Ethic 142

Ethic 142

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

THE SUBLIMATION OF THE FATHER
父亲的升华

ON THE SUBJECT OF BERNFELD
论泼费德的主体

THE VACUOLE AND THE INHUMAN PARTNER
身体罅隙与非人的伴侣

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

2
It is remarkable that the experience of what goes on in the neurotic caused
Freud to leap to the level of the poetic creation of art, to the drama of Oedipus,
insofar as it is something datable in the history of culture. You will see
this when we take up Moses and Monotheism, which I asked you to read during
our break. There is in Freud no distance from the facts of the Judeo-
Greek experience, and I mean by that those that characterize our culture in
its most modern everyday life.

引人注意的是,在神经症所经历的事情的经验,引起弗洛依德跳跃到艺术的诗意的创造,跳跃到伊狄浦斯的戏剧,因为在文化的历史,那是可找出日期的事情。你们将会看出这个,当我们从事探讨「摩西与一神教」。我要求你们在我们休息时阅读它。在弗洛依德,它跟犹太-希腊的经验并没有距离。我的意思是,那些表现我们的文化特色的那些事实,在我们最现代的日常生活。

It is equally striking that Freud couldn’t fail to pursue his reflection on the
origins of morality to the point of examining Moses’ action. When you read
the astonishing work that is Moses and Monotheism, you will see that Freud
cannot help revealing the duplicity of his reference, of the reference that I
have declared to you over the years to be the essential reference, namely, the
No / Name-of-the-Father in its signifying function.

这是同样引人注意,弗洛依德一定会追求他的反思,对于道德的起源,直到检视摩西的行动。当你们阅读「摩西与一神教」这个令人惊奇的著作,你们将会看出,弗洛依德忍不住显示他的指称的复制,过去几年来,我曾经跟你们宣布的基本的指称。换句话说,在它的能指化的功用,父亲的命名与非命名。

From a formal point of view, Freud makes recourse to paternal power for
a structuring purpose that appears to be a sublimation. He emphasizes, in
the same text in which he leaves at a distance the primordial trauma of the
murder of the father – and without worrying about the contradiction – that
this sublimation emerges at a given historical date against the background of
a visible, evident fear that she who engenders is the mother. There is, he tells
us, genuine progress in spirituality in affirming the function of the father,
namely, of him of whom one is never sure. This recognition implies a whole
mental elaboration. To introduce as primordial the function of the father
represents a sublimation. But, Freud asks, how can one conceive of this leap,
this progress, since, in order to introduce it, it was necessary that something
appear that imposes its authority and its reality from outside?

从正式的观点,弗洛依德诉诸于父亲的权力,作为结构性的看起来是升华的目的。他在同样的文本强调,在那里,他将弑父的谋杀的原始创伤,留置一段距离—请不用担心这个矛盾—这种升华出现在某个历史的日期,以一个可见的明显恐惧作为背景:生产的她是母亲。他告诉我们,在精神上有真正的进展,来肯定父亲的功用。换句话说,我们并不确定的父亲的功用。这个体认暗示整个的精神的建构。介绍父亲的功用作为原始的功用,代表一种升华。但是,弗洛依德询问,我们如何构型这个跳跃,这个进展,因为,为了介绍它,这是必要的,某件东西出现,赋加它的权威与它的现实界从外面?

He himself underlines the impasse constituted by the fact that sublimation
exists, but that such sublimation can only be motivated historically by means
of the myth to which it has recourse. At that point the function of myth
becomes evident. In truth, this myth is nothing other than something that is
inscribed in the clearest of terms in the spiritual reality of our time, namely,
the death of God. It is as a function of the death of God that the murder of
the father which represents it in the most direct way is introduced by Freud
as a modern myth.

他自己强调由升华存在的这个事实形成的这个僵局,但是这样的僵局仅能够从历史上被激发动机,凭借这个神话,它曾经诉诸于的神话。在那个时刻,神话的功用变得显而易见。事实上,这个神话实实在在就是用最清楚的术语,被铭记在我们当代精神现实界的东西。换句话说,上帝死亡。作为上帝死亡的功用,弑父的谋杀代表它,以最直接的方式,被弗洛依德介绍,作为是现代的神话。

It is a myth that has all the properties of a myth. That is to say that it
doesn’t explain anything, any more than any other myth. As I pointed out in
citing Levi-Strauss and especially in referring to that which buttresses his
own formulation of the issue, myth is always a signifying system or scheme,
if you like, which is articulated so as to support the antimonies of certain
psychic relations. And this occurs at a level which is not simply that of individual
anguish and which is not exhausted either in a construction presupposing
the collectivity, but which assumes its fullest possible dimension.

