Ethic 139

Ethic 139

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

Courtly love as anamorphosis
作为变形的骑士之爱

ON THE H I S TORY AND ENDS OF ART
论艺术的历史与目标

THE SUBLIMATION OF THE FATHER
父亲的升华

ON THE SUBJECT OF BERNFELD
论泼费德的主体

THE VACUOLE AND THE INHUMAN PARTNER
身体罅隙与非人的伴侣

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

Why is this example of anamorphosis on this table?’ It is here to illustrate
my ideas.

为什么变形的这个例子在这个表格上?它在此是为了说明我的观念。

Last Time I sketched out the meaning or the goal of art in the usual sense
we give that term – the fine arts, for example. I’m not the only psychoanalyst
to have been interested in that. I’ve already mentioned Ella Sharpe’s article
on the subject of sublimation, an article that starts out with the cave walls of
Altamira, which is the earliest decorated cave to have been discovered. Perhaps
what we described as the central place, as the intimate exteriority or
“extimacy,” that is the Thing, will help us to shed light on the question or
mystery that remains for those who are interested in prehistoric art, namely,
its site as such.

上次我描述艺术的目标的意义,用我们通常给予那个术业的意义。譬如,美好的艺术。我并不是仅有的艺术家,曾经对那个感到興趣。我已经提到阿拉、夏普的文章,探讨升华的主题。这一篇文章从阿达米拉的洞穴墙壁开始。那个洞穴墙壁是已经被发现的最早的被装饰的洞穴。或许,我们所描述的,作为中心位置,作为是亲密的外在性或「外亲性」,那就是「物象」。它将会帮助我们启蒙这个问题或是始终保持的神秘,对于那些对于史前历史感的興趣的人们,也就是说,对于它的地点本身。

1
It is surprising that an underground cavern was chosen. Such a site only
creates obstacles to the viewing that one assumes is presupposed by the creation
and observation of the striking images which decorate the walls. The
production of images and their viewing could not have been easy given the
forms of lighting available to primitive men. Yet in the beginning those paintings
that we take to be the earliest productions of primitive art were thrown
up on the walls of a cavern.

令人惊奇的是,选择的是地下的山洞。这样一个地点仅会形成观看的阻碍。我们假定,创造与观察用来装饰这些墙壁的这些生动的形象时,他们预先假设的观看的阻碍。这些形象的产生及对它们的观看当时并非容易,假如我们考虑到原始人们採用的採光形式。可是,开始时,我们认为是产生原始艺术的早期那些图画,被制作在山洞的墙壁上。

One could call them tests in both senses of the word, subjective and objective.
Tests no doubt for the artist, for, as you know, these images are often
painted over each other; it’s as if in a consecrated spot it represented, for
each subject capable of undertaking such an exercise, the opportunity to draw
or project afresh what he needed to bear witness to, and to do so moreover
over what had already been done before. That suggests the idea of something
like the updating of a certain creative potential. Tests also in the objective
sense, for these images cannot fail to seize us as being deeply linked both in
a tight relationship to the world – and by that I mean to the very subsistence
of populations that seem to have been composed chiefly of hunters – and to
something that in its subsistence appears as possessing the character of a
beyond of the sacred – something that we are precisely trying to identify in
its most general form by the term, the Thing. I would say it is primitive
subsistence viewed from the perspective of the Thing.

我们能够称它们是考验,就这个字词的主观性与客观性的意义而言。对于艺术家而言,无可置疑是考验。因为如你们所知,这些形象往往被互相重叠地被绘画。好像在一个被奉为神圣的地方,它代表这个机会,对于每个能够从事如此运作的主体,能够绘画或重新投射他所需要作为见证的东西,而且这样做,是赋加在先前曾经被做过的东西之上。那暗示着这个观念:某件东西像是在更新某种的创造的潜力。考验的客观的意义—因为这些形象一定会给予我们这个印象,一方面跟世界的紧密关系息息相关,我的意思是似乎以狩猎人为主组成的人口的生存方式。在另一方面,这些形象跟某件看起来似乎用拥有某种神圣的超越的特性的存在东西息息相关。我们确实尝试辨认的某件东西,以它的最一般的形式,根据「物象」的这个术语。我不妨说,它是原始的生存,从物象的观点来看。

There is a line which runs from that point to the other end, infinitely closer
to us, in the exercise of anamorphosis, probably around the beginning of the
seventeenth century. And I pointed out the interest that exercises of this kind
had for the constructive thought of artists. I tried to make you understand
briefly how the genesis of this tradition might be sketched.

