Ethic 105

Ethic 105

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VIII
第八章

The object and the thing
客体与物象

THE KLEINIAN MYTH OF THE MOTHER
克莱恩的母亲的神话

KANTIAN FABLES
康德的寓言

SUBLIMATION AND PERVERSION
升华与变态

THE FABLE OF JACOUES PREVERT, COLLECTOR
雅克、普瑞博特的寓言:收集者

2
It is not just a matter of drawing close to das Ding, but also to its effects, to
its presence at the core of human activity, namely, in that precarious existence
in the midst of the forest of desires and compromises that these very
desires achieve with a certain reality, which is certainly not as confused as
one might imagine.

问题并不仅是靠近「物象」,而且更加靠近它的影响,靠近它的存在,在人类活动的核心。换句话说,在那个不稳定的存在,在欲望与它们跟某种现实界获得的妥协的森林当中。这确实并不像我们可能想象的那么混淆。

The demands of reality, in effect, present themselves readily in the form
of social demands. Freud cannot not consider them seriously, but one has to
indicate immediately the special approach he adopts; it permits him to transcend
the simple opposition between individual and society, in which the
individual is straightway posited as the eventual site of disorder.

事实,现实界的要求迅速地呈现它自己,以社会要求的形式。弗洛依德无法认真地思考它们,但是我们必须立即指示他採用的这个特别的方法。它让他能够超越个人与社会的这个简单的对立。在这个对立当中,个人立即被提出,作为是混乱的最后地点。

Note right off that it is quite unthinkable nowadays to speak abstractly of
society. It is unthinkable historically, and it is unthinkable philosophically,
too, for the reason that a certain Hegel revealed to us the modern function of
the state, and the link between a whole phenomenology of mind and the
necessity which renders a legal system perfectly coherent. A whole philosophy
of law, derived from the state, encloses human existence, up to and
including the monogamous couple that is its point of departure.

请立刻注意,这是相当不可思议的,今天抽象地谈论社会。从历史而言,那是不可思议的,从哲学而言,也是不可思议的。理由是,黑格尔的某些东西跟我们显示国家的现代功用,精神现象学与让司法系统成为一贯性的必要的这个关联。从国家衍化而来的整个的法律哲学,封闭了人类的经验,甚至包括一夫一妻的婚姻,那就是它的出发点。

I am concerned with the ethics of psychoanalysis, and I can’t at the same
time discuss Hegelian ethics. But I do want to point out that they are not the
same. At the end of a certain phenomenology, the opposition between the
individual and the city, between the individual and the state, is obvious. In
Plato, too, the disorders of the soul are also referred to the same dimension
– it’s a matter of the reproduction of the disorders of the city at the level of the psyche. All of that is related to a problematic that is not at all Freudian.

我关心精神分析的伦理学。我无法同时讨论黑格尔的伦理学。但是我确实想要指出,他们并不相同。在某个现象学的结束,个人与城邦之间的对立,个人与国家之间的对立是很明显的。在柏拉图也是一样,灵魂的混乱也被提到相同的维度—问题是在心灵的层次,城邦的混乱是如何复制。所有这些息息相关的问题,根本不是弗洛依德的问题。

The sick individual whom Freud is concerned with reveals another dimension
than that of the disorders of the state and of hierarchical disturbances.
Freud addresses the sick individual as such, the neurotic, the psychotic; he
addresses directly the powers of life insofar as they open onto the powers of
death; he addresses directly the powers that derive from the knowledge of
good and evil.

弗洛依德所关怀的生病的个人,显示另外一个维度,跟国家的混乱与阶层制度的困扰的维度不同。弗洛依的处理这个生病的个人本身,神经症,精神疾病,它直接处理生命的各种力量。因为它们展开死亡的力量。他直接处理从善与恶的知识获得的力量。

Here we are then in the company of das Ding, trying to get along with it.
What 1 am saying should in no way surprise, for I am only trying to point
out to you what is going on in the psychoanalytical community. The analysts
are so preoccupied with the field of das Ding, which responds so well to the
internal necessity of their experience, that the development of analytic theory
is dominated by the existence of the so-called Kleinian school. And it is striking
to note that whatever reservations or even scorn another branch of the
analytic community may express for that school, it is the latter that polarizes
and orients the whole development of analytic thought, including the contribution
of our group.

