much above the level of a certain idiocy, and we by no means possess all the advantages when it comes to erudition.

大体上,你们将会在那发现更多,更多确定的东西,关于希腊文明曾经传递给与我们的东西,超过法文版原初写作的任何著作。世界上即使是最杰出的人们都没有拥有所有的箭可以弹射。事实上,我们足够不幸拥有一个浪漫主义运动,它并没有提升高于某种白痴的层层。我们绝对没有拥有所有的利益,就广博的学问而言。

On page 463 of the French translation of Erwin Rohde’s book, you will
find a little footnote on Oedipus at Colonus, which I have already discussed
with you in terms that are directly related to what I am concerned with today.

在欧文、罗德的书店法文翻译的463页,你们将会找到论「伊狄浦斯王」的一个小脚注。为已经跟你们讨论过了,用今天我关心的主题直接相关的术语。

Rohde writes: “One only has to read the play with an open mind to realize
that this savage, angry, pitiless old man who calls down horrible curses on his sons” – Rohde is perfectly correct, for twenty minutes before the end of the play, Oedipus is still crushing Polynices beneath the weight of his curses – “and who as a man thirsty for revenge looks forward passionately to the misfortunes that are about to descend on his native town, has none of that profound peace of the gods, of that transfiguration associated with the penitent, which traditional exegesis is pleased to observe in him. The poet does not make a habit of disguising life’s realities, and here he shows himself to be fully aware that destitution and misfortune do not usually have the effect of transfiguring man; they depress him rather and strip him of his nobility. His Oedipus is pious. He was from the beginning in Oedipus Rex, but in his distress he turns savage.”

罗德写到:「我们仅必须做的是带着开放的心灵,为了体会到,这个野蛮,愤怒,可怜的老年,对于他的儿子们发出可怕的诅咒」。罗德非常正确,因为戏剧结束前二十分钟,伊狄浦斯仍然将波利尼西斯笼罩在他的诅咒之下。作为一位渴望报复的人,他激情地期待即将降临他的祖国城邦的那些不幸。他并没有获得众神的那种深刻的平静,那种跟悔罪者息息相关的转变。传统的圣典诠释学很乐意在他身上观察到这种转变。诗人并没有养成伪装生命的现实的这个习惯,在此他显示他自己充分地知道,丧失一切与不幸通常并没有转变一个人:它们让他相当沮丧,并且剥夺掉他的高贵尊严。他的伊狄浦斯是虔诚的。「从伊狄浦斯王」,他从一开始就是虔诚。但是在他的痛苦当中,他转变成为野蛮。」

That is the testimony of a reader who is not especially concerned with the problems of tragedy, since his work is an historical account of the different concepts that the Greeks had of the soul.

那就是一位读者的证词。这位读者并没有特别关心悲剧的这个问题,因为他的工作是用历史角度描绘希腊人对灵魂的不同的观念。

As far as we are concerned, I have tried to show you that at a time that
preceded the ethical formulations of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, Sophocles presents us with man and questions him along the paths of his solitude; he situates the hero in a sphere where death encroaches on life, in his relationship, that is, to what I have been calling the second death here. This relationship to being suspends everything that has to do with transformation, with the cycle of generation and decay or with history itself, and it places us on a level that is more extreme than any other insofar as it is directly attached to language as such.

就我们而言,我曾经尝试跟你们显示:在苏格拉底,柏拉图与亚里斯多德的伦理学的说明之前的时期,索福克利斯呈现给与我们有关人,并且询问他,沿着他的孤独的途径。他将这位英雄定位在死亡侵入生命的范围,在他的关心,换句话说,跟我在此一直称为是二次死亡的关系。这个跟生命实存的关系,悬置每样跟转变有关系的东西。用产生与腐败的循环,或用历史的本身。它将我们放置在比起其他更加极端的层次,因为它跟语言的本身直接关联。

To put it in the terms of Levi-Strauss – and I am certain that I am not mistaken in invoking him here, since I was instrumental in having had him reread Antigone and he expressed himself to me in such terms – Antigone
with relation to Creon finds herself in the place of synchrony in opposition to diachrony.

