Ethic 262

Ethic 262
The Ethics of Psychoanalysia
精神分析学的伦理学

Jacques lacan
雅克、拉康

XX
The articulations of the play
戏剧的表达

2
Antigone is the heroine. She’s the one who shows the way of the gods. She’s
the one, according to the Greek, who is made for love rather than for hate.
In short, she is a really tender and charming little thing, if one is to believe
the bidet-water commentary that is typical of the style used by those virtuous
writers who write about her.

安提贡尼是在位女英雄。她是显示众神之道的人。依照希腊人的说法,她是为爱而生,而不是为恨而生的。总之,她确实是一位温柔而迷人的尤物,假如我们想要相信那些品德的作家写到关于她所用的浮浅的评论的典型风格。

By way of introduction, I would just like to make a few remarks. And I
will come right to the point in stating the term that is at the center of Antigone’s
whole drama, a term that is repeated twenty times, and that given the
shortness of the text, sounds like forty – which, of course, does not prevent
its not being read – άτη.

作为介绍,我仅是想要发表一些谈论。我将直接谈论这点,陈述作为安提贡尼的戏剧的中心的术语,这个术语曾经被重复二十次。考虑到文本的简短,它听起来像是四十次。当然,这并没有阻止它没有被阅读– άτη.

It is an irreplaceable word. It designates the limit that human life can only briefly cross. The text of the Chorus is significant and insistent – εκτος άτας.
Beyond this Ate, one can only spend a brief period of time, and that’s where
Antigone wants to go. It’s not a moving little journey at all. One learns from
Antigone’s own mouth testimony on the point she has reached: she literally
cannot stand it anymore. Her life is not worth living. She lives with the
memory of the intolerable drama of the one whose descendence has just been
destroyed in the figures of her two brothers. She lives in the house of Creon;
she is subject to his law; and that is something she cannot bear.

这是一个无可替代的字词。它指明这个限制,人类的生命仅能够简短地跨越。合唱队的文本很重要而是坚持–εκτος άτας。 超越这个法则之外,我们仅能够渡过一段简短的时期。那就是安提贡尼想要去的地方。那并不是感动人的小旅途。我们从安提贡尼到达的始刻,自己的嘴中证词获知:她实质上无法忍受它。她的生命是不值得活下去。她生活带着这个无法承受的戏剧的记忆,因为她的家族刚刚以她的两位兄弟的榜样被毁灭。她生活在克瑞恩的家中,她隶属于这个法则;那就是她无法忍受的东西。

She cannot bear, you tell yourselves, to live with someone whom she abhors.
But why not after all? She is fed and housed, and in Sophocles, she isn’t
married off like Giraudoux’s Electra. Don’t imagine by the way that Giraudoux
invented that. It was Euripides, but in his play she isn’t married off to
the gardener. So that’s the situation: Antigone cannot bear it, and it weighs
down on her in such a way as to explain the resolution, which is affirmed
from the beginning in her dialogue with Ismene.

她无法承受。你告诉你自己,跟某位她憎恶的人生活在一块。但是毕竟有何不可呢?她养尊处优。在索福克利斯笔下,她并没有像基拉道的伊列克脱拉那样嫁出去。请你们不要顺便想象,基拉道杜撰那件事。那是尤里披底斯写的。但是在他的戏剧里,她并没有嫁给那个园丁。所以,就是那个情况。安提贡尼无法承受它。它沉重地压在她身上,以这样一种方式,以致于解释这个解决。从她开头跟艾斯民的对话,这种解决被证实。

This dialogue is of an exceptional harshness. Ismene points out that “Really,
given our situation, we don’t have much room to maneuver, so let’s not make
things worse.” Antigone jumps on her right away, saying, “Especially now,
don’t ever say that again, for even if you wanted to, I won’t have anything to
do with you.” And the term εχϋρα, emnity, is used in connection with her
relationship with her sister and what she will find in the other life when she
finds her dead brother again. She who later on will say, “I am made for love
rather than hate,” is immediately introduced with the word emnity.
In the course of events, when her sister comes back to her to share her
fate, and even though she hasn’t committed the forbidden deed, Atigone
will reject her also with a cruelty and a scorn that are consciously calculated.
She says to Ismene, “Go back to your Creon, since you love him so.”