这一个神话拥有一个神话的所有的特性。换句话说,它跟任何其他神话一样,并没有解释任何事情。如同我指出,当我们引述列文,史特劳斯,特别是是提到作为他对这个问题的阐述的支持。神话总是一种能指化的系统或计划,它被表达,为了要支持某种的心灵关系的镝。这发生在并不单纯是个人的痛苦的层次,它也没有被穷尽,在预先假定集体性的建构,而是假定它的尽可能充分的维度。

We suppose that it concerns the individual and also the collectivity, but
there is no such opposition between them at the level involved. For it is a
matter here of the subject insofar as he suffers from the signifier. It is in this
passion of the signifier that the critical point emerges, and its anguish is no
more than an intermittent emotion that plays the role of an occasional signal.
Freud brought to the question of the source of morality the invaluable
significance implied in the phrase Civilization and Its Discontents or, in other
words, the breakdown by means of which a certain psychic function, the
superego, seems to find in itself its own exacerbation, as the result of a kind
of malfunctioning of the brakes which should limit its proper authority. It
remains to be seen how within this breakdown in the depths of the psychic
life the instincts may find their proper sublimation.

我们认为它跟个人,也跟集体有关系,但是在牵涉的层次,它们之间并没有对立。因为在此的问题是主体,因为他遭受这个能指的痛苦。关键时刻出现在这个能指的激情,而它的痛苦仅仅是一种间歇的情感,扮演偶然的讯息的角色。弗洛依德用「文明及其不满」的词语所暗示的宝贵的意义,提出道德的来源的问题。或换句话,凭借这个崩溃,某种的心灵的功用,超我似乎在它的本身发现它自己的恶化。由于某种煞车的功用不良,应该限制它的适当的权威。在心灵生活的深处的崩溃之内,本能如何找到它们的适当的升华,则是有待观察。

But to begin with, what is the possibility we call sublimation? Given the
time at our disposal, I am not in a position to take you through the virtually
absurd difficulties that authors have encountered every time they have tried to give a meaning to the term “sublimation.” I would nevertheless like one of you to go to the Bibliothique Nationale, look up Bernfeld’s article in volume VIII of Imago entitled “Bemerkungen iiber Sublimierung,” [“Observations on Sublimation”], and give us a summary of it here.

但是首先,我们所谓的升华的可能性是什么?假如考虑到我们能够支配的时间,我并没有立场引导你们通过这个虚拟的荒谬的困难,作者曾经遭遇的困难,每次他们尝试要给予意义,给「升华」这个术语。可是,我想要你们其中一位前去「全国索引」,查阅博费德的文章,在Imago的第八册,标题是「对升华的观察」,并且在此给予我们简述大要。

Bernfeld was a particularly powerful mind of the second generation, and
in the end the weaknesses of his articulation of the problem of sublimation
are of a kind that will prove illuminating. He is first of all quite troubled by
Freud’s reference to the fact that the operations of sublimation are always
ethically, culturally, and socially valorized. This criterion, external to psychoanalysis,
certainly creates a difficulty, and on account of its extra-psychological
character clearly merits to be emphasized and criticized. But as we
will see, this character causes less difficulty than at first appears.

博费德是第二代特别具有力量的心灵。最后,他对升华的问题的表达的弱点,是属于证明是具有启发性的种类。他首先相当受到弗洛依德的提到这个事实所困扰。升华的运作总是伦理地,文化地,社会地被推崇。这个标准,外在于精神分析,确实创造一种困难。因为它的特别的心灵的特性,清楚地应该值得强调与批评。但是我们将会看出,这个特性引起的困难,不然表面看起来那么大。

On the other hand, the contradiction between the Zielablenkung side of the
Strebung, of the Trieb or drive, and the fact that that takes place in a domain
which is that of the object libido, also poses all kinds of problems for Bernfeld
– problems that he resolves with the extreme clumsiness which characterizes
everything that has so far been said on the analysis of sublimation.

在另一方面,在冲动的Zielablenkung 的这一面,发生在客体力比多的领域的这个事实也通过各种的困难,对于博费德。他极端笨拙解决的这些问题,表现一切都特色,迄今曾经被说过的有关升华的分析的特色。

According to him, at the point he reached around 1923-1924, we must
start from the part of the instinct that may be employed for the ends of the
ego, for the Ichziele, in order to define sublimation. And he goes on to give
examples whose naivete is striking. He refers to a certain little Robert Walter,
who like many children tries his hand at poetry even before puberty. And
what does he tell us on the subject? That to be a poet is an Ichziel for the
boy. It is in relation to that choice fixed very early that everything that follows
will be judged, namely, the way in which at the onset of puberty the upheaval
of his libidinal economy, which is clinically perceptible although quite confused
in this case, will be seen to be gradually integrated into the Ichziel. In
particular, his activity as a little poet and his fantasms, which were quite
separate at the beginning, come to be progressively coordinated.