有一个线条从那点开始,延伸到另外一端,无限地靠近我们,在变形的运用。可能环绕着十七世纪的开始。我指出那种的运作拥有的这个興趣,对于艺术家的建设性的思想。我尝试让你们简短地理解,这种传统的开始是如何被描绘。

In the same way that the exercise on the wall consists in fixing the invisible
inhabitant of the cavern, we see the link forged between the temple, as a
construction around emptiness that designates the place of the Thing, to the
figuration of emptiness on the walls of this emptiness itself – to the extent
that painting progressively learns to master this emptiness, to take such a
tight hold of it that painting becomes dedicated to fixing it in the form of the
illusion of space.

正如墙壁上的这种运作组成修补山洞的隐形的居民,我们看见庙寺之间的被铸造的这种关联,作为一种环绕空洞的建设,它指明「物象」的这个位置,跟这个空洞本身的墙壁上的空洞的形象的关联。甚至,图画逐渐学习掌控这个空洞,如此紧密地掌控它,以致于图画致力于修补它,以空间的幻觉的形式。

I am moving fast and I just throw out these crumbs so that you can put
them to the test of whatever you may subsequently read on the subject.

进行得很快,我仅是抛出一些零碎片段,这样你们能够将它们付之验证,用你们随后对于这个主题阅读的东西。

Before the systematic establishment of geometrical laws of perspective formulated
at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries,
painting passed through a stage in which various artifices made it possible
to structure space. The double band that appears in the sixth and seventh
centuries on the walls of Santa Maria Maggiore is one way of treating certain
stereognoses. But let’s leave that aside. The important thing is that at a given
moment one arrives at illusion. Around it one finds a sensitive spot, a lesion,
a locus of pain, a point of reversal of the whole of history, insofar as it is the
history of art and insofar as we are implicated in it; that point concerns the
notion that the illusion of space is different from the creation of emptiness.
It is this that the appearance of anamorphoses at the end of sixteenth and the
beginning of the seventeenth centuries represents.

在十五世纪末与十六世纪初,被阐释的几何学的透视法的法则被系统化建立之前,图画经历一个阶段。在这个阶段,各种的人为的技巧让空间的架构成为可能。在十六与十七世纪,出现在桑塔、玛丽亚 玛吉奥瑞修女院的墙壁的这个双重的宽带,是一种处理立体触感的方式。但是让我们将那个放置一旁。重要的事情是,在某个特定时刻,我们获得幻象。环绕这个幻象,我们找到一个敏感的地点,一个病变地区,痛苦的焦点,整个历史的倒转点。因为它是艺术的历史,因我们被牵涉到它里面。那个点跟这个观念有关:空间的幻象不同于空洞的创造。在十六世纪末与十七世纪初的变形的出现,就是代表这个。

I spoke last time of a Jesuit convent; it was a mistake. I checked in Baltrusaitis’s
excellent dictionary of anamorphoses, and it is a convent of the Minim
Friars in Rome as well as in Paris. I don’t know why I also placed Holbein’s
Ambassadors in the Louvre, when the painting is in the National Gallery in
London. You will find in Baltrusaitis’s book a subtle study of that painting
and of the skull that emerges when, having passed in front of it, you leave
the room by a door located so that you see it in its sinister truth, at the very
moment when you turn around to look at it for the last time.

