Ethic 250

Ethic 250
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XIX
第19章
The splendor of Antigone
安提贡尼的辉煌

THE MEANING OF CATHARSIS
心理净化的意义

HEGEL’S WEAKNESS
黑格尔的弱点

THE FUNCTION OF THE CHORUS
合唱队的功用

GOETHE’S WISH
歌德的愿望

3
What does one find in Antigone? First of all, one finds Antigone.

我们在安提贡尼发现什么?首先,为民发现安提贡尼。

Have you noticed that she is only ever referred to throughout the play with
the Greek word ή παις, which means “the child”? I say that as a way of
coming to the point and of enabling you to focus your eye on the style of the
thing. And, of course, there is the action of the play.

你们曾经注意到,她是戏剧从头到尾唯一被提到,用这些希腊字ή παις。它的意思是「小孩」?我的意思是,作为一种谈到重点,并且让你们能够专注你们的眼光,看到这件事情的风格。当然,这戏剧有动作。

The question of the action in tragedy is very important. I don’t know why
someone whom I’m not very fond of, probably because he is always being
shoved under my nose, someone called La Bruyere, said that we have arrived
too late in a world that is too old in which everything has already been said.
It’s not something I’ve noticed. As far as the action of tragedy is concerned,
there’s still a lot to be said. It’s far from being resolved.

在悲剧的动作的问题是非常重要的。我不知道为什么我并不很喜欢的某个人,可能是因为他总是被推挤到我面前,某位名叫布鲁维尔的人。他说,我们到达得太迟,在这个太古老的这个世界,每样东西都已经被说过了。这并不是我曾经注意的事情。就悲剧的行动而言,依旧还有许多话可说。问题根本还没有被解决。

To return to Erwin Rohde, whom I complimented just now, I was astonished
to find that in another chapter he explains a curious conflict between
the tragic author and his subject, a conflict that is caused by the following:
the laws of the genre oblige the author to choose as frame a noble action in
preference to a mythic action. I suppose that is so that everyone already knows
what it’s all about, what’s going on. The action has to be emphasized in
relation to the ethos, the personalities, the characters, the problems, and so
forth, of the time. If that’s true, then Mr. Anouilh was right to give us his
little fascist Antigone. The conflict that results from the dialogue between the
poet and his subject is, according to Erwin Rohde, capable of generating
conflicts between action and thought, and in this connection, echoing a great
many things that have already been said before, he refers with some relevance
to the figure of Hamlet.

回到欧文、罗德,我刚才恭维过他,我惊奇地发现,在另外一个章节,他解释一个奇怪的冲突,处于悲剧作者于他的主体之间。这一种冲突被以下的艺术的法则所引起,强迫作者选择一个高贵的行动,胜过于一个神秘的行动,作为一个框架。我认为那会是那样,是每个人都已经知道那是什么一回事,什么正在进行。行动必须被强调,相关于当时的悲情,人格,人物,问题,等等。假如那是真实的,那么阿诺伊尔是正确,他的剧本表现安提贡尼有点法西斯式。依照欧文、罗德的说法,在诗人与他的主体之间的对话造成的冲突,能够产生行动与思想之间的冲突。关于这点,这个冲突能够迴响许多以前曾经被说过的事情,他相关地提到哈姆雷特的人物。

It’s entertaining, but it must be difficult for you to accept, if what I explained
last year about Hamlet meant anything to you. Hamlet is by no means a drama
of the importance of thought in the face of action. Why on the threshold of
the modern period would Hamlet bear witness to the special weakness of
future man as far as action is concerned? I am not so gloomy, and nothing
apart from a clichi of decadent thought requires that we should be, although
it is a cliché Freud himself falls into when he compares the different attitudes
of Hamlet and Oedipus toward desire.