这个对话属于特别的严酷。艾斯民指出,「确实地,假如考虑我们的情境,我们并没有很多可运作的空间。所以让我们不要将事情弄糟糕。」安提贡尼立即接续她说:「特别是现在,请你不要再说那个。因为即使你想要,我也不会跟你有任何牵连。」「敌意」这个术语被使用,关于她跟她的妹妹的关系,以及她将会发现的东西,当面临另外一种生活,在她再次找到她死去的兄长时。她后来将会说「我天生是为爱而活,而非为恨而活」。这句话随后立即介绍「敌意」这个字词。在事件的过程,当她的妹妹回到她,要跟她分担这个命运。即使她还没有犯上这个被禁止的行为,安提贡尼将会拒绝她,带着既残酷又嘲讽,那是特意算计好的。她对艾斯民说:「回去你的克瑞恩的家中,因为你如此爱他。」

This then is how the enigma of Antigone is presented to us: she is inhuman.
But we shouldn’t situate her at the level of the monstrous, for what
would that mean from our point of view? That’s all right for the Chorus,
which is present throughout the whole story, and which at a certain moment
after one of those breath-taking lines that are typical of Antigone, cries out,
“She is ωμός.” We translate that as best we can by “inflexible.” It literally
means something uncivilized, something raw. And the word “raw” comes
closest, when it refers to eaters of raw flesh. That’s the Chorus’s point of
view. It doesn’t understand anything. She is as ωμός as her father – that’s
what the Chorus says.

於是,这就是安提贡尼的谜团被呈现给于我们的样子。她是个怪胎。但是我们不应该将她定位在这个怪胎的层次,因为从我们的观点,那将意味着什么?对于合唱队,那是适合的,故事从头到尾,合唱队都在那里。在某个时刻,在其中一段令人惊心动魄的安提贡尼的典型台词,她喊叫着「她是ωμός。」我们尽快那将它翻译为「不屈不桡」。它实质上意味着某件不文明的东西,某件粗野的东西。那就是合唱队的观点。它什么都不了解。她像她的父亲一样都是不屈不桡ωμός。那就是合唱队说的。

What does it mean to us if Antigone goes beyond the limits of the human?
What does it mean if not that her desire aims at the following – the beyond
of Ate?

假如安提贡那跨越作为人的这个限制,那对于我们意味着什么?它的意思难道不就是她的欲望目标朝着以下:悲惨命运Ate 的超越?

That same word Ate is to be found in “atrocious.” That’s what is involved
here, and that’s what the Chorus repeats at a given moment in its speech with an emphasis that is technical. One does or does not approach Ate, and when one approaches it, it is because of something that is linked to a beginning and a chain of events, namely, that of the misfortune of the Labdacides family.

悲惨命运Ate 相同的这个字,在「残酷atrocious」这个字被发现。「那是在此牵涉的东西。那是合唱队重复的东西,在某特时刻,在它跟技术性的强调的言词。我们确实接近或没有接近「悲惨命运Ate」。当我们接近它时,那是因为某件东西跟开始与一连锁的事件息息相关,换句话说,跟拉达西底斯家族的不悲惨命运息息相关。

As one starts to come close to it, things come together in a great hurry, and
what one finds at the bottom of everything that goes on at every level in this
family, the text tells us, is a μέριμνα, which is almost the same word as
μνήμη, with an emphasis on “resentment.” But it is very wrong to translate
it thus, for “resentment” is a psychological notion, whereas μέριμνα is one
of those ambiguous words that are between the subjective and the objective,
and that properly speaking give us the terms of signifying speech. The μέριμνα
of the Labdacides is that which drives Antigone to the border of Ate.