在此,我们处于「物象」的陪伴,尝试跟它相处和谐。我所正在说的内容,根本不足为奇,因为我仅是跟你们指出,在精神分析的社团,所正在进行的东西。精神分析家是如此地专注于「物象」的领域,这个领域如此清楚地回应他们的经验的内部必要性,以致于精神分析理论的发展,受到所谓的克莱恩学派的存在的支配。耐人寻味的是注意到,精神分析社团的另外一个学派,可能对那个学派表示多么的保留或甚至是藐视。后者将精神分析思想的整体的发展两极化与定位,包括我们的团体的贡献。

Let me suggest then that you reconsider the whole of Kleinian theory with
the following key, namely, Kleinian theory depends on its having situated
the mythic body of the mother at the central place of das Ding.

让我建议,你们应该重新考虑克莱恩整个理论,用以下的解答。换句话说,克莱恩理论依靠将母亲的神秘的身体,定位为「物象」的中心位置。

To begin with, it is in relation to that mythic body that the aggressive,
transgressive, and most primordial of instincts is manifested, the primal
aggressions and inverted aggressions. Also in that register which currently
interests us, namely, the notion of sublimation in the Freudian economy, the
Kleinian school is full of interesting ideas – not only Melanie Klein herself
but also Ella Sharpe, insofar as on this point she follows Klein completely.
Recently, an American author, who isn’t at all Kleinian, has written on sublimation
as the principle of creation in the fine arts. In an article that I shall
come back to later, entitled “A Theory Concerning Creation in the Free Arts,”
after a more or less exhaustive critical examination of Freudian formulations
on sublimation and of Kleinian attempts to explain its full meaning, the author,
M. Lee, ends up attributing to it a restitutive function. In other words, she
finds there more or less of an attempt at symbolic repair of the imaginary
lesions that have occurred to the fundamental image of the maternal body.

首先,这个侵凌,逾越,与最原初的本能,被展示在跟神秘的身体的关系,这个原初的侵凌性与倒错的攻击性。我们目前感到興趣的那个铭记,换句话说,升华的观念, 在弗洛依德的力比多,克莱恩学派充满有趣的观念。不是梅兰妮、克莱恩自己,而是艾拉、夏普,因为在这一点,她完全遵循克莱恩。最近,一位美国的作者,她根本不是克莱恩学派,他曾经写到探讨升华,作为是高雅艺术的创造的原则。有一篇文章,我等一下会会头谈论,标题上「关于高雅艺术的创作理论」。这篇文章钜细靡遗地批判性检视弗洛依德的阐述升华,与克莱恩的企图解释升华的意义,作者,李先生的结论是归功于它具有一种恢复的功用。换句话说,她在那里发现相当多的企图,要用象征修复想象的病变。这些病变曾经发生在母亲的身体的基本的意象。

I will bring the texts involved, if you don’t know them. But I can tell you
right away that the reduction of the notion of sublimation to a restitutive
effort of the subject relative to the injured body of the mother is certainly not
the best solution to the problem of sublimation, nor to the topological,
metapsychological problem itself. There is nevertheless there an attempt to
approach the relations of the subject to something primordial, its attachment
to the fundamental, most archaic of objects, for which my field of das Ding,
defined operationally, establishes the framework. It allows us to conceive of the conditions that opened onto the blossoming of what one might call the
Kleinian myth, allows us also to situate it, and, as far as sublimation is concerned,
to reestablish a broader function than that which one necessarily arrives
at if one accepts Kleinian categories.