它具有娱乐性质,但是你们一定很难接受。假如我去年所解释的关于哈姆雷特,对于你们有任何意义的话。「哈姆雷特」绝非是一个面对行动时思想的重要的戏剧。为什么在现代时期的门槛,哈姆雷特见证特别的未来人类的弱点,就行动而言。我并没有那么悲观。除了颓废思想的陈腔滥调外,没有一样东西要求,我们应该悲观。虽然这是弗洛依德自己掉入的陈腔滥调,当他比较哈姆雷特与伊狄浦斯对待欲望的态度。

I don’t believe that the drama of Hamlet is to be found in such a divergence
between action and thought nor in the problem of the extinction of his desire.
I tried to show that Hamlet’s strange apathy belongs to the sphere of action
itself, that it is in the myth chosen by Shakespeare that we should look for
its motives; we will find its origin in a relationship to the mother’s desire and
to the father’s knowledge of his own death. And to take a step further, I will
mention here the moment at which our analysis of Hamlet is confirmed by
the analysis I am leading up to on the subject of the second death.

我并不相信,哈姆雷特的戏剧能够被发现,在行动与思想的分叉处,或是在他的欲望的消灭的问题。我尝试显示:哈姆雷特的奇怪的冷漠属于行动的范围本身。那就是在莎士比亚选择的神话,我们应该寻找它的动机。我们将会发现它的起源,在跟母亲的欲望的关系,以及跟父亲的知道他自己的死亡的关系。再深入一步说,我在此将提醒这个时刻,我们对于哈姆雷特的分析受到我正在引导的精神分析的证实,探讨二次死亡的主题。

Don’t forget one of the effects in which the topology I refer to may be
recognized. If Hamlet stops when he is on the point of killing Claudius, it is
because he is worried about that precise point I am trying to define here:
simply to kill him is not enough, he wants him to suffer hell’s eternal torture.
Under the pretext that we have already busied ourselves a great deal with this
hell, should we see it as beneath our dignity to make a little use of it in the
analysis of a text? Even if he doesn’t believe in hell anymore than we do, even
if he’s not at all sure about it, since he does after all question the notion –
“To sleep, perchance to dream …” – it is nevertheless true that Hamlet
stops in the middle of his act because he wants Claudius to go to hell.

不要忘记其中一个影响可能被体认到,在我提到的这个拓扑图形。假如哈姆雷特停止,当他正要杀死克劳狄斯。那是因为他忧虑我在此正在尝试定义的那个确实的时刻。仅是杀死他是不足够,他想要他遭受地狱的永恒折磨。在这个藉口之下,我们自己已经相当忙碌于这个地狱。我们应该将它视为是贬低我们的尊严,为了在文本的分析里稍微利用它?即使他跟我们一样,并不相信地狱。即使他根本就不确定,关于它。因为他毕竟质疑这个观念:「睡觉,或许会作梦、、、」。这仍然是真实的,哈姆雷特在他的行动的中间停止,因为他想要克劳狄斯下地狱。

The reason why we are always missing the opportunity of pointing to the
limits and the crossing-points of the paths we follow is because we are unwilling
to come to grips with the texts, preferring to remain within the realm of
what is considered acceptable or, in other words, the realm of prejudices. If
I were not to have taught you anything more than an implacable method for
the analysis of signifiers, then it would not have been in vain – at least I hope
so. I even hope that that is all you will retain. If it is true that what I teach
represents a body of thought, I will not leave behind me any of those handles
which will enable you to append a suffix in the form of an “-ism.” In other
words, none of the terms that I have made use of here one after the other –
none of which, I am glad to see from your confusion, has yet managed to
impress itself on you as the essential term, whether it be the symbolic, the
signifier or desire – none of the terms will in the end enable anyone of you to
turn into an intellectual cricket on my account.

我们总是漏失这个机会,来指向这些限制与我们遵循的途径的交叉点。原因是我们不愿意穷究这些文本,宁可保留在世俗之见的领域,换句话说,在各种偏见的领域。假如我想要教导你们的,恰恰就是能指的分析的超然无情的方法。那么这本来不会是徒劳无功。至少,我是这样希望。我甚至希望,那是你们愿意保留的。假如我所教导的内容确实代表一种思想体系,我将不会把任何那些处理留置后面。那些处理将会让你们能够填加一个词后语,以「主义」的形式。换句话说,我在此曾经陆续使用的这些术语,我很高兴从你们的混淆看出,没有一样曾经成功地给予你们印象,作为是基本的术语,无论是象征的术语,欲望的能指的术语。最后,没有一样将会让你们任何人因为我的关心而成为知识份子的遊戏。

Next then in a tragedy, there is a Chorus. And what is a Chorus? You will
be told that it’s you yourselves. Or perhaps that it isn’t you. But that’s not
the point. Means are involved here, emotional means. In my view, the Chorus
is people who are moved.