如同我们开始接近它,事情匆促地汇集在一块。我们所发现的,在这个家庭的每个层次进行的一切。文本告诉我们,这是一个μέριμνα 那跟 μνήμη 几乎是相同的字词。强调「怨恨」。但是这是错误的,将它这样翻译。因为「怨恨」是一个心理的观念,而μέριμνα 则是其中一个模糊暧昧的字词,处于主观与客观之间。适当来说,它们给予我们能指化的言说的术语。拉达西底斯的家族的Μέριμνα 就是驱使安提贡尼到达悲惨命运Ate的边界。

One can no doubt translate Ate by “misfortune,” but it doesn’t have anything
to do with misfortune. It is this meaning that is assigned by doubtless
implacable gods, as she might say, which renders her pitiless and fearless. It
is also this that, so as to have her appear in the course of carrying out her act,
causes the poet to create the following fascinating image, namely, that first
occasion when during the night she goes and covers her brother’s body with
a fine layer of dust, so that it is disguised enough to be hidden from view.
One cannot, of course, expose to the eyes of the world that carrion flesh
visited by dogs and birds, who come to tear off strips and carry them away,
as the text says, only to leave them on the altars in town centers where they
promote horror and pestilence.

无可置疑地,我们能够将Ate翻译为「悲惨命运」。但是它跟悲惨命运并没有丝毫关系。这个意义无可置疑是受到无情的众神所指定。如她所说,这让她变得没有同情心与没有恐惧。也就是这个,引起诗人创造以下的迷人的意象,为了让她出现在实践她的行为的过程。换句话说,在夜晚她前去用一层泥土掩埋她的兄长的过程,那第一个场合。这个场合被足够伪装,被隐藏无法看见。当然,我们无法将野狗与鸟食噬的尸体腐肉,暴露在众人的眼前,因为它们已经被撕裂叼走,。如同文本所说,仅是被留置在城邦中心广场的祭坛,让人产生恐惧与瘟疫。

Thus Antigone carries out the deed the first time. But what goes beyond a
given limit must not be seen. The messenger goes and tells Creon what has
happened, assuring him that no trace has been found, that there is no way of
knowing who did it. The order is given to scatter the dust once again. But
this time Antigone is caught in the act. Upon his return the messenger describes
what happened in the following terms: first, they removed the dust that was
covering the body, and then, they placed themselves up-wind so as to avoid
the awful smells, because it stank. But a strong wind began to blow, and the
dust started to fill the air and even, the text tells us, the heavens themselves.
And at the very moment when everyone tries to escape, to cover their heads
with their arms, and to go to earth at the spectacle of the change in nature,
little Antigone appears at the height of the total darkness, of the cataclysmic
moment. She appears once more beside the corpse, emitting moans, the text
says, like a bird that has just lost its young.

因此,安提贡尼首次实践这样的行为。但是超越某个特定的东西,一定不要被看见。这个信差前去告诉克瑞恩,曾经发生什么事,让他确定,没有痕迹曾经被发现。不可能知道是谁幹的。这个秩序被给予,为了再次散开这些泥土。但是这次,安提贡尼在从事的时候被逮住。当信差回来时,他描述所发生的事情,用以下的术语:首先,他们清开掩埋尸体的泥土,然后,他们迅速离开,为了避免那些可怕的恶臭。因为它发出臭味。但是一阵强风开始吹,泥灰开始飘散空中,文本甚至告诉我们,飘到天庭。就在这个时刻,当每个人尝试逃避,用双手臂盖住他们的头颅,然后去挖掘自然改变的景象,小安提贡尼出现在完全黑暗的高度,在灾难时刻的颠峰。她再次出现在尸体的旁边,发出哀嚎,文本说,就像一隻刚刚散失它的幼雛的母鸟。

It’s a very strange image. And it is even stranger that it should be taken
up and repeated by other authors. I found in Euripides’ Phoenissae four lines
where she is also compared to the lonely mother of a lost brood, who emits
pathetic cries. That proves what the image of a bird always symbolizes in
classical poetry. Let us not forget how close pagan myth is to ideas of metamorphosis
– remember the transformation of Philomen and Baucis. It is the nightingale that appears in Euripides as the image of that which a human being is transformed into through his plaintive cries. The limit we have reached here is the one where the possibility of metamorphosis is located – metamorphosis that has come down through the centuries hidden in the-works of Ovid and that regains its former vitality, its energy, during that turning point of European sensibility, the renaissance, and bursts forth in the theater of Shakespeare. That’s what Antigone is.