我将带来相关的那些文本,假如你们不知道它们。但是我能够立刻告诉你们,将升华的观念还原到主体的恢复的努力,关于母亲的受到损伤的身体,确实并不是升华的问题的最佳解决。也不是拓扑形上心理学的问题本身的最佳解决。那里,仍然会有一个企图要探究主体跟某件原初的东西的关系。主体跟各种基本的,最过时的客体的关系。我对于运作性被定义的「物象」的领域,建立这个架构。它让我们能够构想这些情况,展开进入我们所谓的克莱恩神话的興盛。它让我们也能够定位它,就升华而言,它让我们能够重新建立一个更加广泛的功用,比起我们必然会到达的功用,假如我们接受克莱恩学派的范畴。

The clinicians who do on the whole accept them end up – I will tell you so
now and explain why later – with a rather limited and puerile notion of what
might be called an atherapy. All of that which is included under the heading
fine arts, namely, a number of gymnastic, dance and other exercises, is supposed
to give the subject satisfactions, a measure of solution to his problems,
a state of equilibrium. That is noted in a number of observations that are still
rewarding. I am thinking especially of Ella Sharpe’s articles, which I am far
from depreciating – “Certain Aspects of Sublimation and Delirium” or “Similar
and Divergent Unconscious Determinants, which Subtend the Sublimations
of Pure Art and Pure Science.”

大体上都接受它们的临床医生结果会具有相当有限而且初级的观念,对于所谓的「非治疗」–我现在先告诉你们,以后再解释为什么。所有那些被包括在高雅艺术的这个标题之下的东西,换句话说,许多的体操,舞蹈,与其他的运作被认为是给予主体满足,解决他的问题的策略,一种平衡的状态。在许多仍然很有价值的观察,这点被注意到。我特别想的艾拉、夏普的那些文章—我丝毫没有贬低它们—升华与狂喜的某些层面」,或是「类似与差异的无意识的决定因素,作为纯粹艺术与纯粹科学的升华的对立」。

To read these papers is to realize how such an orientation reduces the
problem of sublimation and yields somewhat puerile results. The approach
involves valorizing activities that seem to be located in the register of a more
or less transitory explosion of supposedly artistic gifts, gifts which appear in
the cases described to be highly doubtful. Completely left out is something
that must always be emphasized in artistic production and something that
Freud paradoxically insisted on, to the surprise of many writers, namely,
social recognition. These objects play an essential role in a question that Freud
doesn’t perhaps take as far as one would like, but which is clearly linked to
the championship of a certain progress – and God knows that such a notion
is far from being unilinear in Freud – to the celebration of something that
achieves social recognition. I won’t go any further for the moment. It is enough
to note that Freud articulates it in a way that may seem completely foreign
to the metapsychological register.

阅读这些论文,就是要体会到,这样的定位方向,会将升华的问题还原并且产生相当初期的结果。这种方法牵涉到推崇一些似乎被找出位置的活动,在被认为是艺术的天赋相当转变中的爆炸。这些天赋出现在那些被描述为相当可疑的个案例。某件东西则是完全地受到忽视,在艺术的创作,那个东西必须总是被强调。弗洛依的矛盾地坚持那个东西,令许多作家大为吃惊,换句话说,让社会承认大为吃惊。这些客体扮演一个重要的角色,弗洛依德或许没有将这个问题,如我们想要地发挥。但是这个问题显而易见跟某种的进步的捍卫息息相关。天晓得,这样一种观念在弗洛依的根本就是单一直线发展—庆幸获得社会承认的某件东西。我目前就适可而止。我们只要注意,弗洛依德表达它,用的方式跟形上心理想的铭记完全陌生的东西。

Note that no correct evaluation of sublimation in art is possible if we overlook
the fact that all artistic production, including especially that of the fine
arts, is historically situated. You don’t paint in Picasso’s time as you painted
in Velazquez’s; you don’t write a novel in 1930 as you did in Stendhal’s time.
This is an absolutely essential fact that does not for the time being need to be
located under the rubric of the collectivity or the individual – let’s place it
under the rubric of culture. What does society find there that is so satisfying?
That’s the question we need to answer.