用列文、史特劳斯的术语来表达,我确定我并没有错误,在此召唤他。因为我曾经助他一臂之力,让他重新阅读安提贡尼。他用以下术语亲自跟我表达:安提贡你跟克瑞恩的关系,让她处于共时性的位置,对抗历史性位置。

I have stopped half-way in what I might have said about the text. We are not in a position to exhaust its significance this year, if only for reasons of time, but it is clear that the question raised at the end concerns what I shall call the divine use of Antigone.

对于这个文本,我本来可能尽情说出的东西,我曾经适可而止。我们今年的立场并不适合将它的意义完全讲尽,即使光是时间不够的因素。但是显而易见地,结局被提出的问题,跟我将称为的安提贡尼的神性的用途有关。

In this connection one might make a number of comparisons. Antigone
hanging in her tomb evokes something very different from an act of suicide,
since there are all kinds of myths of hanged heroines, including girls, such as that of Erigone, who is linked to the advent of the cult of Dionysos. Dionysos has given wine to her father, but because he doesn’t know its properties, he violates her and dies. She then hangs herself on his tomb. It is an explanatory myth of a whole rite in which we see more or less simplified and symbolic images of girls hanging from trees. In short, one finds there a whole ritual and mythical background, which may be brought back to resituate in its religious harmony all that is produced on the stage. It is nevertheless true that from a Sophoclean perspective the hero has nothing to do with that kind of use. Antigone is someone who has already set her sights on death. The invocation that is wrapped around this stem is something else; it doesn’t have to do with human defiance here.

关于这点,我们可以从事许多比较。安提贡尼在她的墓室召唤某件非常不同的东西,跟自杀的行动不同。因为有各种的垂吊而死的女英雄的神话,包括女孩们,譬如,阿丽贡尼,她跟戴奥尼修斯的信徒的到来有关系。戴奥尼修斯曾经将葡萄酒给她的父亲,但是因为他并不知道葡萄酒的特性,他性侵犯他,然后死掉。她因此在他的墓室自己上吊自杀。这是一整套仪式的解释的神话。在那里,我们看见相当被简化于象征化的意象:女孩们上吊树上自杀。总之,我们有一整套的仪式于神秘的背景,可能被带回来重新将舞台上被产生的一切,定位在它的宗教的和谐。可是,这是真实的,从索福克利斯蒂观点,这位英雄跟那种用途,并没有丝毫的关系。安提贡尼是某个已经死亡在望的人。被笼罩在这个起源的召唤是别的东西。它跟在此的人类的挑衅,并没有必然的关系。

That’s as far as I will go today. Involved in what I had to say to you about catharsis is the beauty effect. The beauty effect derives from the relationship of the hero to the limit, which is defined on this occasion by a certain Ate.

今天就我本身而言,在我必须跟你们言说的,关于心灵净化所牵涉的东西,就是美的效应。这个美的效应从英雄跟这个限制的关系获得。在这个场合,这个限制被定义为某种悲惨命运Ate。

And on that subject I will now, so to speak, pass the word to someone else (passer la parole), conscious of the fact that I am using the very definitions of the structure of the seminar.

对于那个主题,我现在将会传递这个字词,给某位意识到这个事实的某个人。事实上,我正在使用这个研讨班的结构的各种定义。

In effect, I don’t want to be the one who, like some jack-of-all trades, takes upon himself alone the task of poking about in all those more-or-less heterogeneous fields that offer the traditional formulations of these things.

事实上,我并不想要成为样样知道,没有一样精通的这个人。这种人单独担负起这个责任,探索所有各色各样的领域,提供传统的说明这些事情。

At a certain level within you, I mean all of you individually at a certain point in your thinking, there is a form of resistance to the things I am trying to express, and it consists of making sympathetic comments that are more or less ambiguous in kind on what has come to be known as my learning or, as is also said, my cultural background. It’s something I don’t like. It also has a negative side; one wonders where I find the time to assemble all that. But you will recognize that my existence began a little before yours. I may not have had two hundred years of mowing like an English lawn, but I am getting there. In any case, I am closer than you are, and I’ve had time to forget several times over the things I discuss with you.