博费德认为,在大约1923-1924年左右的时刻,我们必须从本能的这个部分开始。本能可以被运用作为自我的目的,为了定义升华。他继续给予例子,这些例子的天真引人注意。他提到某个喜欢许多小孩的小罗勃、瓦特。他甚至在青春期之前,尝试写诗。关于这个主题,他告诉我们什么?成为诗人对于这个男孩是自我。每一样随后发展的事情都被判断,跟那个选择有关。换句话说,在青春期的开始,他的力比多的活动的颠覆,在临床上是可以感觉出来,虽然在这个情况是相当困淆。它将会被看见逐渐地被合并到这个自我。特别,他作为小诗人与他的幻想的活动,在开始时完全分开,它逐渐地被调和。

Bernfeld thus assumes the primordial, primitive character of the goal set
by the child to become a poet. And a similar argument is to be found in the
other, equally instructive examples he gives us – some of which concern the
function of the Vemeimmgen, of the negations that occur spontaneously among
groups of children. He was, in effect, very interested in this question in a
publication devoted to the problems of youth for which he was responsible
at the time.

博费德因此认为目标的这个原初的原始的特色,被这个小孩指定成为诗人的目标。同样的论点应该被找到,在他给与我们的其他同样具有启发性的例子。有些例了跟否定的功用息息相关,这些否定自动自发地发生在小孩群中。事实上,它对于出版物的这个问题非常感到興趣,这个出版物专注于探讨年轻人的问题。他当时负责照料这些年轻人。

The important point to note on the subject is the following, and it is something
that is to be found in all formulations of the problem, including Freud’s.
Freud points out that once the artist has carried out an operation on the level
of sublimation, he finds himself to be the beneficiary of his operation insofar
as it is acclaimed after the fact; it brings in its wake in the form of glory,
honor, and even money, those fantasmic satisfactions that were at the origin of the instinct, with the result that the latter finds itself satisfied by means of
sublimation.

对于这个主题,要注意的重点如下:某件东西能够被找到,在这个问题的各种阐释,包括弗洛依的的阐释。弗洛依德指出,一旦艺术家在升华的层次,实现一种运作。他发现他自己成为他的运作的受益人。因为在这个事实之后,它被宣称。它随后带来光荣,荣耀,甚至是金钱的形式。那些幻想的满足处于本能的起源,结果是,后者发现它自己凭借升华获得满足。

That is all well and good as long as we assume that the already established
function of poet exists on the outside. It seems to be taken for granted that
especially among those whom Bernfeld calls eminent men, a little child might
choose to become a poet as an ego goal. It is true that he hastens to add
parenthetically that, in using the expression “hervorragender Mensch,” eminent
man, he is divesting it as much as possible of all connotations of value
– something that is very strange as soon as one starts to talk of eminence. To
be frank, the dimension of the eminent personality cannot be eliminated.
And we see that, in fact, in Moses and Monotheism it isn’t eliminated by Freud,
but thrust into the foreground.

只要我们认为,已经被诗人建立的功用存在于外面,那一切都进行顺畅。这似乎被视为是当然,特别是在那些博费德称为所杰出的人当中,有个小孩可能选择成为诗人,作为自我的目标。他确实匆促括弧补充,当他使用「杰出的人」这个术语,他尽可能替它剥除所有的价值的内涵。某件东西是非常奇怪的,当我们开始谈论杰出。我们看见,事实上,在「摩西与一神教」,它并没有被弗洛依德减少,而是被投掷到前景。

What needs to be justified is not simply the secondary benefits that individuals
might derive from their works, but the originary possibility of a function
like the poetic function in the form of a structure within a social consensus.
Well now, it is precisely that kind of consensus we see born at a certain
historical moment around the ideal of courtly love. For a certain highly
restricted circle, that ideal is to be found at the origin of a moral code, including
a whole series of modes of behavior, of loyalties, measures, services, and
exemplary forms of conduct. And if that interests us so directly, it is because
its central point was an erotics.

需要自圆其说的是,不仅个人可能从他们的作品获得的次要利益,而且获得一个功用的原创的可能性,譬如,诗的功用,以在社会的共识之内结构的形式。呵呵,确实就是那种共识,我们看见诞生于某种的历史的时刻,环绕骑士之爱的理想。对于某种高度受到限制的圈子,那个理想能够被发现,在道德符码的起源,包括整个系列的行为,忠诚,规范,服务,与行为的典范形式的符码。假如我们对于那个直接感到興趣,那是因为它的中心点是性爱。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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