这是一个奇怪的意象。更加奇怪的是,其他的作者竟然照本宣科。我在尤利披底斯的Phoenissae 发现有四行,描述她被比喻为丧失幼雛的孤单的母鸟,发出凄楚的哀嚎。那证明,鸟的这个意象总是象征的东西,在古典诗里。让我们不要忘记,异教徒的途径是多么靠近变形的观念。请记住费洛门与巴西斯。夜鹰出现在尤利披底斯笔下,作为是人类被转变成为的这个意象,通过他的哀伤的哭嚎。我们在此到达的限制,是变形的可能性被找到的位置。几世纪以来,隐藏在奥维德的著作的变形记曾经传留下来,重新恢复它先前的生命力,它的能源,在欧洲的启智的转捩点,文艺复兴。并且在莎士比亚的戏院,突然显现。那就是安提贡尼的本质。

The movement of the play toward its climax will from now on be obvious
to you.

这个戏剧朝向它的高潮的动作,从现在开始,对于你们将是显而易见。

I must clear the ground further, but it’s impossible not to point in passing
to a few lines spoken by Antigone. Lines 48, 70, and 73, where Antigone
expresses a kind of idiocy that is apparent at the end of a sentence in the word
μ£τά. Μετά means “with” or “after.” Prepositions don’t have the same function
in Greek as they do in French, in the same way that particles play a different
role in English from what we know in French. Μετά is, properly speaking,
that which implies a break. In response to Creon’s edict, she says, “But it
has nothing to do with my concerns.” At another moment, she says to her
sister, “If you wanted to come with me now and to carry out the sacred task,
I would no longer accept you.” She says to her brother, “I will lie down, my
loving friend, my almost lover, here with you.” Μετά is placed each time at
the end of the line in an inverse position, for normally this preposition like
the word “with” is placed in front of the noun. This feature implies in a
signifying form the kind of fierce presence Antigone represents.

我必须更进一步清理场地。但是我不可能不顺便指出,安提贡尼在48,70,73行,言说的几行。在那里,安提贡尼表达一种痴心妄想。在句子的结尾的这个字μ£τά.,这种痴心妄想,显而易见。Μετά 的意思是「跟、、一块」或是「以后」。在希腊文,这些命题并没有相同的功用,如同它们在法文的功用。同样地,在英文扮演的因素也不同于在法文我们所知道的。适当地说,Μετά 暗示着一种断裂。回应克瑞恩的敕令,她说,「但是这「跟」我的关怀没有丝毫关系。」在另外一个时刻,她对她的妹妹说,「假如你现在想要「跟」我一块,去执行那个神圣的工作,我将不再接纳你。「她对她的兄长说,「我将躺下来,我亲爱的朋友,我几乎的情人,在此「跟」你躺在一块。每次Μετά 被放置在这行的字尾,用倒转的方式,因为正常来说,像with这样的介系词都放置在名词前面。在能指化的形式,这个特征暗示安提贡尼代表的这种强悍的存在。

I will skip the details of her dialogue with Ismene. The commentary could
go on and on; it could take at least a year. I am sorry that I cannot contain
the extraordinary substance of the style and metre involved in the framework
of a seminar. I will pass on. After this opening, which demonstrates that the
die is already cast, we have the Chorus. This alternation between action and
the Chorus is something that, I believe, recurs five times.

我将跳跃过她跟艾斯门对话的细节。这种评论能够不断继续下去,至少要花个一年。我很抱歉,在研讨班的这个架构里,我无法包括所牵涉到的风格与韵律的特别的材料。我将继续下去。在这个开场白之后,它证明这个命运的骰子已经掷下,我们拥有合唱队为证。行动与合唱队之间的轮换是某件我相信我重复过五遍的东西。

But be careful. It is said that tragedy is an action. Is it άγειν? Is it πράτταν?
The signifier introduces two orders in the world, that of truth and that of the
event. But if one wants to retain it at the level of man’s relations to the
dimension of truth, one cannot also at the same time make it serve to punctuate
the event. In tragedy in general there is no kind of true event. The hero
and that which is around him are situated with relation to the goal of desire.
What occurs concerns subsidence, the piling up of different layers of the
Presence of the hero in time. That’s what remains undetermined: in the collapse
of the house of cards represented by tragedy, one thing may subside
before another, and what one finds at the end when one turns the whole thing
around may appear in different ways.

