Ethic 266

Ethic 266
The Ethics of Psychoanalysia
精神分析学的伦理学

Jacques lacan
雅克、拉康

XX
The articulations of the play
戏剧的表达

3
Creon arrives and makes a long speech justifying his actions. But in reality
there is only a docile Chorus there to hear him, a collection of yes-men. There
follows a dialogue between Creon and the Chorus. The Chorus itself hasn’t
altogether given up the idea that there is something excessive in Creon’s statements,
but at the very moment when it is about to express the thought, that
is when the messenger arrives and narrates what has happened, it gets told
off in no uncertain terms.

克瑞恩到达并且发表冗长的演说,替他的行动自圆其说。但是事实上,仅有一群温顺的合唱队在那里倾听,一群阿谀的人。随后就是克瑞恩与合唱队之间的对话。合唱队本身并没有完全放弃这个观念:在克瑞恩的陈述里,有某件过分的东西。但是就在这个时刻,当它即将表达这个思想。那就是当信差到达并且描述所发生的事情,它被斥责,用相对明确的术语。

The character of the messenger in this tragedy is a formidable one. He
turns up shuffling and mumbling, and he says, “You can’t imagine how much
I have been thinking things over on my way here, and how many times I
came close to taking off in a hurry. That’s how a short trip turns into a long
one.” He’s an impressive talker. He even goes so far as to say, “I am sorry to
see that you are of the opinion that it is your opinion that you believe in lies.”

在悲剧里,信差这个人物是一个令人畏惧的人物。他匆匆出现,侃侃而语。他说,「你们无法想象我来此地途中反思维事情。好几次我几乎要匆促出发。那就是为何简短的旅途会成为漫漫长途。他言说得令人动容。他甚至过分地说,「我很遗憾看到,你们认为,你们在谎言里相信你们自己的意见。」

In short, I am suspected of being suspicious. That style of δοκεϊ Ψευδή δοκέϊν
resonates with the discourse of the Sophists, since Creon answers him right
away, “You are in the process of making points on the subject of the δόξα.”

总之,我被怀疑是疑心病。那种δοκεϊ Ψευδή δοκέϊν的风格迴响着辩士的辞说。因为克瑞恩立刻回答他:「你正在表达这些观点,探讨δόξα.的主题。」

In brief, throughout a whole ridiculous scene the messenger engages in idle
speculations about what has happened, and in particular speculations about
their safety, in the course of which the guards are in a state of panic, in which
they nearly come to blows before they draw lots in order to decide which one
of them will be chosen to go as messenger. After having got it all out, he is
the object of a stream of threats from Creon, who is the person in power and
who on this occasion is excessively limited; Creon lets him know that they
can all expect the worst if the guilty person is not found in a hurry. “I’ve
come out of this in quite good shape,” the messenger comments, “since I
haven’t been strung up right away to the end of a branch. They won’t see me
again in a hurry.”

总之,在一整个荒谬的场景过程,信差从事推测,关于所发生的事情。特别是特测有关他们的安全。在这个过程,卫兵处于惊慌的状态。在惊慌中,他们几乎要吵起架来,然后他们抽签,为了决定哪一个人将被选择去当信差。在一切都搞定之后,他成为克瑞恩咆哮威胁的对象。克瑞恩是掌握权力的人,在这个场合,他过分地受到限制。克瑞恩让他知道,他们都做最后打算,假如犯罪的人没有快速地被找到。「我处理的动作俐落,」信差评论说,「因为我没有马上被吊上树端。他们短时间将不会再看见我。」

This scene is a bit like the entrance of the clowns. But the messenger is
quite subtle; he is very clever when he says to Creon, “What is offended just
now? Is it your heart or your ears?” He makes Creon turn around in circles;
Creon is forced to face the situation in spite of himself. The messenger then
explains, “If it is your heart, then it is the one who did the deed that offends
it; I only offend your ears.” We have already reached the height of cruelty
but we’re having fun.