在你们之内的某个层次,我的意思是,你们所有人都有个别的层次,在你们的思想。有一种抗拒的形式,对于我正在尝试表达的东西。它在于发布相当暧昧的同情的评论,关于渐渐为大家所知的我的学习,或者说是我的文化的背景。那是某件我并不喜欢的东西。它也有负面的一面。我们想要知道我在哪里找到时间,来整合这一切。但是你们将会体认出,我的存在开始早先你们好几年。我可能没有花好几百年来像英国草地那样清除乾净,但是逐渐到达那里。无论如何,我比起你们更加靠近。我曾经有好几次的时间,忘记我跟你们讨论的事情。

I would, therefore, like today to ask someone to speak about the beautiful who seems to me to be particularly well-equipped to discuss it in relation to something that I take to be essential for the continuation of my argument; that something is the definition of the beautiful and the sublime as articulated by Kant.

因此,我今天想要要求某个人谈论有关美,我觉得这个人特别有资格讨论它,跟某件我认为是基本的事情相关,作为我的论点的继续。某件东西就是美与升华的定义,依照康德所表达。

Involved there is a form of category analysis that is of the highest significance in any effort to connect up with the topological structuration that I am pursuing with you here. It seems to me essential to take the time to recall Kant’s insights, if you have already read The Critique of Judgment, or to hear what they are, if you haven’t yet had the opportunity to read that work. That is why I have asked Mr. Kaufmann to speak to us now.

在此牵涉的是一种范畴分析的形式,具有最高的重要性,当我们努力要联贯我在此跟你们一起追求的拓扑图形的结构。我觉得重要的是找到时间提醒你们对康德的洞察。假如你们已经读过「判断的批判」,或是听过它们是什么。假如你们还没有拥有这个机会来阅读那个著作。那就是为什么我曾经要求考夫曼先生现在跟我们演讲。

You will see afterwards the use that we might make of the work he will be presenting for your benefit today. [Mr. Kaufmann’s presentation followed.

你们不久将会看出我们使用这个著作的这个用途,他今天将呈现给,为了你们的利益。(以下是考夫曼的演讲)。

You were certainly right to state that infinitesimal calculus is evoked behind the experience of the sublime. One should note that in Kant’s time infinitesimal calculus still harbored a kind of mystery of the signifier that has totally disappeared since that time.

你们确实是正确的,假如你们陈述,数学微积分被引用,在升华的这个经验的背后。我们应该注意到,在康德的时代,数学微积分依旧怀抱能指的这种神秘。自从那时以来,这种能指的神秘就消失了。

The 1764 passage you quoted from Kant should really be communicated
to Claude LeVi-Strauss, as the inaugural speech he gave on being appointed
to his Chair at the Collige de France is already implied there. I don’t mean by that antedated, but anticipated precisely in a way that is not emphasized at all in Rousseau. Kant already founds the ethics of ethnography there.

你们从康德引述的第1764段落,确实应跟列文、史特劳斯沟通。因为他发表的就职演讲,当他被任命为法国学院的院长,这篇段落在那里就被暗示着。我并不是说它早先日期被发表。而是确实地被预期著,用卢梭根本就没有强调的方式。康德在那里已经创建少数种族的伦理学的基础。

The work you presented today suggested to the audience here, which is
heterogeneous in its educational background, the idea of structures around which Kant both regroups and dissociates the idea of the beautiful. We might have placed in the background the idea of pleasure in Aristotle and have quoted the nice little definition he gives of it in the Rhetoric.

你们今天呈现的工作,跟这里的教育背景多样性的观众,建议这些结构的观念。环绕这些观念,康德既重新聚集,也分离美的这个观念。我们本来可能将快乐的这个观念,放置在亚里斯多德,并且引述他在「修辞学」给予它的那个漂亮小定义。

We will use that as a fulcrum – something that is in traditional philosophy
– when we take up again where we left off the question of the effect of tragedy .Although we think we always have to defer to Aristotle, that effect concerned cannot be fully explained in terms of moral catharsis.
June 15, I960

我们将会使用那个作为是平衡点—在传统哲学的某件东西—当我们再次从我们停止的地方开始从事,悲剧的效应的这个问题。虽然我们认为我们总是必须回溯到亚里斯多德,那种相关的效应无法充分地被解释,用道德的心灵净化的术语。
1969年6月15日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 280