请注意,对于艺术的升华,没有任何评估师可能的,假如我们忽视这个事实:所有的艺术的创作都在被定位在历史,包括特别是高雅艺术的创作。你们在毕卡索的时代并没有绘画,如同你们在维拉奎兹的时代。在1930年代,你们写的小说,跟你们在史坦达尔的时代也不一样。这是一个绝对基本的事实,目前并没有需要被定位在集体或个人的架构之下。让我们将它放置在文化的架构之下。社会发现什么令人满意的东西?那个问题,我们需要回答。

The problem of sublimation is there, of sublimation insofar as it creates a
certain number of forms, among which art is not alone – and we will concentrate
on one art in particular, literary art, which is so close to the domain of
ethics. It is after all as a function of the problem of ethics that we have to
judge sublimation; it creates socially recognized values.

升华的这个问题,因为它创造某些的形式,在这些形式当中,艺术并不是单独的。我们将会专注讨论艺术,特别是文学的艺术。它是如此的靠近伦理学的领域。它毕竟是作为伦理学的问题的功用,我们必须判断升华。它创造被社会承认的价值。

In order to refocus our discussion onto the level of ethics, one could hardly do better than to refer to that which, however paradoxical it may seem, has proved to be pivotal, namely, the Kantian perspective on the field.

为了重新集中焦点于伦理学的层次,我们最好是提到已经证明是枢纽的东西,无论它似乎是多么矛盾。换句话说,康德对这个领域的观点。

Alongside das Ding, however much we may hope that its weight will be
felt on the good side, we find in opposition the Kantian formula of duty.
That is another way of making one’s weight felt. Kant invokes the universally
applicable rule of conduct or, in other words, the weight of reason. Of course,
one still has to prove how reason may make its weight felt.

无论我们多么希望「物象」的份量将会在善的这边被感觉到,我们发现康德的对责任的公式,可以跟「物象」相提并论。那是另外一种方法,让我们自己的份量被感觉到。康德召唤行为的普遍性运用的规则,换句话说,理性的份量。当然,我们依旧必须证明,理性如何让它的分量被感觉到。

There is always an advantage to reading authors in the original. The other
day I brought to your attention the passage on the theme of Schmerz, of pain,
as a correlative of the ethical act. I observed then that even some of you to
whom these texts were once familiar didn’t pick up on the reference. Well
now, if you open up The Critique of Pure Reason, you will see that in order to
impress upon us the influence of the weight of reason, Kant invents for his
didactic purposes an example which is magnificent in its freshness. A double
fable is involved that is designed to make us feel the weight of the ethical
principle pure and simple, the potential dominance of duty as such against
all, against all that is conceived as vitally desirable.

阅读原创性的作者,总是有个利益。前天,我提醒你们注意关于痛苦的这个主题的段落,作为是伦理行动的相关。我当时观察到,你们有些人即使对这些文本曾经耳熟能详,却对我的指称感到茫然。呵呵,现在,假如你们打开「理性的批判」,你们将会看见,为了让我们对有理性的份量的影响有印象,康德为了他的教学目的,杜撰一个辉煌而新鲜的例子。一个有关的双重的寓言被设计来让我们感觉伦理的简单纯净的原则。责任本身具有潜在的支配力量,对抗所有被构想作为非常被渴望的东西。

The key to the proof lies in a comparison between two situations. Suppose,
says Kant, that in order to control the excesses of a sensualist, one produces
the following situation. There is in a bedroom the woman he currently lusts
after. He is granted the freedom to enter that room to satisfy his desire or his
need, but next to the door through which he will leave there stands the gallows
on which he will be hanged. But that’s nothing, and is certainly not the
basis of Kant’s moral; you will see in a moment where the key to the proof
is. As far as Kant is concerned, it goes without saying that the gallows will
be a sufficient deterrent; there’s no question of an individual going to screw
a woman when he knows he’s to be hanged on the way out. Next comes a
situation that is similar as far as the tragic outcome is concerned, but here it
is a question of a tyrant who offers someone the choice between the gallows
and his favor, on the condition that he bear false witness against his friend.
Kant quite rightly emphasizes here that one can conceive of someone weighing
his own life against that of bearing false witness, especially if in this case
the false witness is without fatal consequences for the person bearing it.