我上次谈到耶稣教会的修女院,那是个错误。我查阅Baltrusaitis 的优秀字典,有关变形。那是在罗马与巴黎的Minim修道院。我不知道为什么我也将霍宾Holbein的「大使」放置在罗浮宫,实际上,这幅图画是在伦敦的国家美术陈列馆。你们将会在Baltrusaitis的字典找到一个详细的研究,对于那幅图画,以及出现的头颅。当你们从它的前面经过,你们从当地的门边离开房间,你们以一个古怪的真相看见它,就在你们转过头,最后一次看见它。

Thus, as I say, the interest of anamorphosis is described as a turning point
when the artist completely reverses the use of that illusion of space, when he
forces it to enter into the original goal, that is to transform it into the support
of the hidden reality – it being understood that, to a certain extent, a work
of art always involves encircling the Thing.

因此,如我所说,变形的这个興趣被描述作为一个转捩点,当艺术家完全倒转那个空间的幻象的使用。当他强迫它进入这个原先的目标。那就是要将它转变成为隐藏的现实的支持。因为它被理解,到达某个程度,艺术的作品总是牵涉到环绕着这个「物象」。

This also allows us to approach a little closer to the unanswered question
on the ends of art: is the end of art imitation or non-imitation? Does art
imitate what it represents? If you begin by posing the question in those terms,
you are already caught in the trap, and there is no way out of remaining in
the impasse in which we find ourselves between figurative and so-called abstract
art.

这也让我们能够稍微靠近这个没有被回答的问题,对于艺术的目的:艺术的目的是模仿?或是非模仿?艺术模仿它所代表的东西吗?假如你们开始用那些术业提出这个问题,你们已经陷套在那个陷阱里。不可能逃离这个僵局,在那里,我们发现我们自己处于比喻与所谓的抽象的艺术。

We can only sense the aberradon that is articulated in the unyielding position
of the philosopher; Plato places art at the lowest level among human
works, since for him everything that exists only exists in relation to the idea,
which is the real. Everything that exists is already no more than an imitation
of a more-than-real, of a surreal. If art imitates, it is shadow of a shadow,
imitation of an imitation. You can, therefore, see the vanity of the work of
art, of the work of the brush.

我就仅能理解这种被表达的偏离,在哲学家的不屈服的立场。柏拉图将艺术放置在人类作品的最低的层次,因为对于他,每样存在的东西,仅存在于跟这个理型的关系,这个理型就是实在界。存在的每样东西,已经仅仅就是超过现实,超现实的模拟。假如艺术模拟,艺术是阴影的阴影,模拟的模拟。因此,你们能够看见艺术作品,画笔作品的虚荣徒劳,

That’s a trap one must not enter. Of course, works of art imitate the objects
they represent, but their end is certainly not to represent them. In offering
the imitation of an object, they make something different out of that object.
Thus they only pretend to imitate. The object is established in a certain relationship
to the Thing and is intended to encircle and to render both present and absent.

那是一个我们一定不要掉入的陷阱。当然,艺术作品模拟它们代表的客体,但是它们的目的确实并不是要代表它们。当它们提供一个客体的模拟时,它们用那个客体创造某件不同的东西。因此,它们仅是伪装模拟。这个客体被建立,跟这个物象的某种关系,它被用来环绕并且凸显出席与缺席。

Everybody knows this. At the moment when painting turns once again
upon itself, at the moment when Cizanne paints his apples, it is clear that in
painting those apples, he is doing something very different from imitating
apples – even though his final manner of imitating them, which is the most
striking, is primarily oriented toward a technique of presenting the object.
But the more the object is presented in the imitation, the more it opens up
the dimension in which illusion is destroyed and aims at something else.
Everyone knows that there is a mystery in the way Cezanne paints apples,
for the relationship to the real as it is renewed in art at that moment makes
the object appear purified; it involves a renewal of its dignity by means of
which these imaginary insertions are, one might say, repetitively restated.
The fact is, as has been noted, such insertions cannot be detached from the
efforts of earlier artists to realize the ends of art in their own way.