然后在悲剧里,有一个合唱队。合唱队是什么?你们将会被告诉:合唱队就是你们自己。或许,并不是你。但那并不是重点。在此牵涉到工具,情感的工具。依我之见,合唱队是受到感动的人们。

Therefore, look closely before telling yourself that emotions are engaged
in this purification. They are engaged, along with others, when at the end
they have to be pacified by some artifice or other. But that doesn’t mean to
say that they are directly engaged. On the one hand, they no doubt are, and
you are there in the form of a material to be made use of; on the other hand,
that material is also completely indifferent. When you go to the theater in the
evening, you are preoccupied by the affairs of the day, by the pen that you
lost, by the check that you will have to sign the next day. You shouldn’t give
yourselves too much credit. Your emotions are taken charge of by the healthy
order displayed on the stage. The Chorus takes care of them. The emotional
commentary is done for you, The greatest chance for the survival of classical
tragedy depends on that. The emotional commentary is done for you. It is
just sufficiently silly; it is also not without firmness; it is more or less human.

因此,请你们仔细看,再告诉你们自己,情感参与这种净化。它们跟其他的情感一起参与,当最后它们必须被平息下来,用某种的巧计。但是那并不意味著要说成,它们是直接参与。在一方面,它们无可置疑地是直接参与,但是你们在那里的形态,是应该被使用的材料。在另一方面,那个材料也是完全冷漠。当你们晚上到戏院,你们专注于白天的事情,由于你们遗失的钢笔,第二天你们将必须签付的支票。你们不应该透支借贷太多。你们的情感受到舞台上展现的健康秩序作操控。合唱队照顾你们的情感。情感的评论是为你们而做的。古典悲剧的存活的最大可能性就依靠那点。情感的评论是为你们而做的。那恰恰是足够愚蠢。那也并不是没有道理。那相当合乎人性。

Therefore, you don’t have to worry; even if you don’t feel anything, the
Chorus will feel in your stead. Why after all can one not imagine that the
effect on you may be achieved, at least a small dose of it, even if you didn’t
tremble that much? To be honest, I’m not sure if the spectator ever trembles
that much. I am, however, sure that he is fascinated by the image of Antigone.
In this he is a spectator, but the question we need to ask is, What is he a
spectator of? What is the image represented by Antigone? That is the question.
Let us not confuse this relationship to a special image with the spectacle as
a whole. The term spectacle, which is usually used to discuss the effect of
tragedy, strikes me as highly problematic if we don’t delimit the field to
which it refers.

因此,你们不需要忧虑,即使你们没有感觉任何东西,合唱队会代替你们感觉。毕竟,为什么你们无法想象,对于你们的影响可能被完成,至少一小部分,即使你们并没有那么颤栗?坦白说,我并不确定,观众是否那么颤栗。可是,我确定,众众是被安提贡尼的意象迷住了。在这点,他是观众。但是我们需要问的问题是:「他是什么的观众?」安提贡尼代表的意象是什么?那就是这个问题。让我们不要混淆特别意象,跟整体景象的这个关系。景象这个术语,通常被用来讨论悲剧的效果,它给我的印象是问题重重,假如我们没有除掉它提到的领域的限制。

On the level of what occurs in reality, an auditor rather than a spectator is
involved. And I can hardly be more pleased with myself since Aristotle agrees
with me; for him the whole development of the arts of theater takes place at
the level of what is heard, the spectacle itself being no more than something
arranged on the margin. Technique is not without significance, but it is not
essential; it plays the same role as elocution in rhetoric. The spectacle here is
a secondary medium. It is a point of view that puts in its place the modern
concerns with mise en scene or stagecraft. The importance of mise en scene
should not be underrated, and I always appreciate it both in the theater and
in the cinema. But we shouldn’t forget that it is only important – and I hope
you will forgive the expression – if our third eye doesn’t get a hard-on; it is,
so to speak, jerked off a little with the mise en seine.