这个证据的解答就在于比较两种情境。康德说,假如为了控制感官主义的过度,我们产生以下的情境。在寝室,有一个他目前欲望的女人。他被给予这个自由,进入她的房间满足他的欲望或他的需求。但是在他通过房间的门边,有一个刑架,他将会被吊死在那里。但是那不算什么,那确实并不是康德的道德的基础。你们不久将会看出,这个证据的解答是什么。就康德而言,自不待言的是,刑架将会是足够吓阻力量。不可能有一个人愿意跟女人做爱,当他知道他出来时,他将会被吊死。就悲剧的结局而言,有第二个类似的情境。这里的问题是,一位暴君提供给某个人这个选择:要上刑架?或是要获得他的恩宠?条件是,他应该作虚假的证词,背叛他的朋友。康德在此相当振振有词地强调:我们能够构型某个人衡量他的生命,对抗作虚假证词的生命,特别是假如在这个情况,虚假的证词并没有致命的后果,对于作这个虚假证词的人。

The striking point is that the power of proof is here left to reality – to the
real behavior of the individual, I mean. It is in the real that Kant asks us to
examine the impact of the weight of reality, which he identifies here with the
weight of duty.

耐人寻味的重点是,证据的力量在此听任于现实界,我的意思是,听任于个人的真实行为。在这个实在界,康德要求我们检视现实界的份量的影响。在此,它认同于责任的份量。

To follow him onto this ground is to discover that he misses something. It
is after all not impossible that under certain conditions the subject of the first
scenario will not so much offer himself up to be executed – at no point is the
fable taken to this point – but will at least consider doing so.

遵循他进入这个领域,就是发现他漏掉某件东西。这毕竟并非是不可能的事,在某些的情况下,第一个情况的主体愿意提供自己接受吊刑。无论如何,这个寓言并没有推到这个程度。但是至少会考虑到这样做。

Our philosopher from Konigsberg was a nice person, and I don’t intend to
imply that he was someone of limited stature or feeble passions, but he doesn’t
seem to have considered that under certain conditions of what Freud would
call Ubersckatzung or overevaluation of the object – and that I will henceforth
call object sublimation – under conditions in which the object of a loving
passion takes on a certain significance (and, as you will see, it is in this direction
that I intend to introduce the dialectic through which I propose to teach
you how to identify what sublimation really is), under certain conditions of
sublimation of the feminine object or, in other words, the exaltation we call
love – a form of exaltation that is historically specific, and to which Freud
gives us the clue, in the short note I spoke to you about the other day, in
which he says that in the modern period the emphasis of the libido is on the
object rather than on the instinct (which is in itself something that poses an
important question, one that, with your permission, I will be introducing
you to, one that requires you to spend a few sessions on something in German
history whose form I referred to the other day in connection with Hamlet,
namely, the Mime, or, in other words, a certain theory and practice of courtly
love – and why wouldn’t we spend some time on that given the time we give
to ethnographic research? – especially if I assure you that it concerns certain
traces within us of the object relation that are unthinkable without these
historical antecedents), under certain conditions of sublimation, then, it is
conceivable for such a step to be taken. After all, a whole corpus of tales
stands for something from a fantasmic, if not from a strictly historical point
of view; moreover, there are a great many stories in the newspapers that are
relevant. All of which leads to the conclusion that it is not impossible for a
man to sleep with a woman knowing full well that he is to be bumped off on
his way out, by the gallows or anything else (all this, of course, is located
under the rubric of passionate excesses, a rubric that raises a lot of other
questions); it is not impossible that this man coolly accepts such an eventuality
on his leaving – for the pleasure of cutting up the lady concerned in
small pieces, for example.

