Ethic 113

Ethic 113

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VIII
第八章

The object and the thing
客体与物象

THE FABLE OF JACOUES PREVERT, COLLECTOR
雅克、普瑞博特的寓言:收集者

4
I will end today with a little fable in which I would like you just to see an
example, albeit a paradoxical and demeaning one, that is yet significant for
what goes on in sublimation. Since we have remained today on the level of
the object and the Thing, I wanted to show you what it means to invent an
object for a special purpose that society may esteem, valorize, and approve.
I draw on my memories for this fable, that you can, if you like, place in
the psychological category of collecting. Someone who recently published a
work on collectors and those sales thanks to which collectors are presumed
to get rich, has long asked me to give him some ideas on the meaning of
collecting. I didn’t do it because I would have had to tell him to come to my
seminar for five or six years.

我今天将用一个小寓言作为结束。在这个寓言,我想要你们看出一个例子,虽然是一个悖论而减损的例子。可是同样的重要,对于升华所进行的东西。因为我们今天始终处于客体与物象的层次,我想要跟你们显示,那是什么意思,杜撰一个客体,充当社会可能尊敬,推崇,与认同的特别的目的。我依靠我对于这个寓言的记忆,你们不妨将它放入收集的心理学范畴。某个人最近出版一本著作,探讨收集者跟收集者被认为赖以致富的那些销售。这个人长久以来曾经要求我给他一些点子,对于收集的意义。我并没有给予这样做,因为我本来必须要求他前来我的研讨班,参加个个五或六年。

There’s a lot to say on the psychology of collecting. I am something of a
collector myself. And if some of you like to think that it is in imitation of
Freud, so be it. I believe my reasons are very different from his. I have seen
the remains of Freud’s collections on Anna Freud’s shelves. They seemed to
me to have to do with the fascination that the coexistence of [. . .]’ and of
Egyptian civilization exercised over him at the level of the signifier rather
than for the enlightened taste of what is called an object.

对于收集的心理学,有许多话可说。我自己就是个收集者。假如你们有些人喜欢认为,那是模仿弗洛依德,那也未妨不可。我相信,我的理由跟他的理有不同。我曾经在安娜、弗洛依德的书架,看见过弗洛依德收集的遗物。我觉得它们似乎跟某某与埃及文明的存在的著迷有关,在能指的层次,他所受的影响。而不是因为所谓的客体的开明的品味。

What is called an object in the domain of collecting should be strictly distinguished from the meaning of object in psychoanalysis. In analysis the object
is a point of imaginary fixation which gives satisfaction to a drive in any
register whatsoever. The object in collecting is something entirely different,
as I will show in the following example, which reduces collecting to its most
rudimentary form. For one usually imagines that a collection is composed of
a diversity of elements, but it is not necessarily true at all.

在收集的领域,所谓的客体应该严格地被区别,跟精神分析的客体的意义。在精神分析,客体是想象的固著的点,给予满足给任何铭记的冲动。收集的这个客体是某件完全不同的东西。如同我将显示,在以下的例子。它将收集减少到它的最基本的形式。因为我们通常想象:收集是有各色各样的东西组成,但是这根本未必是真实。

During that great period of penitence that our country went through under
Petain, in the time of “Work, Family, Homeland” and of belt-tightening, I
once went to visit my friend Jacques Prévert in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. And I
saw there a collection of match boxes. Why the image has suddenly resurfaced
in my memory, I cannot tell.

在忏悔过去的那个伟大时期,在培添在主政下,我们的国家经历这段时期,
那是「工作,家庭,祖国」与缩减裤带的时代。我有一次前期拜访我的朋友雅克、普瑞维特,在圣保罗教区。我在那里看见一堆火柴盒的收集。为什么这个意象突然地重新浮现在我的记忆?我也说不出来。

It was the kind of collection that it was easy to afford at that time; it was
perhaps the only kind of collection possible. Only the match boxes appeared
as follows: they were all the same and were laid out in an extremely agreeable
way that involved each one being so close to the one next to it that the little
drawer was slightly displaced. As a result, they were all threaded together so
as to form a continuous ribbon that ran along the mantlepiece, climbed the
wall, extended to the molding, and climbed down again next to a door. I
don’t say that it went on to infinity, but it was extremely satisfying from an
ornamental point of view.