这个场景有点像是小丑的进场。但是信差相当微妙。他聪明灵俐地对克瑞恩说,「现在什么事情被冒犯?你的心?还是你的耳朵?」他让克瑞恩绕著圈子转。克瑞恩不得不面对这个情况,尽管很不情愿。信差於是解释,「假如受到冒犯的是你的心,那是做这件事情的人冒犯你。我仅是冒犯你的耳朵。」我们已经到达残酷的高处,但是我们还幸灾乐祸。

And what happens immediately afterwards? A hymn of praise to mankind.
The Chorus sets out to praise mankind. I am constrained by the time, so I
can’t go on, but I will take up this praise of mankind next time.

随后立即发生什么事情呢?对于人类的赞美圣歌。合唱队出发赞美人类。我因为时间约束,无法继续谈论。但是下次,我将从事这个对人类的赞美。

Then right after the extraordinary tall tale that is this hymn of praise to
man, we see Antigone’s guard turn up without any concern for verisimilitude,
temporal verisimilitude at least. The guard is delighted. He’s had a rare
piece of luck; his responsibility in the case has been absolved once he has laid
hands on the guilty party. Then the Chorus sings its song on mankind’s
relation to Até. I’ll come back to that, too, another time.

就在这个特别的荒诞的故事之后,那就是对于人类的赞美圣歌。我们看见安提贡尼的卫兵出现,丝毫并不关心起伏变化,至少没有关心时间的起伏变化。卫兵很高兴。他难得有这么一次好运气。他对于这个案件的责任已经被免除,一旦他执行对于罪犯的惩处。然后,合唱队歌颂人类跟悲惨命运的关系。下一次,我将回头谈论它。

Next comes Hemon, who is Creon’s son and Antigone’s fiance. He begins
a dialogue with his father. The only confrontation between the father and son
causes the dimension to appear that I began to discuss concerning the relations
of man to his good; there is a moment of doubt, a hesitation. This point
is extremely important if we want to be clear about Creon’s stature. We will
see later what he is, that is, like all executioners and tyrants at bottom, a
human character. Only the martyrs know neither pity nor fear. Believe me,
the day when the martyrs are victorious will be the day of universal conflagration.
The play is calculated to demonstrate that fact.

然后赫门进来。他是克瑞恩的儿子,安提贡尼的未婚夫。他开始跟他的父亲对话。父亲跟儿子的仅有的冲突引起这个维度出现。我开始讨论,关于人跟他的善行的关系。有一个怀疑的时刻,一种犹豫。这点是极端重要,假如我们想要清楚关于克瑞恩的姿态。我们以后会看出他是什么样子。换句话说,就像所有的行政执行与暴君的,骨子里,他是一个人的性格。仅有烈士才不知道同情与恐惧。请相信我,当烈士胜利的那天,将会是普遍性的烈火燃烧的那天。这个戏剧被设计来证明这个事实。

Creon doesn’t lose his nerve, far from it; his son leaves to the sound of the
most terrible threats. And what bursts forth again at that very moment? The
Chorus once more, and what does it have to say? “Ερως άνικάτε μάχαν, “Invincible love of combat.” I suppose that even those who do not know Greek have heard at one time or other those three words that have come down through the centuries with a number of melodies in their wake.

克瑞恩并没有丧失他的勇气。根本没有丧失。他的儿子离开,带着最可怕的威胁的声音。在那个时刻,什么东西再次突然出现?再一次是合唱队,合唱队必须说些什么?”Ερως άνικάτε μάχαν, “「不屈不桡的博斗之爱」。我认为,即使那些不懂希腊文的人们,都曾经在某个时刻听过那三个字词,它们已经流传了好几个世纪,随后还有许多的音乐歌咏。

That song bursts forth at the very moment when Creon decrees the punishment
Antigone will be made to undergo: she will be placed alive in a tomb
– something that doesn’t suggest too tender an imagination. Let me remind
you that in Sade it is number seven or eight on the list of ordeals to which
the hero is submitted – the reference is a useful one for you to realize the
significance of what is involved here. It is precisely at this moment that the
Chorus says in so many words: “This story is driving us mad; we are losing
our grip; we are going out of our minds; as far as this child is concerned we
are moved to . . . ,” what the text, using a term whose appositeness I ask
you to remember, calls ϊμβρος εναργή•;.