February 1, 2013

Ethic 280
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XXI
第21章

Antigone between two deaths
安提贡尼处于两次死亡之间

THE DEATH D R I V E ILLUSTRATED
举例说明死亡冲动

COMPLEMENT
补助

4
When does this complaint begin? From the moment when she crosses the
entrance to the zone between life and death, that is to say, when what she has already affirmed herself to be takes on an outward form. She has been telling us for a long time that she is in the kingdom of the dead, but at this point the idea is consecrated. Her punishment will consist in her being shut up or suspended in the zone between life and death. Although she is not yet dead, she is eliminated from the world of the living. And it is from that moment on that her complaint begins, her lamentation on life.

这个抱怨何时开始?从她跨越过进入生命与死亡之间的领域的这个时刻。换句话说,当她已经肯定她自己的东西,具有一个外在的形式。她长久以来一直告诉我们,她处于死者的王国。但是在这个时刻,这个观念被献祭。她接受的惩罚将是在于被关闭,或搁置在生命与死亡之间的地区。从那个时刻开始,她的抱怨开始,她对于生命的哀悼。

Antigone will lament that she is departing άταφος, without a tomb, even
though she is to be shut up in a tomb, without a dwelling place, mourned by no friend. Thus her separation is lived as a regret or lamentation for everything in life that is refused her. She even evokes the fact that she will never know a conjugal bed, the bond of marriage, that she will never have any children. The speech is a long one.

安提贡尼将会哀悼,她正在离开άταφος ,没有坟墓,即使她应该被囚禁于墓室之内,没有一个居住地方,没有朋友哀悼他。因此,她的绝望被生活,作为一种遗憾或哀悼,对于生活中她被拒绝的每样东西。她甚至召唤这个事实: 她将永远不会知道性爱的温床,婚姻的约束。她将永远不会拥有任何小孩。这段讲词非常冗长。

It has occurred to some commentators to cast doubt on this side of the
tragedy in the name of the so-called unity of the character represented as the cold and inflexible Antigone. The term φνχρόν is that of coldness and frigidity. Creon calls her “a cold object to caress,” fine 650, in a dialogue with his son, so as to let him know that he’s not losing very much. Antigone’s character is contrasted with her complaint so as to bring out the lack of verisimilitude in an outburst that, it is held, should not be attributed to the poet.

有些评论家曾经想到怀疑悲剧的这一边,以所谓的性格的一致性,冷酷而没有弹性的安提贡尼代表的性格。Φνχρόν 的这个术语是冷酷与僵化的术语。克瑞恩称她是「摸起来冷冰冰的东西」,在650行,在他跟他的儿子的对话,为了让他知道,他不算损失很多。安提贡尼的性格跟她的抱怨对照,为了显露突然发泄的起伏变化的这个欠缺。大家认为,这种发泄不应该归咎于诗人。

It’s an absurd misinterpretation, for from Antigone’s point of view life can only be approached, can only be lived or thought about, from the place of that limit where her life is already lost, where she is already on the other side. But from that place she can see it and live it in the form of something already lost.

这是一种荒谬的解释。因为从安提贡尼的观点,仅有那个限制的地方,生命才能够被接近,才能够被经历或被思考,在她的生命已经丧失的地方。在那里,她已经处在另外一边。但是从那个地方,她能够看见它,并且生活在它里面,以某件已经丧失的东西。

And it is from the same place that the image of Antigone appears before us as something that causes the Chorus to lose its head, as it tells us itself, makes the just appear unjust, and makes the Chorus transgress all limits, including casting aside any respect it might have for the edicts of the city. Nothing is more moving than that ίμερος εναργής, than the desire that visibly emanates from the eyelids of this admirable girl.