在现实界所发生的事情的层次,牵涉到的是监听者,而不是观众。对于这点,我自己洋洋自得,因为亚里斯多德跟我意见一致。对于他,戏院的艺术的整个发展,发生在所被听见的东西的层次,景象本身仅是带来某件被安排在边缘的东西。技巧并非不重要,但是并非是最基本。它扮演相同的角色,如同在修饰学的装腔作势。在此的景象是次要的媒介。它是一种观点,现代对于场景与舞台技巧的关注来代替它。场景的重要性不应该被低估,我总是赏识它,不论在戏剧或是戏院。但是我们不应该忘记,它仅是重要。我希望你们将会原谅这个表达,假如我们的第三隻眼睛没有张开的话。也就是说,假如它没有对这个场景稍微睁亮的话。

In this connection I have no intention of giving myself up to the morose
pleasure I was denouncing earlier by affirming a supposed decline in the
spectator. I don’t believe in that at all. From a certain point of view, the
audience must always have been at the same level. Sub specie aeternitatis
everything is equal, everything is always there, although it isn’t always in the
same place.

关于这点,我没有打算让我自己耽溺于我早先抨击的发泄情绪的快乐,凭借肯定观众的被认为的减少。我根本就不相信那个。从某个观点,观众当时一定总是维持相同的层次。「在永恒的观照下」,每样东西都是相等的,每样东西总是在那里,虽然它未必总是在相同的位置。

But I would just mention in passing that you really have to be a student in
my seminar – by which I mean someone especially alert – to find something
in the spectacle of Fellini’s La Dolce Vita.

但是我仅是偶然提到,你们确实必须是我的研讨班的学生,(我的意思你们必须专注学习),你们才会发现某件东西,在费里尼的「甜密生活La Dolce Vita.」的景象里。

I am amazed at the murmur of pleasure that that name seems to have
aroused among a significant number of you here today. I am ready to believe
that this effect is only due to the moment of illusion produced by the fact
that the things I say are calculated to emphasize a certain mirage, which is,
in effect, the only one aimed at in the series of cinematographic images referred
to. But it isn’t reached anywhere except at one single moment. That is to say
at the moment when early in the morning among the pines on the edge of the
beach, the jet-setters suddenly begin to move again after having remained
motionless and almost disappearing from the vibration of the light; they begin
to move toward some goal that pleased a great many of you, since you associated
it with my famous Thing, which in this instance is some disgusting
object that has been caught by a net in the sea. Thank goodness, that hadn’t
yet been seen at the moment I am referring to. Only the jet-setters start to
walk, and they remain almost always as invisible, just like statues moving
among trees painted by Uccello. It is a rare and unique moment. Those of
you who haven’t been should go and observe what I’ve been teaching you
here. It happens right at the end, so that you can take your seats at the right
moment, if there are any seats left.

我很惊讶,那个名字似乎曾经引起快乐的窃窃私语,在今天在场的你们大多数人。我愿意相信,这个影响仅是由于这个幻觉,由于这个事实产生的幻觉:我说的这些事情被计算要用来强调某种的幻景。事实上,这个幻景是唯一被瞄准的幻景,用被提到的一系列的电影的综艺意象。但是这个目标并没有被达成,除了在一个时刻。换句话说,就在大清早,在海边的松树林,寻欢作乐的人们在静止许久,并从光影里消失之后,突然开始再次移动。他们开始移动,朝向让你们许多人感到愉悦的目标。因为你们将它跟我的著名的「物象」联想一块。在这个例子,这个「物象」是某件令人厌恶的客体,在海里被鱼网捕捉住。谢天谢地,在我提到的那个时刻,它还没有被看见。仅有寻欢作乐的人们开始走路,他们始终几乎总是隐形不见。就像尤谢洛绘画的那些雕像在树林里移动。这是罕见而独特的时刻。你们还没有看这个电影的那些人,应该去观察我在此一直教导你们的东西。恰巧就在结束时,你们能够在这个适当时刻坐在位置上,假如还有座位的话。

Now we are ready for Antigone.
Our Antigone is on the point of entering the action of the play, and we will
follow her.

现在我们准备谈论「安提贡尼」。
我们的安提贡尼即将要进入戏剧的行动。我们将跟随她。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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