在当时,这种收集是他们供应得起的。那或许是仅有可能的一种收集。只是这些火柴盒出现如下:它们形状都相同,以极端令人愉悦的方式安排。这种方式让每个火柴盒如此的靠近它旁边的火柴盒,以致小小的抽屉稍微被更换。结果,它们都被串在一块,为了形成一条连续的带,沿着火炉架,攀爬到墙壁,延伸到转角,然后再次往下延伸到门边。我没有说,它继续到永恒。但是从装饰的观点,这是极端令人满意的。

Yet I don’t think that that was the be all and end all of what was surprising
in this “collectionism,” nor the source of the satisfaction that the collector
himself found there. I believe that the shock of novelty of the effect realized
by this collection of empty match boxes – and this is the essential point –
was to reveal something that we do not perhaps pay enough attention to,
namely, that a box of matches is not simply an object, but that, in the form
of an Erscheinung, as it appeared in its truly imposing multiplicity, it may be
a Thing.

可是,我并不认为那就是最重要的目的,对于这种「收集狂」令人惊奇的东西,收集者在那找到的,也不是满足的来源。我相信,空洞火柴盒的这种收集,造成的这种效果的新奇的震撼,这才是基本的重点。这种新奇的震撼,是要揭露我们或许并没有充分注意的某种东西。换句话说,火柴盒不仅是一个客体,而是以一种Erscheinung 的形式,如同它出现,以它确实富丽的多重性,它可能是一个「物象」。

In other words, this arrangement demonstrated that a match box isn’t simply
something that has a certain utility, that it isn’t even a type in the Platonic
sense, an abstract match box, that the match box all by itself is a thing with
all its coherence of being. The wholly gratuitous, proliferating, superfluous,
and quasi absurd character of this collection pointed to its thingness as match
box. Thus the collector found his motive in this form of apprehension that
concerns less the match box than the Thing that subsists in a match box.

换句话说,这种安排证明,火柴盒并不仅是某件具有某实用性的东西。它甚至并不是一种柏拉图意义的抽象的火柴盒。火柴盒的本身是具有所有它的生命实存的一致性。这种收集的没有缘故,多产,多馀,而且类似荒谬的特性,指向它作为火柴盒的物象。因此,收集者找到他的动机,在这种理解的形式,与其说是跟火柴盒有关,不如说是跟存在于火柴盒的这个物象有关。

Whatever you do, however, you don’t find that in a random way in any
object whatsoever. For if you think about it, the match box appears to be a
mutant form of something that has so much importance for us that it can
occasionally take on a moral meaning; it is what we call a drawer. In this
case, the drawer was liberated and no longer fixed in the rounded fullness of
a chest, thus presenting itself with a copulatory force that the picture drawn
by Prévert’s composition was designed to make us perceive.

可是,无论你们怎么做,你们并没有用任意的方式,在任何的客体,找到那个物象。因为假如你们思考到它,火柴盒似乎是一种变种的东西,对于我们,它具有如此的重要性,以致于它有时会具有一种道德的意义。它是我们所谓的抽屉。在这个情况,抽屉被解放,不再固著于一种箱子的饱满充实。因此呈现它自己,用一种性交的冲力,由普瑞维特所画的这幅图画,被设计来让我们感受到这些性交的冲力。

So now, that little fable of the revelation of the Thing beyond the object
shows you one of the most innocent forms of sublimation. Perhaps you can
even see something emerge in it that, goodness knows, society is able to find
satisfaction in.

现在,超越客体的物象的启示的那个小寓言跟你们显示,其中一种最纯真的升华的形式。或许,你们甚至能够看见某件东西出现在那里面,上天知道,社会能够在那里找到满足。

If it is a satisfaction, it is in this case one that doesn’t ask anything of
anyone.
January 20, 1960

假如这是一种满足,在这个情况,这种满足并没有对任何人要求任何东西。
1960年,1月20日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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