我们的哲学家出生于孔尼博格,他是个好人。我并没有打算暗示,他是身材不高,欠缺热情的人。但是他似乎并没有考虑到,在某些的情况下,弗洛依德所谓的「对客体的过高评估」。我因此称之为「客体的升华」。在某些情况下,一个热爱的激情的客体会具有某种的意义,(如同你们将会看出,就是朝着这个方向,我打算介绍这个辩证法,通过这个辩证法,我建议教导你们如何辨认升华确实是什么),在女性的客体的升华的某些的情况下,或换句话说,我们所谓的爱的升华—这一种升华的形式历史上是明确的,弗洛依德给予我们这个线索。前天,我跟你们谈论到的这个注释,在那里,他说,在现代的时期,力比多是强调客体,而不是强调本能,(本能的本身是某件会形成重要的问题的东西,假如你们容许的话,我将跟你们介绍,这个问题要求你们花几堂课探讨德国历史的某件东西。前天,我提到这个历史的形式,关于哈姆雷特,换句话说,这个Minne,也就是说,骑士之爱的某种理论与实践—为什麽我们不花一些时间来探讨那个特定的时代,我们给予少数种族研究的时代?特别是假如我告诉你们,它关系到我们内部客体关系的痕迹。这些痕迹是不可思议的,假如没有这些历史的先例),在某些的情况下,这是可以构想得到,让这一步骤被採取。毕竟,一整套的故事代表某件从幻想来的东西,即使不是从严格的历史的观点。而且,在报纸有许多相关的故事。所有这些都通往这个结论:这并非是不可能的,让一个男人跟一个女人睡觉,心知肚明,在他出去的时刻,他将会被送死,用吊刑架或其他东西,(当然,所有这一切都被定位在激情过度的架构,这种架构还会引起其他的问题。)这并非是不可能的,这个人冷静地接受如此的结局,当他离开时—譬如,为了获得这种快乐,将相关的这个女士切成粉碎。

The latter is the other case that one can envisage, and the annals of criminology
furnish a great many cases of the type. It is something that obviously
changes the facts of the situation, and at the very least the demonstrative
value of Kant’s example.

后者是我们能够构想的另外一个案例。犯罪学的年鉴提供许多这种的案例。这是某件显而易见改变这个情况的事实。至少,康德的例子具有证明的价值。

I have outlined then two cases that Kant doesn’t envisage, two forms of
transgression beyond the limits normally assigned to the pleasure principle
in opposition to the reality principle given as a criterion, namely, excessive
object sublimation and what is commonly known as perversion. Sublimation
and perversion are both a certain relationship of desire that attracts our attention
to the possibility of formulating, in the form of a question, a different
criterion of another, or even of the same, morality, in opposition to the reality
principle. For there is another register of morality that takes its direction
from that which is to be found on the level of das Ding; it is the register that
makes the subject hesitate when he is on the point of bearing false witness against das Ding, that is to say, the place of desire, whether it be perverse or sublimated.

我已经描绘两个康德没有构想到的案例,两种逾越的形式,超越这些限制,正常被指定给快乐原则,跟被给予作为标准的现实原则对立。换句话说,过分的客体的升华,众所周知的倒错。升华与倒错两者都是欲望的某种关系,吸引我们注意阐释的可能性的欲望,用问题的方式,另外一种,或属于相同道德的不同的标准,跟现实原则对立。因为,还有另外一种道德的铭记,获得它的指导,从「物象」的层次,应该被找到的东西。就是这个铭记让主体犹豫,当他正要做虚假的证词,来违背「物象」。换句话说,欲望的位置,无论它是倒错,或是升华。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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