对于这个,众所周知。在那个时刻,当图画再一次转向它自己,在塞尚绘画他的蘋果时,显而易见地,当他绘画那些蘋果,他正在从事某件非常不同的事情,跟模拟蘋果不同的事情。即使他最后的模拟它们的方式,这是最引人注意的地方,原初是用来朝向呈现客体的技巧。但是这个客体越是在模拟里被呈现,它就越展开幻象被毁灭的这个维度,目标朝着某件其它东西。众所周知,在塞尚绘画蘋果的方式,有一种神秘,因为跟实在界的关系,依照它在那个时刻,从艺术里更新,使得这个客体看起来纯净化。它牵涉它的尊严的更新,我们不妨说,凭借它的尊严,这些想象的插入重复地被重新陈述。事实上,有人注意到,这些插入无法跟早期的艺术家的努力隔离,他们努力要用他们自己的方式实现艺术的目的。

Obviously, the notion of historicity should not be used here without great
caution. The expression “history of art” is highly misleading. Every appearance
of this way of proceeding consists in overthrowing the illusory operation
so as to return to the original end, which is to project a reality that is not that
of the object represented. In the history of art, on the other hand, by virtue
of the necessity that supports it, there is only substructure. The relation of
the artist to the time in which he appears is always a contradictory one. It is
against the current, in opposition to reigning norms – including, for example,
political norms, or indeed, systems of thought – that art attempts to operate
its miracle once more.

显而易见地,历史感的观念在此被使用,应该特别谨慎。「艺术的历史」的这个表达式非常误导的。这种进行的方式的每个表象都在用推翻幻觉的运作,为了要回到原初的目标。那就是要投射一个现实界,并不是被代表的客体的现实界。在另一方面,在艺术的历史,凭借这个支持它的必要性,仅有一个次级的结构。艺术家跟他出现的时代的关系,总是一个矛盾的关系。这是违背潮流,违背统治的命名,譬如,包括政治的命名,或贴切地说,思想的系统。艺术企图要再次运作它的奇迹。

With the anamorphosis I have here, we find ourselves faced with a game
that may seem futile to you, when you think of the sophisticated operational
techniques required for the success of such a little artifact. And yet how can
one not be touched or even moved when faced with this thing in which the
image takes a rising and descending form? When faced with this sort of syringe
which, if I really let myself go, would seem to me to be a kind of apparatus
for taking a blood sample, a blood sample of the Grail? But don’t forget that
the blood of the Grail is precisely what is lacking.

使用我在此拥有的这个变形,我们发现自己面对一场你们可能觉得是徒劳的遊戏,当你们想到这个精致的运作的技巧,它被要求来从事如此一个小技艺的成功。可是,我们如何能够不被感染,甚至感动,当我们面对这个物象,在那里,形象採取一个逐渐上升,逐渐升华的形式?当我们面对这种注射,请容我放肆地说,我觉得那是一种採取血液样本的针筒,一种圣杯的血液的样本?但是请不要忘记,圣杯的血液确实是所欠缺的东西。

The argument I have been developing thus far in my lecture should be
interpreted only in a metaphorical way. I have only been following this line
of argument because I want to discuss today that form of sublimation which
appeared at a certain moment in the history of poetry, and which interests us
in an exemplary way in connection with something that Freudian thought
has placed at the center of our interest in the economy of the psyche, namely,
Eros and eroticism.

我迄今在我的演讲一直在开展的这个论点,应该仅能够用比喻的方式来解释。我仅是一直在追逐这个论点的脉络,因为我今天想要讨论升华的那种形式,它出现在诗的历史的某个时刻。它让我们感到興趣,以一个典范的方式,关于弗洛依德思想曾经放置在我们对于心灵的活动的興趣的核心东西,换句话说,性爱与性爱主义。

I just wanted to point it out to you at the beginning: you might almost
structure around this anamorphosis the ideas I am sketching out for you on
the subject of the ethics of psychoanalysis. It is something that is wholly
founded on the forbidden reference that Freud encountered at the terminal
point of what in his thought one might call the Oedipus myth.

我仅是从开始想要跟你们指出它:你们可能环绕这个变形从事架构这个观念,我正在跟你们描绘的这个观念,对于精神分析的伦理学的主题。这个东西完全以被禁止的指称作为基础。弗洛依德遭遇这种被禁止的指称,在他的思想,我们可以称为所伊狄浦斯神话的终端。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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