那首歌就在那个时刻突然出现,当克瑞恩命令:安提贡尼将被迫经历的惩罚。她将会被活生生地关进坟墓里面。这种事情,想像起来就很狰狞。让我提醒你们,在萨德的书,这位英雄被迫承受的考验名单的第七或第八项。为了让你们体会到在此所牵涉的东西的重要性,提一下是很有用的。确实就是在这个时刻,合唱队详细叙述:「这个故事正让我们发狂,我们正丧失我们的掌握;我们将丧失我们的理智;就这个小孩而言,我们被感动、、、」这个文本所谓的ϊμβρος εναργή•,使用一个术语,这个术语的适当性,我要求你们记住。

“Ιμίρος is the same term that in the Phaedrus points to what I am trying
to grasp here as the reflection of desire of the kind by which even the gods
are bound. It is the term used by Jupiter to designate his relations with Ganymede.
“Ιμβρος εναργής is literally desire made visible. This is what appears
at the moment when the long scene that leads up to the punishment takes place.

“Ιμίρος” 是相同的术语,在「费德拉斯」,它指向我正在此尝试理解的东西,作为是那种欲望的省思。即使是众神都受到那种欲望约束。这就是邱比特使用的术语,用来指明他跟甘梅笛的关系。”Ιμβρος εναργής” 则是实质上显露可见的欲望。这是出现在那个时刻的东西,当冗长的场景促成惩罚的执行。

After Antigone’s speech, in which is to be found the passage discussed by
Goethe that I talked about the other day, the Chorus starts up again with a
mythological song in which at three different moments it evokes three especially
dramatic destinies that are all on the boundary between life and death,
the boundary of the still living corpse. Antigone herself even refers to the
image of Niobe, who is imprisoned in the narrow cavity of a rock and will be
exposed forever to the assault of rain and weather. It is around this image of
the limit that the whole play turns.

在安提贡尼的言说之后,在那儿,前天我谈论的歌德讨论的这个段落能够被发现。合唱队再次开始咏唱神话之歌。在歌里的三个不同的时刻,它召唤三个特别戏剧性的命运。这些命运都是处于生与死之间的边境。依旧还算是行尸走肉的边境。安提贡尼自己甚至提到成为奈奥北的意象。奈奥北被囚禁于狭窄的岩石空隙里,将永远被暴露于风吹雨淋的攻击。整个的戏剧就环绕这个囚禁的意象打转。

At the moment when it is moving more and more toward a kind of explosive
climax of divine delirium, the blind Tiresias appears. He doesn’t simply
announce the future, however, because the revelation of his prophecy has a
role to play in the preparation of that future. In his dialogue with Creon he
withholds what he has to say until the latter – in whose rigid mind everything
is political or, in other words, a question of interest – is foolish enough to say
a sufficient number of insulting things for Tiresias to come out with his
prophecy. The value attributed to the words of a seer is, as in all circumstances
where tradition counts, decisive enough for Creon to give in and resign
himself to countermanding his own orders, which, of course, proves catastrophic.

在这个时刻,当它越来越朝向某种神性的狂喜的爆炸性高潮。盲眼的泰瑞西亚斯出现。可是,他不仅宣佈未来,因为他的预言的启示扮演一个角色,替那个未来做准备。在他跟克瑞恩的对话,他保留他必须说的话,留到后来。在克瑞恩的严酷的心里,每样东西都是政治。或换句话说,利益的问题。为了让泰瑞西亚斯讲出他的预言,而说出许多的侮辱的言辞,并非是明智之举。归属于预言家的文词的价值,如同在传统举足轻重的所有的环境里。这个价值足够重要,让克瑞恩屈服,并且顺从于正式撤销他自己的命令。当然,那些命令证明是灾难性。

The situation is heightened even further. In its penultimate appearance the
Chorus breaks out in a hymn to the most hidden and supreme god, Dionysos.
The spectators imagine that this is once again a hymn of liberation, that
everyone is comforted, everything will work out all right. Those, on the other
hand, who knew what Dionysos and his savage followers represent realize
that the hymn breaks out because the limits of the field of the conflagration
have been breached