就是从相同的地方,安提贡尼的意象出现在我们面前,作为某件引起合唱队迷混头的原因。当它告诉我们自己,让公正的事显的不公正,让合唱队逾越所有的限制,包括抛掉任何对城邦的敕令的尊敬。没有一样东西,比起这位令人崇敬的女孩的眼睫显然散发出来的欲望,更加感动人心。

The violent illumination, the glow of beauty, coincides with the moment
of transgression or of realization of Antigone’s Ate, which is the characteristic that I have chiefly insisted on and which introduced us to the exemplary function of Antigone’s problem in allowing us to determine the function of certain effects. It is in that direction that a certain relationship to a beyond of the central field is established for us, but it is also that which prevents us from seeing its true nature, that which dazzles us and separates us from it s true function. The moving side of beauty causes all critical judgment to vacillate, stops analysis, and plunges the different forms involved into a certain
confusion or, rather, an essential blindness.

这个强烈的启明,美丽的光辉,巧合于安提贡尼的悲惨命运Ate的逾越或体会。这个悲惨命运Ate就是我主要坚持的东西。它给我们介绍安提贡尼的问题的典范的功用,当它让我们能够决定某些效果的功用。就是朝那个方向,我们跟中心领域的超越的某种关系被建立。这也就是为什么我们被阻止无法看见它的真实的特性,让我们感到晕眩,并且跟它的真实的功用分离的东西。美丽的动人的一面,引起所得批判性的判断摇摆不定,停止分析,并且将牵涉的不同的东西,投入某种的混乱,或是某个基本的盲目。

The beauty effect is a blindness effect. Something else is going on on the other side that cannot be observed. In effect, Antigone herself has been declaring from the beginning: “I am dead and I desire death.” When Antigone depicts herself as Niobe becoming petrified, what is she identifying herself with, if it isn’t that inanimate condition in which Freud taught us to recognize the form in which the death instinct is manifested? An illustration of the death instinct is what we find here.

美丽的影响就是盲目的效果。某件其他的东西正在无法被观察到另外一边进行。事实上,安提贡尼本身从一开始就宣佈:「我死了,我欲望死亡。」当安提贡尼描述她自己,作为被变成化石的尼奥比,她正在认同什么?难道不就是那个没有生命的情况,弗洛依德教导我们要体认出这个形态,死亡本能被显现的形态?死亡本能的举例说明,就是我们在这里发现的东西。

It is at the moment when Antigone evokes Niobe that the Coryphaeus sings
her praise, line 840: “You then are half-goddess.” Then Antigone’s response bursts forth, and she is far from being a half-goddess: “This is absurd; you are making fun of me.” And the word she uses means “outrage,” which, as I have already indicated, is manifestly correlated to the moment of crossing over. The Greek word is used here in its proper sense, which is directly related to the term meaning to cross over – “outrage” is to go “out” or beyond (c’est aller outre), go beyond the right one has to make light of what happens at the greatest of costs. ‘Υβρίζεις is the term Antigone confronts the Chorus with: “You do not realize what you are saying. You outrage me.” But her stature is far from diminished as a result, and her complaint, the κομμός, her long complaint, follows immediately.

就在安提贡尼召唤尼奥比的时刻,科利菲伊斯歌颂她。在840:「你因此事半神。」那是,安提贡尼的回应突然暴发出来,她根本就是不是半神。「这是荒谬的;你在开我的玩笑。」她使用的那个字词意味着「愤怒」。如同我已经指出道,这个字词显而易见是跟跨越过多这个时刻有关系。希腊的字词在此被使用,以它的适当的意义。它跟跨越的这个术语的意义有直接关联–「愤怒」就是「发泄出去」,或是超越,超越我们拥有的权利,来看淡所发生的事情,耗费巨大的代价。Υβρίζεις 就是安提贡尼用来跟合唱队对抗的这个术语,「你并没有体会到你正在说些什么。你让我愤怒。」但是她的姿态根本因此而减低。她的抱怨,她的长期的抱怨立即随之而来。

The Chorus then goes on to make an enigmatic reference to three quite
disparate episodes from the history of mythology. The first concerns Danae, who was shut up in a bronze chamber. The second is to Lycurgus, the son
of Dryas, King of the Edonians, who was mad enough to persecute the servants of Dionysos, to pursue and terrify them, and even to rape their women and to make divine Dionysos jump into the sea. This is the first mention we have of the Dionysiac. In Book II of the Iliad we find Dionysos in a death like state, and he goes on to revenge himself by transforming Lycurgus into a madman.