但是请小心。据说悲剧是一种行动。它是άγειν? 还是πράτταν?这个能指介绍世界的两个秩序,真理的秩序与事件的秩序。但是假如我们想要包留它,在人与真理的维度的关系的层次。我们也无法在相同的时刻让它用来强调这个事件。在一般的戏剧里,并没有这样的真实的事件。英雄与环绕他四周的东西,都被定位在跟欲望的目标的关系。所发生的事情,都跟跟崩塌息息相关,英雄在时间中的存在不同层级的累积。那就是由悲剧所代表的牌屋顶的崩塌中,始终保留没有被损坏的东西。某件东西可能存在于另外一件东西之前。我们最后所发现的东西,将整个事情倒转过来。结果出现的方式不同。

An illustration of that is the following: after having broadcast the fact that he will never yield an inch in his responsibilities as ruler, Creon starts to lose his nerve once old Tiresias has finished giving him a piece of his mind. He then says to the Chorus, “Shouldn’t I perhaps, after all. . . perhaps yield?” He says it in terms that, from the point of view of what I am arguing here, are extraordinarily precise, for Αte is used there again with a special appositeness. At that moment it is clear that if he had been to the grave before finally and belatedly granting the corpse its funeral honors, something that does after all take a little time, the worst might have been avoided.

其中一个例子如下:在广播这个事实之后,他将永远退让一步,在他作为统治者的责任。克瑞恩开始丧失他的勇气,一旦那我老泰瑞西亚斯预言家给予他一件劝告。他因此对合唱队说,「或许,我毕竟应该退让?」他用这些术语,从我在此正在主张的这个观点,这些术语是特别确实的。因为Ate在那里再次被使用,带有特别的合适。在那个时刻,显而易见地,假如他当时曾经到坟墓,来得及给尸体拥有葬礼的荣誉,最糟糕的事情本来可以避免,因为这毕竟并不需花费很久时间。

Only there it is, it is probably not for nothing that he begins with the
corpse; he wants, as they say, to come to terms with his conscience. Believe
me, that is always the element that leads everyone astray whenever reparations
are to be made. I have only given you a little illustration, for at every
moment in the unfolding of the drama the question of temporality, of the
way in which the threads in place are joined together, remains decisive,
essential. But it is no more comparable to an action than what I referred to
earlier as subsidence, as a collapse back onto its premises.

只是或许这并非是徒劳无意义,如人们所说,他开始跟尸体在一块。他想要跟他自己的良心妥协。请相信我,总是那个因素引导每个人迷失,每当补偿应该被做的时候。我仅是给予你们一个小例子。因为在每个时刻,在受到质疑的戏剧展开的时刻,分散的线索被联结起来,始终作为决定性,作为基本。但是它不再是被比喻为一个行动,而是我早先提到的崩塌,崩塌成为它的假设。

Thus, after the first dialogue between Antigone and Ismene, the music,
the Chorus, the song of liberation, Thebes is beyond the power of those
whom one might well call the barbarians. The style of the poem, which is
that of the Chorus, represents Polynices’s soldiers and his shadow strangely
enough as a huge bird hovering above the houses. The image of our modern
wars as something that glides overhead was already made concrete in 441 B.C.

因此,在安提贡尼与艾斯门之间的第一次对话之后,音乐,合唱队,解放自由的歌声。泰伯河是超越那些所谓的野蛮民族的权力之外。这首诗的风格,就是合唱队的风格。它足够奇特地代表波利尼西斯的士兵们与他的阴魂,作为是一隻巨大的鸟,盤旋在那些房屋之上。我们现代战争的意象是某件从头上飞翔过的东西,在纪元前441年,已经具体被表现。

Once this first musical entrance is finished – and one cannot help feeling
that there is some irony involved on the part of the author – it’s over or, in
other words, things are about to begin.

有一次,这个首次的音乐的进入被完成。我们禁不住地感觉到,在作者的这方面,会牵涉到某种的反讽。事情已经过去,换句话说,事情即将开始。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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