这个情况更进一步被强化。在合唱队倒数第二次出现,它们突然唱出圣歌,赞美最隐秘及崇高的神,戴奥尼修斯。观众想象,这再次是解放自由的圣歌。每个人都感到欣慰。每件事情结局都美好。在另一方面,知道戴奥尼修斯与跟随他的野蛮民族代表什么的那些人们体会到,这首圣歌突然咏唱,因为烈火的领域的限制已经被突破。

After that there is hardly room for the final twist of the action, the one in
which the deluded Creon goes and knocks in desperation at the doors of the
tomb within which Antigone has hanged herself. Hemon kisses her and emits
a few final groans, but we do not know what happened in the sepulcre any
more than we know what goes on when Hamlet goes down into the sepulcre.
Antigone was after all walled in at the limit of Ate, and one is justified in
wondering at which moment Hemon entered the tomb. As when the actors turns their faces away from the spot where Oedipus disappears, we don’t know
what happened in Antigone’s tomb.

在此之后,行动的最后的转变几乎没有空间。在个行动里面,虚情假意的克瑞恩前去绝望地敲打坟墓的门。安提贡尼已经在里面上吊而死。赫门吻着她,发出几句最后的哀嚎。但是我们并不知道在坟墓里发生什么事。正如我们并不知道正在进行什么事,当哈姆雷特走进坟墓。安提贡尼毕竟被囚禁于悲惨命运Ate 的限制里面。我们很有理由想要知道,在什么时刻赫门进入坟墓。如同在伊狄浦斯消失的地点,演员们转过头,我们并不知道在安提贡尼的坟墓里,发生什么事情。

In any case, when Hemon emerges, he is possessed by divine μανία. He
shows all the signs of someone who has lost his reason. He attacks his father,
misses him, and kills himself. And when Creon returns to the palace where
a messenger has already preceded him, he discovers his wife is dead.

无论如何,当赫门出现。他被神圣的μανία.附身。他显示所有的迹象:某个已经丧失他的理智。他攻击他的父亲,没有击中,然后杀死他自己。当克瑞恩回到宫殿,一位信差早先于他到达,他发现他的妻子死掉。

At that point the text shows us, in terms that are calculated to remind us
where the limit is situated, a Creon who is out of his mind demanding that
he be carried off – “Drag me out by my feet.” And the Coryphaeus manages
to find the strength to engage in a play of words in saying, “You’re right to
say that: the pain that one feels in one’s feet is the best kind of pain; unlike
other kinds, it doesn’t last long.”

在那个时刻,文本跟我们显示,用被精心计算的术语提醒我们,这个限制的位置所在,克瑞恩已经发疯了,他要求他应该被带走。「将我的脚拖出来。」科利费伊斯成功地找到力量,来参与文字的遊戏说:「你这样说是正确的:我们在脚感觉的痛苦,是那种痛苦;不像其他的痛苦,它没有延续很久。」

Sophocles is no pedantic schoolmaster, but unfortunately he has been
translated by pedants. In any case, that’s how the corrida ends. Have the
arena raked over, the bull removed, and cut off his you-know-what, if there
is any left. That’s the style in which he has been rendered. May he go off to
the bright sound of little bells.

索福克利斯并不是爱卖弄学问的学校老师。但是不幸地,翻译他的人都是一些书呆子。无论如何,这场情爱斗牛戏就这样结束了。让斗牛场重新整理,公牛被移走,被切除他的什么,假如还有任何东西剩下的话。那就是他曾经被摆弄的这种风格。但愿他带着牛铃的铃铛响声离去。

It is more or less in these terms that the play of Antigone has been translated.
Next time I will take a little time to point out a few essential points
that will enable you to link my interpretation directly to the very terms used
by Sophocles.

安提贡尼的这个戏剧曾经被翻译,就是用这些术语。下次,我将花费一些时间,指出一些基本的要点。那会让你们将我的解释直接连接到索福克利斯使用的术语。

I hope that that will take no more than half of my time, and that I will be
able to speak afterwards about what Kant has to say on the subject of the
beautiful.
June I, I960

我希望那仅会花费我一半的时间。以后,我将能够谈论有关康德所必需说的话,有关美的主题。
1960年 6月1日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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