合唱队于是继续谜团一般地提出三个完全差异的轶事,从神话的历史。第一个轶事实提到丹内伊,他被囚禁于铜制的房间。第二件轶事实提到莱丘格斯,伊顿尼恩的国王,德拉斯的儿子,他足够疯狂迫害戴奥尼修斯的仆人,追逐与恐吓他们,甚至强暴他们的女人,并逼使神祗戴奥尼修斯跳入大海。这是我们第一次提到戴奥尼修斯。在「伊利亚德」多第二册,我们发现戴奥尼修斯处于像是死亡的状态。他继续替自己报复,凭借将莱丘格斯转变成为疯子。

There are a number of different forms of the myth – perhaps he was imprisoned; blinded by Dionysos’s madness he even killed his own sons whom he mistook for vine shoots, and he hacked off his own limbs. But that’s not important because the text only refers to the vengeance of Dionysos the God. The third example, which is even more obscure, concerns the hero Phineas, who is at the center of a whole bundle of legends that are full of contradictions and extremely difficult to reconcile. He is found on a cup as the object of a conflict between the Harpies, who torment him, and the Boreads, the two sons of Boreas who protect him, and on the horizon there passes, strangely enough, the wedding procession of Dionysos and Ariadne.

有许多不同形式的神话。或许他被囚禁,被戴奥尼修斯的疯狂把他眼睛弄瞎,他甚至杀死他自己的儿子,因为他将他们误以为是葡萄笋,他砍掉他自己的四肢。但是那不重要,因为文本仅是提到戴奥尼修斯这位神祗的报复。第三个轶事,甚至更加模糊,跟费尼斯这位英雄有关。他处于一整串传说的核心。这些传说充满了矛盾与极端困难和谐。他被发现在一个盆子里,充当一个冲突的客体,处于折磨他的哈皮斯人与博瑞德人之间。后者是保护他的博瑞的两个儿子。耐人寻味的是,戴奥尼修斯与阿瑞德尼的婚礼就在地平线处经过。

There is certainly a lot to be gained in the interpretation of these myths, if it turns out to be possible. Their disparate character and the apparent lack of relevance to the issues at hand is certainly one of the burdens that the tragic texts impose on their commentators. I don’t pretend to be able to solve the problem, but it was by bringing to the attention of my friend Levi-Strauss the difficulty of this passage, that I recently managed to interest him in Antigone.

在诠释这些神话时,确实有获得许多心得,假如它结果是可能的话。他们的差异的性格与明星地欠缺提到手边的问题,那确实是悲剧文本赋加于他们的评论者的其中一个负担。我并不伪装能够解决这个问题。但是凭借让我的朋友列文、史特劳斯注意到这个段落的困难,我最后成功地让他对安提贡尼感到興趣。

There is nevertheless something that one can point to in this rash of tragic episodes evoked by the Chorus at the moment when Antigone is at the limit. They all concern the relationship of mortals to the gods. Danae is entombed because of the love of a god; Lycurgus is punished because he attempted to commit violence on a god, and it is also because she is of divine descent that Cleopatra the Boread and rejected companion of Phineas is implicated in the story – she is referred to as άμιππος, that is to say, as swift as a horse, and it is said that she also moves faster across solid ice than any steed; she’s a skater. Now the striking thing about Antigone is that she undergoes a misfortune that is equal to that of all those who are caught up in the cruel sport of the gods. Seen from the outside by us as ατραγωδόι, she appears as the victim at the center of the anamorphic cylinder of the tragedy. She is there in spite of herself as victim and holocaust.

可是,有某件我们能够指向的东西,在悲剧轶事的发生,由合唱队的召唤,当安提贡尼处于极限的时刻。他们都跟有限生命的人类与众神的关系有关。丹内伊被囚禁于墓室,因为一位神祗的爱。莱丘格斯被惩罚,因为他企图对一位神祗施用暴力,那也是因为她属于神祗后代,克丽奥佩特拉,这位博瑞德神与费尼斯的被拒绝的同伴,被牵涉到这个故事里。她被提到作为是άμιππος ,换句话说,像马一样的快速。据说,比起其他的骏马,她也更加快速的越过冰天雪地。她是个溜冰高手。现在,关于安提贡尼,这个引人注意的事情是,她经历一场不幸事件。这个事件相当等于是被卡陷在众神的残酷的运动里。我们从外面将它视为是ατραγωδόι,。她似乎作为受害者,在悲剧的变形的圆筒的中心。她身不由己地在那里,作为受害者与牺牲品。

Antigone appears as αυτόνομος, as a pure and simple relationship of the
human being to that of which he miraculously happens to be the bearer,
namely, the signifying cut that confers on him me indomitable power of being what he is in the face of everything that may oppose him.

安提贡尼出现,作为αυτόνομος,作为是纯净而单纯的关系,人类跟他奇迹一般巧好作为负载者的关系,换句话说,这个跟能指化的切割的关系,赋予人类不屈不桡的成为自己生命本质的力量,在面对每一样跟他对立的东西。

Anything at all may be invoked in connection with this, and that’s what
the Chorus does in the fifth act when it evokes the god that saves.
Dionysos is this god; otherwise why would he appear there? There is nothing
Dionysiac about the act and the countenance of Antigone. Yet she pushes
to the limit the realization of something that might be called the pure and simple desire of death as such. She incarnates that desire.

关于这点,任何东西都可能被召唤。那就是合唱队所做的事情。在第五幕,当它召唤拯救的这个神祗,戴奥尼修斯的这个神祗。否则,为什么他要出现在那里?关于这个行动与安提贡尼的出现,并没有什么戴奥尼修斯的风格。可是,她将某件东西的体会逼迫的极限。那个东西可被称为所死亡本身的欲望,单纯的欲望。她具体作为那个欲望的化身。

Think about it. What happens to her desire? Shouldn’t it be the desire of the Other and be linked to the desire of the mother? The text alludes to the fact that the desire of the mother is the origin of everything. The desire of the mother is the founding desire of the whole structure, the one that brought into the world the unique offspring that are Eteocles, Polynices, Antigone and Ismene; but it is also a criminal desire. Thus at the origin of tragedy and of humanism we find once again an impasse that is the same as Hamlet’s, except strangely enough it is even more radical.

请你们想想看。她的欲望发生什么事?那难道不就是大他者的欲望吗?并且跟母亲的欲望息息相关?文本提到这个事实:母亲的欲望是每件事情的起源。母亲的欲望是整个的结构的作为基础的欲望。这个欲望将这个独特的后裔带入这个世界,他们是阿特奥克利斯,波利尼西是,安提贡尼,艾斯门。但是这也是一个犯罪的欲望。因此,在悲剧与人本主义的起源,我们再次发现一个僵局。这个僵局跟哈姆雷特的僵局是相同的,除了耐人寻味的,它更加强烈。

No meditation is possible here except that of this desire with its radically destructive character. The fruit of the incestuous union has split into two brothers, one of whom represents power and the other crime. There is no one to assume the crime and the validity of crime apart from Antigone.

在此,没有沉思是可能的,除了欲望跟它的强烈的毁灭的特性的沉思。乱伦结合的结果已经分裂成为两个兄弟。其中一位代表权力,另外一位代表犯罪。没有人能够担负起这个犯罪,与犯罪的合理性。除了安提贡尼。

Between the two of them, Antigone chooses to be purely and simply the
guardian of the being of the criminal as such. No doubt things could have
been resolved if the social body had been willing to pardon, to forget and cover over everything with the same funeral rites. It is because the community refuses this that Antigone is required to sacrifice her own being in order to maintain that essential being which is the family Ate, and that is the theme or true axis on which the whole tragedy turns.
Antigone perpetuates, eternalizes, immortalizes that Ate.
June 8, I960

在他们两人之间,安提贡尼选择纯粹而单纯地是罪犯本身的生命实存的捍卫者。无可置疑地,事情本来能够被解决,假如社会的团体愿意选择原谅,忘记并且涵盖相同丧礼仪式应有的东西。那是因为社会拒绝这个,安提贡尼被要求要牺牲她自己的生命,为了维持那个基本的生命实存,那是家庭的悲惨命运Ate。那就是这个主题,或整个悲剧环绕的真实的轴心。安提贡尼将那个悲惨命运强化,成为不朽,成为永恒。
1960年7月8日

雄伯译
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